v; dlxdf tyf dw]z cfGbf]ng zLif{s cGtu{t dw]zjf0fL ;fKtflxsdf k|sflzt

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dw]zjf0fLsf] o; :yfO{ :tDeAff6 dw]zsf] /fhgLlt nfO{ cfkmgf] cg'ejsf] cfwf/df dw]zjf0fLsf kf7s dfem /fVg kfpFbf xlif{t x'Fb} dw]z dLl8of xfp; nufot dw]zjf0fLsf kl/jf/nfO{ wGojfb lbg rfxG5' .

dw]z g]kfnsf] ;Qf kl/jt{gsf] h'g;'s} cfGbf]ngdf ;lqmo ;xeflutf, ;os8f}+sf] ;+Vofdf zxfbt lb+bf klg /fHon] dw]znfO{ pk]Iff, ul/aL, clzIff,a]/f]huf/L / b'O gDa/sf] gful/s afx]s c? s]xL lbg ;s]g . h;n] ;Qf kl/jQ{gdf cxd e"ldsf v]n]sf] lyof], p;nfO{g} /fHon] Go"gtd dfgjflwsf/af6 a+lrt u/of] . @))& ;fnsf] /f0ff lj?4sf] cfGbf]ng, @)!& ;fnsf] zfxL sbd lj?4sf] cfGbf]ng, @)#^ ;fnsf] cfGbf]ng, @)$^ ;fnsf] cfGbf]ng / @)^@^# sf] cfGbf]ngaf6 dw]znfO x6fpFbf g ;Qf kl/jt{gsf] sNkgf ug{ ;lsGYof] g g]kfnsf] k"0f{ Oltxf; agfpg g} . t/ d'le/sf zf;sx?n] of] w[i6tf klg u/] . dw]z g]kfnsf] d]?b08 xf], cy{tGqsf] cfwf/ :tDe xf], cGg e08f/ xf] / dw]zn] g} g]kfnnfO{ s[lif k|wfg b]z agfPsf] xf] . of] oyfy{nfO{ p :jLsf/ ub}{g . pk/f]Qm cfGbf]ngx?df xf]ldP/ dw]z cfkmgf] Go"gtd clwsf/sf] Uof/]G6L x'G5 eg]/ ;f]r]sf] lyof] t/ k/Dk/fut zf]if0fsf] lg/Gt/tf afx]s /fHon] dw]znfO{ s]xL lbg ;s]g . cfTd;Ddfg lagf, e]befjdf afFRg dw]znfO{ ws]lnof] . ;Qf kl/jt{g kl5 h'g;'s} ;/sf/sf] lgot o:t} /Xof] . cyf{t hltk6s ;Qf kl/jt{g eof], /fHo;Qfdf v;sf] Psflwsf/ sfod g} /Xof] . oxfF k[YjL gf/fo0f zfxsf] ;Gb]z v;dlxdf nfO{ p4[t ug{ ;fGble{s 7fGb5'Mjfx'gsf] ;jf/ eGofsf] aon xf], kfts nfU5, 7s'/Lsf] ;jf/ eGofsf] l;+3 xf] k5fl8 buf x'G5, du|sf] ;jf/ eGofsf] 6fug 3f]8f xf] l9nf] x'G5, if;sf] ;jf/ eGofsf] tflh t'ls{ 3f]8f xf] if;sf] ;jf/ u/of rfF8f] xf]nf============. k[YjL gf/fo0fzfx

v; Psflwsf/sf] /fHo;Qfn] dw]znfO{ zf]if0fsf] lsNnf cyf{t pklgj]z agfP/ @$) jif{b]lv cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, eflifs, wfld{s, ;fd'bflos, cflb If]qdf k/Dk/fut zf]if0fnfO{ lsl~rt kl/jt{g gu/L lg/Gt/ ?kn] h'g cuf8L a9fpg] k|of; u/of], ef}lts / dfgl;s ?kn] /fHoljlxg dw]zL, /fHosf] lje]b gLlt lj?4 u/]sf] ljb|f]x xf] dw]z cfGbf]ng pk/f]Qm cfGbf]ngx? k|hftGqs} gfddf ePsf 5g t/ !% jif{df k|hftGqsf] o:tf] lvNnL p8fO{of], o:tf] xf:of:kb kl/efiff ul/of], h;sf] ;+;f/df st} o:tf] Oltxf; 5}g . k|hftGqaf6 eoeLt eP/ cf>o vf]Hb} nf]stGqdf /fxt lng cfP . h+unsf] af3af6 aRg ;lsG5, dgsf] af3af6 efu]/ sxfF hfg] < k|hftGqn] G Nofof], To;sf/0f nf]stGq eGg] egfO{ /fhg}lts lbjflnofkg g} xf] . c;ndf oL cfGbf]ngx? k|hftGqsf] gfddf ePklg rl/q k|hftflGqs lyPg . @))& b]lv @)$^;Ddsf cfGbf]ngx? tLg lsl;dsf km/s ;fdGtL k|j[lt aLrsf] le8Gt xf], h;df ;f]emf;femf lgd'vf hgtf s]xL kfpg] cfzn] xf]ldPsf lyP . s] kfP M 9fssf] pxL tLg kft.

/fhgLlt t/n kbfy{ h:t} x'G5, h'g efF8f]df vGofof] To:t} cfsf/ lnG5 . ;fdGtL zf;sLo rl/qsf] k|hftGq hgtfsf] nflu, hgtff/f hgtfsf] ;/sf/ lbg} ;Sb}g, lbPg klg . vfsf sf]/of], t/ k|hftGqsf] k|f0f -dd{_ xfNg ;s]g .

hgtfn] k|hftGqsf] cg'e'lt ug{ ;s]g . G a9of] / ;Qf kl/jt{g eof] . t/ ;Qfsf] rl/qdf kl/jt{g clxn] klg eO{ /x]sf] 5}g . x'g t clxn] ;+qmd0fsfn xf] . w]/} s'/f x]g{ afFsL 5 . ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq ;}4flGts ?kdf a9fPklg hgtf ;z+lst 5g / hgtfsf] ljZjf; lhTg ;f] adf]lhdsf] cfr/0f ePg eg] G cjZoDefjL x'G5 . /fHosf] k'j{jtL{ oyfl:yltjfbL rl/qsf] cfwf/df ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] JofVof xf]Og hg cfGbf]ngsf] cleJolQmsf] cfwf/df x'g' kb{5 .

;/sf/sf] dw]zk|ltsf] b[li6sf]0f cem} :ki6 ePsf] b]lvb}g . ljutdf klg g ePsf] j}jflxs ;DaGwsf] !% jif]{ k|fjwfg gful/stf P]gdf ;dfj]z ug{ ;'emfj cuf8L NofpFbf ;/sf/sf] rl/q slt nf]stflGqs 5 / o;sf] dw]z dflysf] b[li6 slQsf] :ki6 5, a'emg s7Lg 5}g .

@@ a'+b] tyf * a'+b] ;Demf}tf ePsf] b'O{ jif{ lalt;Sbf klg ;/sf/n] ug{ ;Sg] dw]z d'2fsf] ;Daf]wg ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . nfxf 5fk nfu]sf] jt{dfg nf]stflGqs ;/sf/ cl:tTjdf cfpg nfUbf dw]zjfbL bn;+u sdL6d]G6 sf] cfwf/df cyf{t dw]zsf]] d'2f -!_afFsL zxLb 3f]if0ff ug]{ -@_ em'7f d'2f lkmQf{ ug]{ -#_ 3fOt]sf] pkrf/ u/fpg] -$_ ;DklQ Ifltsf] Ifltk'lt{ lbg] -%_ c+ue+unfO{ /fxt lbg] cflb d'2fnfO{ clgjfo{ ?kn] ;Daf]wg ug]{ lnlvt k|lta4tf u/]kl5 of] ;/sf/ dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] %( ;L6sf] ;dy{g lnP/ cl:tTjdf cfpFbfsf] klg * dlxgf laTof], t/ ;/sf/ Ps kfOnf cufl8 cfPg . nf]stflGqssf] nfndf]x/ nfu]sf] ;/sf/ olt ;lhnf sfdsf nflu lsg cuf8L a9]g < s'/f pxL s'k|j[ltsf] xf], dw]znfO{ x]g]{ s'b[li6sf] xf] .

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;lbof}+ b]lv /fHof/f ul/Psf] lje]bsf] lj?4 dw]zdf obfsbf nfdf] ;do b]lv clwsf/sf nflu cfjfh p7] klg sfnfGt/df ;+ul7t ?kdf ;befjgf kf6L{n] ;zQm ?kdf cfjfh p7fof] . dw]zL kf6L{sf] ?kdf ;befjgf kf6L{nfO{ pk]Iffefjn] /fHon] Jojxf/ ub}{ /xFbf otf zg}M zg}M cfkmgf] :jfledfgdfly rf]6 vfP/ dw]z cfGbf]ng lj:tf/} kl/kSj x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf] lyof] .

3[0ff, Oiof{, e]befjn] ;+3if{nfO{ hGd lbG5, zf]if0fs} cg'kftdf ;+3if{sf] :j?k lgwf{/0f x'G5 / ;dfh kl/jt{gsf] lbzfdf cuf8L a95 . kxfl8of dfgl;stfsf] /fHodf dw]zk|lt ug]{ lje]bsf] ;f]rdf slxNo} kl/jt{g cfPg . oxL ;f]rn] dw]zdf ;+3if{sf] lahf/f]k0f u/of] . dw]zsf] blnt, hghflt, d';ndfg, cNk;+Vos nufot ;Dk"0f{ hfthfltsf] ;+3if{ g} ;femf ;jfn aGof] .

Psflt/ dw]z lglj{sNk ;+3if{sf] tof/Ldf h'l6 /x]sf] lyof] . zf]if0fsf k|sf/x? cGj]if0f ub}{ lzlIft / hfu[t eO{ /x]sf] lyof] . dw]znfO{ /fHosf] pklgj]zaf6 d'Qm u/fpg dw]zL jL/ ;k"tx? cfkmgf] clwsf/sf nflu ;femf ;+sNk lnO{ /x]sf lyP, eg] ;f/f dw]z ho dw]z sf] Pstf ;"qdf afFlwb} lyof] . ho dw]z dw]zL o'jfx?sf] alnbfgL ;+3if{sf] cfXjfgsf] pb3f]if lyof] . ho dw]z ;lbof}+ b]lv dw]zdf h/f uf8]sf] zf]if0fsf lsNnf pv]Ng ;Dk"0f{ dw]zLnfO{ Pstfj4 ug{ ;+3if{sf] t'd'n z+vgfb lyof] . ho dw]z dw]z d'lQm cfGbf]ngsf] PsLs[t efjgfsf] ;Daf]wg :j/ lyof] . klxnf] kN6 dw]z Psh'6 eO{ cfkmgf] d'lQmsf pGdfbdf ho dw]z sf gf/f 3GsfP/ /fHonfO{ r'gf}lt lbPsf] lyof] .

dw]z cfGbf]ng nuQ} kl5 dw]zL, blnt, hghfltsf] k|ltlglw cfd+lqt Pp6f sfo{qmddf 6L) o") sf ;dfh zf:qsf Pp6f k|sf08 ljfgn]-gfd pNn]v g u?+_ dw]zsf] %) jif{sf] klg O{ltxf; 5}g . dnfO{ yfxf 5, oxfF h+un} h+un lyof] .:ki6 :j/df eg]sf] lyof] . v;jfbL lrGtgsf] o:t} gd"gf /fHosf] ;Dk"0f{ ;+oGqdf xfjL 5 . dw]zsf] O{ltxf;} g b]Vg] ;dfhzf:qLsf] af}l4s lbjflnofkg afx]s c? s] x'g ;S5 . dw]zsf nflu oxL qm"/ lrGtg pj{/f zlQm aGof] .

dw]zLnfO{ dl;{of, dlbz], e}of, euf}8f, ef/tLo d"nsf eg]/ g]kfnL gful/stf kfP/ klg g]kfnL /fli6otf eGbf aflx/ b]Vg], ;f]xL cg';f/ Jojxf/ ug]{, b]zsf] gful/s eP klg pk]Iffefj, /fHoaf6 al~rlts/0f, /fHodfly Psflwsf/ sfod /fVg] cGw /fi6jfbsf s/kGyLsf qm"/ lrGtg / Jojxf/n] u'nfdLsf] h+hL/df 56k6fO{ /x]sf dw]zLnfO{ d'lQmsf nflu p7g afWo u/of] .

ufF;, jf;, skf;, dfgj hLjgsf] klxnf] cfjZostf xf] eg] cfTd;Ddfg, :jfledfg / klxrfg bf]>f] . oL dfgjsf cfwf/e"t tyf dfgjflwsf/sf Go"gtd cfjZostf xf] . o;}sf] k|flKtsf nflu ;+;f/df cg]sf]+ n8fO{ nl8Psf] O{ltxf; 5 . dw]zLn] klg cfkmgf] Go"gtd cfjZostf k|fKt ug{ ljb|f]x u/]sf] xf] .

dw]zLnfO{ dw]zaf6 cnu /fVg], dw]zLnfO{ dw]zLaf6 cnu /fVg], dw]znfO{ JolQm JolQmdf ljefhg ug]{ /fHon] cg]s vfn] if8oGqsf tfgf afgf dw]zdf km}nfP/ /fv]sf] lyof] . u'nfd agfpg / dw]zdfly lgo+q0f ug{ kxf8af6 a;fO{ ;/fO{ u/fpg], ;'s'djf;L NofP/ a;fpg], dw]zdf ;/sf/L sfof{nodf kxfl8of clkm;/ tyf sd{rf/Lx? k7fpg] k|of;nfO{ cGtdf dw]z cfGbf]ngn] ljkmn g} kf/of] . /fHosf] if8oGqnfO{ klxrfg u/L dw]z hfu[t eP/ Pstfj4 x'Fb} cfGbf]ngdf cfP . dw]z cfGbf]ngn] zf]if0fsf s]xL cjz]if sd u/] klg w]/} ;Defjgfsf 9f]sf vf]n]sf] 5 .

kxf8L d"nsf JolQmx? dw]zdf c1ft ;d"xf/f dfl/bf xKtf gnfUb} zxLb 3f]if0ff u/]/ Ifltk"lt{ lbPsf] 5 . t/ dw]z cfGbf]ngsf afFsL @& hgf zxLbsf] Ifltk"lt{ ;Demf}tfsf] @& dlxgf k'Ubf klg tLg ;/sf/ km]l/bf kfPg . dw]znfO{ x]g]{ tLgj6} ;/sf/sf] ;dfg b[li6sf]0f b]lvof] .

pk/fi6kltsf] lxGbLdf lnPsf] zky k|s/0f /fHosf] k]6sf] ky/L h:tf ck/]zg gu/L lgsf] gx'g] /f]u eof] . ck/]zgsf ;a} tof/L u/]/ Ps ;fn kl5 ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] pk/fi6klt k/dfgGb emfsf] zNolqmof u/of] . dft[efiffsf] klxrfg sfod ug]{ cfGbf]ngsf] hgfb]z cg';f/ ;/sf/sf] k|ltj4tf /x]klg pk/fi6kltnfO{ alS;Pg .

To;} cbfntdf k|wfg ;]gfklt s6'jfn lj?4sf] d'2f s6'jfn l/6fo/ ePsf] lbg l5gf]kmfgf] ePsf] lyof] . pk/fi6kltnfO{ k'gM g]kfnLdf zky lng 7'nfa8f w]/} g]tfx? cfu|x u/], s]xL :jgfdwGo dw]zL g]tfx? klg g]kfnLdf zky lng c;xh ?kn] pk/fi6kltnfO{ bafj lbP . o:tf] nfUYof] ls pk/fi6kltn] g]kfnLdf zky lng' ePg eg] ev{/ ag]sf] of] ;/sf/ t'?Gt} 9lnxfN5 . oL cfu|xx?sf afjh"b klg pk/fi6kltn] /fHo ;'ljwf Tofu]/ dw]zsf hgtfsf] efjgfnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L g]kfnLdf zky g lnP/ PSn} eP klg dw]zL hgtfsf] kIfdf pleg' eof] .

Nff]stGq eg]/ xf]O{g, ;f]xL adf]lhdsf] cfr/0f b]vfpg' k5{ . nf]stGq eg]/ hgtfnfO{ em'Sofpg] k/Dk/fut ;f]rsf] ca cGt x'g' kb{5 . nf]stGq eg]sf] pbf/ rl/qsf], ;xcl:tTj :jLsfg]{ :jefjsf], /fHosf] ;fwg ;|f]t ;dfg ?kn] afF8kmfF8 ug]{ k|s[ltsf], /fHosf] d"nwf/df ;a}nfO{ ;d]6]/ /fVg ;Sg] zlQm ePsf] xf] . oL ;a s'/f ubf{ cfkmg} clwsf/ afF8kmfF8 x'g] 8/n] ql;t eP/ nf]stGqsf] 6fn6'n] kl/efiff ug'{ sbflk dgfl;a x'b}g . /fHo clxn] ;+qmd0fsfndf ePsf]n] hgtf r"k 5g . ;a}sf] clwsf/ ;+ljwfgdf ;d]l6Pg eg] / clxn] cfGbf]ng 5}g, eP b]vf hfnf e] ;f]rsf] cfwf/df hg clwsf/nfO{ ;+ljwfgdf ;'lglZrt ul/Pg eg] hgtf clwsf/sf nflu km]l/ ;+3if{ ug]{5g . Kff7sj[Gb pk/f]Qm pbfx/0faf6 ;/sf/sf] dw]zk|ltsf] Jojxf/ slt nf]stflGqs 5 :ki6 u/]sf] 5' .

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;dfg hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df lgjf{rg If]q lgwf{/0f x'g' kb{5 e] cfkmgf dfFu dw]zL hg clwsf/ kmf]/dn] ;/sf/ ;dIf cuf8L ;f/]sf] lyof] . Tolta]nf of] ljw]os ;+;bdf lyof] . @)^# df3 ! ut] dw]zsf] efjgf ljk/Lt k/Dk/fut ?kn] ;/sf/n] @)% lgjf{rg If]q lgwf{/0f ;DalGw ljw]os kf; u/of] . dw]zL hg efjgf ljk/Lt kf; ePsf] ljw]ossf] lj?4 cfGbf]ng yfNg] eg]/ dw]zL hg clwsf/ kmf]/dn] /ftf/ft lg0f{o lnof] . cfGbf]ngsf] klxnf] lbg cyf{t @)^# df3 @ ut] d08nfdf ;+ljwfg bxg ug]{ sfo{qmd /flvof] . /ftf/ft kmf]/d aflx/sf dw]zL g]tfx?;+u ;Dks{ u/L ;+ljwfg bxg sfo{qmddf efu lng cfd+lqt u/of}+ .

@)^# df3 @ ut] lbgsf] !@ ah] d08nfsf] d}bfgdf dw]zL hg clwsf/ kmf]/dsf k"j{ lgwf{l/t sfo{qmd cg';f/ kmf]/dsf s]Gb|Lo g]tfx? hf] sf7df08f}df pkl:yt lyP qmdzMpk]Gb| ofba, lszf]/ ljZjf;, /fd s'df/ zdf{, pk]Gb| s'df/ emf, lj) kL) ofba tyf cfd+lqt dw]zL g]tf lgnd jdf{, /fd]Zj/ /fo ofba, cd/]z gf/fo0f emf nufot 6L) o") sf !$ hgf 5fqx? pkl:yt eof] .

;/sf/sf] PstkmL{ lg0f{osf] lj?4 lszf]/ ljZjf; / /fd s'df/ zdf{ d08nfsf] ra't/fdfly r9]/ efif0f ug{ yfNg' eof] . k|x/Lsf] s8f 3]/fdf @),@% hgf dw]zLsf] sfo{qmd s] k|efj kfg{ ;S5 e] ;f]r]/ k|x/Lx? ;fdfGo 9+un] s'/f ub}{ cfkmgf sQ{Jo lgjf{x u/L /x]sf lyP eg] Ps hgf OG;k]S6/ rgfvf] eP/ uDeL/tfk"j{s xfd|f ultljwLnfO{ lgofnL /x]sf] lyof] . Psl5g kl5 xfd|} cuf8L k]6f]ndf leh]sf] ;+ljwfgsf] k'l:tsf cfuf]n] hNg yfNof] . of] s;/L eof], OG;k]S6/nfO{ klg yfxf ePg . O{G;k]S6/n] cfuf] nfu]sf] ;+ljwfgsf] k'l:tsfnfO{ a"6n] xfgL xfgL cfuf] lgefof] . a"6sf] df/n] k'l:tsf l5of l5of eof] . d08nf 36gf dw]zL cfGbf]ngsf] klxnf] z+vgfb lyof] . To;kl5 xfdL ;a}hgfnfO{ k|x/Ln] lgo+q0fdf lnO{ ltgs'g] yfgfdf k'/ofof] . xfdLnfO{ e]6g dw]zL g]tfx?sf] eL8nfO{ y]Ug g;sL ;fFemdf xg'dfg9f]sf ;f/of] . ToxfF klg g]tfx?, kqsf/x?, ;dfh;]jLx?, dfgj clwsf/jfbLx?sf] tfFtL nflu /Xof] . @)^# df3 $ ut] e]+6 ug{ cfpg];+u lbSs dfg]/ / 6L) o")sf 5fqx?sf] k/LIffsf sf/0f l/xf u/L xfdLnfO{ aUuLvfgf ;f/of] . kmf]/dsf g]tfx?sf] lu/tf/Ln] ;f/f dw]zdf ljb|f]xsf] cfuf] ;lNsPsf] lyof] .

aUuLvfgf k'/ofpFbf ;a}sf] df]afOn vf]l;of] . #j6f df]afOn n'sfPsf] sf/0f leq xfdL;+u lyof] . ToxL df]afOnaf6 dw]zsf ;Dk"0f{ lhNnfx?df lgb]{zg hf/L e} /x]sf] lyof] . aUuLvfgfdf klg ljb]zL ;+3 ;+:yfsf k|ltlgwL, s"6gLlt lgof]usf k|ltlgwL nufot e]6g]x?sf] ;+Vof a9b} uof] . xfd|f] lu/tf/L ;/sf/sf] nflu l;/bb{ e} /x]sf] lyof] . dw]zdf x/]s lhNnfdf h'n';x? lgl:s /x]sf lyP . ev{/ /fHo;Qfdf k|j]z u/]sf] dfcf]jfbL cfgf] k|e"Tj g} sfod eof] e] pGdfbaf6 k|]l/t @)^# df3 % ut] lbgsf] # ah] nxfgdf Jofks h'n'; k|bz{g e}/x]sf] avt dfcf]jfbL g]tf /fd sfsL{ r9]sf] uf8L 5]lsof] . ;fdfGo em8k x'Fbf uf8Ldf /x]sf] dw]zL d"nsf dfcf]jfbL ;]gf 7fs'/ y/ ePsfn] uf]nL rnfpFbf /d]z dxtf]sf] d[To" eof] . #=#) ah] /d]z dxtf]sf] xTof ePsf] va/n] xfdL ;a} cToGt} ddf{xt / uDeL/ eof}+ . u[x dGqfnon] xfdLnfO{ cljnDa l/xf ug{ cfb]z lbof] . xfdL pkl:yt ;a}hgfn] u[xdGqLnfO{ pkl:yt u/fP/ nxfg 36gfaf/] ;f]Wg] lg0f{o lnof}+ . xfdL xfd|f] lg0f{osf] c8fgdf / ;'/IffsdL{x? xfdLnfO{ aflx/ lgsfNg] c8fgdf t}gfy lyP . ;'/IffsdL{x? ylk+b} uO{ /x]sf] lyof] . P;) P;) kL) cfP/ u[xdGqfnosf] cfb]z adf]lhd tkfO{+x? l/xf x'g' eof], s[kof tkfO{+x? uO{ lbg'; eg]/ cfu|x u/of] . u[x dGqLnfO{ af]nfpg'; xfdL vfnL ul/bG5f}+ eGbf eGb} /ftL * aHof] . ;'/IffsdL{ vfnL u/fpg] qmddf ;fdfGo em8k x'Fbf cd/]z gf/fo0f emf axf]z x'g' eof] / xfdL ;a} pxfFnfO{ lnP/ jL/ c:ktfn uof}+ .

@)^# kf}if !! ut] g]kfnu+hdf d';ndfgx?dfly jj{/tfk"0f{ bdgsf] 36gfn] ;f/f dw]z ;fd"lxs ljb|f]xsf nflu 56k6fO{ /x]sf] lyof] . nxfg 36gfn] cfuf]df 3Lpsf] sfd u/of], / Ps}kN6 dw]zn] ljbf]x u/of] . bf; / u'nfd dw]znfO{ bdg u/]/} tx nufpg ;lsG5 e] dfgl;stfaf6 k|]l/t eO{ /fHon] bdg ug{ z'? u/of] . cfGbf]ng emg emg cuf8L a9b} uof] . dw]zsf jL/ ;k"tx?sf] alnbfgLk"0f{ / ;fxl;s sbd zxfbt k|fKt gu?~h]n cuf8L a9b} /Xof] . lje]bsf] lj?4 dw]zsf o'jfzlQm ;/sf/L bdgsf afjh"b klg tftf] uf]nL 5ftLdf yfkL ;+3if{sf] cfXjfg ub}{ bdgsf] k|ltsf/ u/] . nxfgdf /d]z dxtf]sf] xTof kZrft dw]zsf] x/]s lhNnf abnf lng pu| aGb} uO{ /x]sf] lyof] . zflGtk"0f{ cfGbf]ngsf] lj?4 ;/sf/n] bdgs} af6f] ckgfPsf]n] zxfbt lbg]x?sf] ;+Vof a9b} uof] . l;/xf lhNnfdf zxLbsf] ;+Vof % k'Uof] . ;'G;/L, ;Kt/L, l;/xf, ;nf{xLdf t %,% sf b/n] o'jfx? zxLb eP .

lje]bsf sf/0f x/]s If]qdf z"Go pknlAwn] dfgjflwsf/af6 a+lrt dw]zLx?sf] hLjg g} c;kmn ;flat e} ;s]sf] ;Dem]/ ls clwsf/ lng] ls Hofg lbg] e] ;fxl;s lg0f{o u/of] dw]zLx?n] . ;du| dw]zsf] Pp6} lg0f{on] dw]z cfGbf]ngn] O{ltxf; /Rg ;kmn eof] . dw]z cfGbf]ngn] k'j{, dWo / klZrdsf ;a} dw]zL Ps x'g eg]/ ;fljt ul/ lbPsf] 5 . 6'lqmg nfu]sf] dw]z ;dfhsf] e|ft[Tj ;"qnfO{ cem alnof] t'NofPsf] 5 dw]z cfGbf]ngn] . dw]zleq /x]sf x/]s hfthfltsf] efjgf Psfsf/ ePsf] 5 dw]z cfGbf]ngdf . k'j{ klZrd ;a} dw]zL Pp6} efjgfn] xf]ldPsf lyP cfGbf]ngdf . ;a}n] Pp6} :j/df dfFu u/]sf lyP ;du| dw]z Ps k|b]z .

@)^^ k'if @$ ut]

dw]zsf] e"lddf wgf{, h'n'; / bdgsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds cj:yfn] dw]z s'?If]q aGb} uO{ /x]sf] lyof] . ;lbof}+b]lv lje]bdf k/]sf] dw]zLx?sf] /fHok|ltsf] 3[0ff, bdgsf sf/0f Hjfnfd'vL h:t} lj:kmf]6 eO{ /x]sf] lyof] . dw]zsf ;d'bfosf] sdf]j]z 3[0ffn] ;a} bdgsf] k|ltsf/ ug{ Pstfa4 eO{ ;8sdf plq/x]sf lyP . dw]zsf] cfGbf]ng lbg b'gf /ft rf}u'gf a9L /x]sf] lyof] . dw]zdf JofKt c;Gt'i6tfs} sf/0f cfk;L j}/efj Tofu]/ k|ltsf/ ug{ ;a} Psh"6 eP . bdgsf] afjh"b klg dw]z cfGbf]ng pFrfO{ lnb} uof] . dw]zLx?sf] dft[e"ldsf] nflu zxfbt lbg] dxf cleofg z'? eof] . dw]z ljb|f]xdf dw]zleq a;f]jf; ug]{ ;a} ;d'bfo, ;+3, ;+:yf, ;a} /fhgLlts bnsf dw]zLx? cfcfgf] 7fFpaf6 of]ubfg ubf{ g} dw]z cfGbf]ng pTsif{df k'Uof] . ;Dk"0f{ dw]zsf] Psfsf/g} dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] Oltxf; xf] .

;z:q ;d"xx?n] klg cfg} tl/sfn] dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ ;xof]u u/]sf 5g . dw]zL hg clwsf/ kmf]/dsf] g]t[Tjdf dw]z cfGbf]ng ePklg ;z:q ;d"xx?sf] of]ubfgnfO{ gsfg{ ;ls+b}g . @)^# df3 !& ut] df]/sf] a'4gu/ k|x/L rf}sLdflysf] cfqmd0f, df3 @) ut] ;Kt/Lsf] kTy/uf8f k|x/L rf}sLsf] cfqmd0f ;z:q ;d"xsf] ;lqmotfnfO{ phfu/ ub{5 . km/s sfo{gLlt /x]klg ;z:q ;d"xx? dw]z d'lQmsf] ;jfndf ;dlk{t lyP . @)^# r}t & ut] /f}tx6df dw]zL hg clwsf/ kmf]/dsf] k"j{ lgwf{l/t cfd;efnfO{ layf]Ng k"j{ tof/L u/L a;]sf dfcf]jfbL sfo{sQf{x?sf] k|ltsf/ ug{ pq]sf JolQm, ;d'bfox?sf] Pstfa4 eL8Gtaf6 klg of] :ki6 x'G5 ls dw]z d'lQmsf] ;jfnnfO{ ;a}n] ;femf ;jfn agfPsf lyP .

Df3 !& ut] dw]z cfGbf]ng zxfbt lb+b} pTsif{df k'Ug nfu]sf] a]nf k|wfgdGqL lul/hf k|;fb sf]O{/fnfn] dw]zL hgtfsf] gfddf ldYof ;Daf]wg u/]kl5 dw]z emg cfqmf]lzt x'g k'Uof] . o; ;Daf]wgsf] lj/f]wdf lhNnfx?df Jofks lj/f]w h'n';x? lgl:sg yfNof] . l;/xf ;b/d'sfddf bzf}+ xhf/sf] ;+Vofdf dlxnfx?sf] lj/f]w h'n'; lgl:sPsf] lyof] . ;Kt/Ldf cfGbf]ngsf/Lf/f ;Daf]wgsf] lj?4 cfGbf]ng hf/L /fVg cfXjfg u/L ef/L ;+Vofdf lj/f]w k|bz{g eof] . ;/sf/n] dw]zLnfO{ dfgjsf] x}l;otdf g /flv bf; / u'nfd ;Dem]/ dw]zsf] cfjfhnfO{ cg;"gf ub}{ bdg u/]/} cfGbf]ngnfO{ bafpg] gLlt lj?4 dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] cfuf]sf nKsf cfsfz 5'g nfu]sf] lyof] . ;/sf/k|lt dw]zLx?sf] 3[0ff k/fsfi7fdf k'u]sf] lyof] . @)^# df3 !* ut] l;/xfsf] ;b/d'sfddf xhf/f}+sf] ;+Vofdf dlxnf / k'?if emf8' lnP/ h'n'; k|bz{g, !( ut] l;/xfdf nf7L h'n';, ;f]xL lbg nxfgdf t/sf/L h'n';, e}+;L h'n'; cflb ;/sf/k|ltdw]zLsf 3[0ffsf Hjn+t pbfx/0f x'g .

/fli6otf, g]kfnLkg, /fli6o cv08tfk|lt ;dlk{t l;+uf] dw]znfO{ ljlht If]qsf] bf;, u'nfd a'b} ;lbof}+b]lv /fHon] ub}{ cfPsf] e]befj, kl/jt{g x'Fb} cfPsf] zf;g k4ltn] klg dw]zdf kl/jt{gsf] cg'e"lt u/fpg g;Sg', /fhgLlts kl/jt{gsf] qmddf /fhtGq, k|hftGq / nf]stflGqs u0ftGq;Dd cfO{ k'Ubf klg j:t'ut ?kdf dfgl;s kl/jt{g gx'g', dw]zL, clwsf/af6 a+lrt kfl/P/ s'07f, ckdfg, cGofo, 3[0ffsf kfq eP/ afFRg afWo ul/g' oL ;a s'/fn] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] k[i7e"ld tof/ kf/of] . h'g cg'kftdf /fHon] dw]znfO{ 3[0ff u/of] ;f]xL cg'kftdf dw]zn] klg cfGbf]ng dfkm{t cfkmgf] 3[0ff cleJoQm u/of] .

uLjf{0f o'4sf] kfnf;Dd /f]oN6L lt/]/ dw]zsf] ;dy/ If]qnfO{ la|l6z O+l8ofaf6 lng] /f]oN6L ga'emfpbf lkmtf{ x'g], km]l/ cfkmgf] dftxtdf cfpg] o;} qmdsf] cfwf/df d}n] lalht If]qsf] bf;, u'nfd e] plQm pNn]v u/]sf] 5' . uLjf{0f o'4s} kfnf;Dd s's'/ / dw]zLnfO{ b/jf/df k|j]z lgif]w ul/Psf] lyof] . dw]zLnfO{ sf7df08f}+ l5g{ jL/u+hsf] gfsfdf /fxbfgL lng' kb{Yof] . PsfTds /fHosf] dw]zk|ltsf] pk]Iff efj r/d k/fsfi7fdf k'u]sf] lyof] .

cfkmg} b]zdf /fHof/f ;lbof}+ b]lv ljb]zL gfu/Ls ;/xsf] Jojxf/ ef]Ub} cfO{ /x]sf] dw]zLx? ljutsf] cfGbf]ngdf cfkmgf] ;xeflutf b]vfP klg cfkmgf] nflu s]xL gkfP/ cfkmgf clwsf/sf nflu P]ltxfl;s ljb|f]x u/]sf x'g . ;Qf kl/jt{gsf] h'g;'s} cfGbf]ngdf dw]zn] zxfbt lb+bf klg w]/} jlnbfg lbg] dw]zLx? zxLb x'g jf6 j+lrt /x] . rfs8L, rfkn';Lsf] e/df s]xL dw]zLx? zLif{ :yfgdf b]lvP klg ;du| ?kdf dw]z dfgjflwsf/af6 j+lrt g} /Xof] .

@)^^ df3 )! ut]

dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] pFrfO{ b]v]/ /fhgLlts w/ftndf b'O6f zlQm k|lt:kwf{Tds ?kdf k|ikm'l6t ePsf] b]lvG5 . Pp6f, dw]zsf] cfGbf]ngnfO{ lzv/df k'/ofpg] laxfg a]n'sf zky vfP/ dw]zsf] ljZjf; lht]/ le le kf6L{ u7g ug{df tNnLg 5g eg] bf]>f], gjf]lbt dw]z zlQmn] xfd|f] Psflwsf/ ;dfKt kfg{ cfPsf x'g, o;nfO{ s;/L 6'qmofpg] e] ;f]rn] u|l;t eP/ if8oGqsf tfgfafgf a' nflu k/]sf 5g . oL b'O{6} zlQmnfO{ dw]zn] lr' kb{5 . lgM:jfy{ efjn] cfkmgf] clwsf/sf nflu p7]sf] cfGbf]ng /fhgLlts Joj;foLx?sf] lgtfGt JolQmut :jfy{sf] rk]6fdf k/]/ / /fHosf] if8oGqsf] lzsf/ eP/ dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] cfkmgf] cl:tTj g} u'Dg] cj:yf cfO{ ;s]sf] 5 . ;+o'Qm ;+3if{ lagf o;sf] cl:tTj hf]ufpg w]/} hl6n 5 . dw]zsf w'/Gw/ /fhgLlt1x?sf] clUg k/LIffsf] 38L klg oxL xf] .

pk/f]Qm b'a} zlQm Pp6} p2]Zoaf6 k|]l/t eP/ dw]zdf cfkmgf ultljwL ;+rfng u/]sf] df ;ls, t/ cfkmgf] km/s p2]Zosf ;fy dw]zdf hfFbf kl/0ffdtM dw]zsf] Pstf g} vl08t ePsf] 5 . dw]zjfbn] NofPsf] cv08 dw]z Pstf h;af6 ;/sf/ eofqmfGt eP/ dw]zsf] dfFu df tof/ ePsf] lyof], Pstf ljvl08t cj:yfdf cfpFbf ;/sf/n] dw]zsf] d'2fnfO{ of t sfof{Gjog /f]s]sf] 5, of slxn] k"/f g ug]{ dg;fon] k|of; yfn]sf] 5 . tTsfn /fxt pknAw x'g' kg]{df @ aif{ laTbf klg /fxt gkfpFbf dw]z lg/fz ePsf] cg'e"lt dw]zjfbL bnn] ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . ;/sf/sf] dw]zk|ltsf] pbfl;gtf / dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] dw]z cfGbf]ng;+usf] cGt/ ;DaGw sfod x'g g;Sg', dw]zdf km}ln /x]sf] g}/fZotfsf] 7"nf] sf/0f xf] .

dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] j:t'ut kIf, ;+3if{sf] efjgf;+usf] b[9 cGt/;DaGw / g]t[Tj ug]{ ;+o'Qm /fhgLlts bnsf] ;}4flGts b[9tfn] dfq dw]z clwsf/ ;Dk x'g] s'/fdf ls+lrt ;+zo 5}g . cfGbf]ngdf cGtlg{lxt efjkIfnfO{ cfTd;ft ug'{ g} dw]z /fhgLltsf] ;an kIf / lbzf lgb]{z x'g ;S5 . dw]z cfGbf]ng;+u cGt/;DaGw sfod gu/L ;txL ?kdf dw]zsf] gfddf /fhgLlt ug'{ lgtfGt JolQmk/s :jfy{ xG5 . zflGtk"0f{ cfGbf]ngsf] csf]{ kIf ;/sf/df ;xeflutf klg xf], t/ ;}4flGts rfgL w/ftndf pleP/ hgtfsf] kIfdf b[9tfk"j{s jsfnt dfq ug]{ xf]O{g, hgtfnfO{ ;/sf/df ePsf] cg'e"lt klg lbnfpg ;Sg' k5{ . ljut / jt{dfg ;/sf/df ;xefuL dw]zjfbL bnx? Nffrf/ 5fFof afx]s s]xL x'g ;s]g . dw]zdf g}/fZotf km}lng'sf] Pp6f sf/0f of] klg xf] .

dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ lgisif{df k'/ofpg], lg0ff{os cfGbf]ng ug]{, cflb cfsif{s s'/f u/] klg lgtfGt JolQmut :jfy{df lnKt ePsf 5g xfd|f g]tfx? . cfGb]ng u/]/ dw]zn] /fhgLlts k|lti7f u'dfO{ ;s]sf g]tfx?nfO{ k|f0f k|lti7f lbPsf] 5, km]l/ dxTjk"0f{ agfPsf] 5, cfkmgf k|ltlgwL r'g]/ k7fPsf 5g t/ klg :jfoQ dw]z k|b]zsf] s] s'/f, tTsfn pknAw x'g] /fxt klg lbnfpg g;s]kl5 cfkmg} g]tfx?k|lt ljt[i0ff hfUb}g dw]zdf < cfkmgf] PSnf] 5f]/f] u'dfPsf] cfdf afa'nfO{ /fxt kfpg] clwsf/ 5}g < kl/jf/sf] e/0f kf]if0f ug]{ 5f]/f] ckf x'Fbf kl/jf/sf] xftd'v hf]g]{ ;|f]t g} u'ldPkl5 /fxt kfpg] clwsf/ 5}g < uf]nL nflu xfn;Dd pkrf/ u/fO{ /x]sf 3fO{t]x? pkrf/sf nflu b/ b/ e6ls /x]sf] b]Vg g;lsg] cj:yf ljBdfg 5, p;sf] s'/f s;n] ;'] < /fHof/f zf]if0f ul/Psf] lj?4 dw]zn] cfGbf]ng u/of], t/ ;/sf/df ;xefuL eP/ dw]znfO{ /fxt lbnfpg'sf] ;f JolQmut ;'v ;ondf lnKt dw]zL g]tfx?nfO{ s] ug}{ < dw]zsf] oL cg'Ql/t k|Zgsf] hjfkm s;n] lbg] <

;/sf/df ;xefuL tLgj6} dw]zjfbL bnn] dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ /fxt lbg] ;DaGwdf pRr :t/Lo cg'udg ;ldltsf] u7g ug]{ ;/sf/f/f tLg dlxgf k"j{ 3f]if0ff u/fpg ;kmn eof] . 3f]if0ff ePsf] tLg dlxgf kl5 klg ;ldltn] k"0f{tf kfPsf] 5}g . of] ;ldlt zflGt dGqLsf] cWoIftfdf ag] klg rf/ dw]zjfbL bnsf] k|ltlgwLdf tdnf]kfsf / pk]Gb| ofbakIfsf] k|ltlgwL gcfP/ ;ldltsf] a}7s s;/L x'g] zflGt dGqLsf] u'gf;f] 5 .cyf{t hf] /f]uL sf] efj], jxL j}B km/dfj] . h:tf] pvfg rl/tfy{ ePsf] b]lvG5 . ;/sf/n] dw]zjfbL bnsf] cfu|xnfO{ clgR5fk"j{s u7g u/]sf] of] ;ldlt u7gd} ;Lldt /xg] kSsf kSsL 5 .

@)^^ df3 )* ut]

lzv/df k'u]sf] dw]z cfGbf]ng;+u} b'O{ k|lt:kwL{ zlQm pbfPsf] b]lvG5 . utf+sdf pNn]v u/] cg';f/ ck|Toflzt zlQmsf] ?kdf k|s6 ePsf] dw]znfO{ cfZro{rlst 9+un] x]l/ /x]sf] /fHo bdgaf6 ls+lrt ;kmntf gkfP kl5 pbf/ rl/q k|bz{gsf] dfWodaf6 dw]zsf] zlQmnfO{ s;/L Go"g ug{ ;lsG5, To;sf] vt/gfs /0fgLlt agfP/ cuf8L a9of] . dw]zL hg clwsf/ kmf]/d;+usf] @)^$ efb| !# ut]sf] ;Demf}tf pbf/ /0gLltsf] klxnf] s8L xf] . ;/sf/sf] pbf/tf k|bz{g dw]znfO{ s]xL lbg] p2]Zon] xf]Og, gjf]lbt zlQm ePsf] dw]znfO{ 6'qmf 6'qmf u/L zlQmljxLg agfP/ /fVg] dg;fon] k|]l/t k|of; lyof] . cfkmgf] if8oGqsf/L k|of;df ;/sf/ ce"tk"j{ ;kmntf k|fKt u/L /x]sf] klg b]lvG5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngdf ePsf] wghgsf] Iflt, 3fO{t], ckf, em'7f d'2f lkmtf{, zxLb 3f]if0ff cflb h:tf ;/n / ;+j]bgzLn df+ux? Hff] ;Demf}tf kl5 g}lts bfloTj a'em]/ ;/sf/ k'/f u/L dw]zsf] ;xfg'e"lt k|fKt ug{ ;SYof],clxn] ;Dd dw]znfO{ /fxt pknAw u/fpg ;s]g . ;Demf}tfnfO{ ;/sf/sf] /fhgLlts if8oGq geg]/ s] e] <

dw]zdf km}nfO{Psf] hfnem]nsf tfgfafgf dw]z cfGbf]ngn] s]xL xb;Dd r'F8fn]/ kmflnPsf]n] ;/sf/ o;nfO{ r'gf}tL dfg]/ k|ltzf]w lng k|]l/t b]lvG5 / o;}sf] kl/0ffd :j?k dw]zLsf] s'g} df+unfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ p4t b]lvb}g . zfob of] ljZjf;n] ls dw]z k'gZr ljb|f]x ug{ ;Sb}g, cfGt/Ls ?kdf dw]z sdhf]/ ePsf] ljZjf; nfu]/ xf]nf . lsg gxf];, dw]zsf] PstfnfO{ tx; gx; ug{ ;d'bfonfO{ Ps csf{sf lj?4 prfn]/ n8fpg], dw]zL kf6L{nfO{ 6'qmofpg], hfthflt aLr j}dg:otf km}nfpg] cflb ;kmntd k|of; s} cfwf/df ;/sf/ dw]zk|lt O{dfgbf/ g/x]sf] :ki6 x'G5 . ;/sf/sf] o; /j}ofnfO{ dw]z :ki6 ?kn] ljZn]if0f u/L /x]sf] 5 .

csf]{ zlQm, dw]zsf] cfjfh a'n+b x'g nfUbf dw]zsf /fhgLlts Jofkf/Lx? Pstfa4 dw]zdf cfkmgf] :jfy{ l;l4sf nflu dw]zn] lbPsf] gofF dfn a]Rg k;nx? yfKg yfn], lans'n cfsif{0fo'Qm lj1fkgsf ;fy . dw]znfO{ cfh} d'Qm ul/lbg], clwsf/ ;Dk agfO{ lbg] cfsif{s efif0fsf ;fy k]z]j/ dw]zL /fhgLlt1x? dw]zsf] Pstfa4 zlQmnfO{ ljle kf6L{df afF8]/ dw]znfO{ zlQmxLg, ultxLg, ;fdYo{xLg agfpFb} dw]zsf] kIfdf plePsf] 5 . oxfF cnLafaf rfln; rf]/ syfsf] Pp6f k|;+u ;fGble{s xf]nf . cnLafafn] cfkmgf] wg rf]/of] eg]/ cnLafafsf] 3/ kQf nufpg rf]/sf s}K6gn] Pshgf ;xof]uLnfO{ zx/ k7fof] . cnLafafsf] 3/ kQf nufP/ p;n] /ftL g} 3/sf] 9f]sfdf qm; lrgf] nufO{ kms]{/ h+un cfof] . s}K6gnfO{ qm; lrgf] nfu]sf] 3/ cnLafafsf] xf], eGof] . ptf cnLafafsf] vf; rt'/ dlxnf gf]sgL{ s'g} sfdn] 9f]sf vf]Nbf 9f]sfdf qm; lrgf] b]v]/ z+sf nfuL zx/sf tdfd 3/sf] 9f]sfdf qm; lrgf] /fvL lbO{ . s}K6g cnLafafnfO{ vf]Hg cfpFbf zx/el/ qm; lrgf] b]v]/ kQf nufpg ;s]g . s'g cfkmgf p4f/s x'g, dw]zLnfO{ kQ} nfUb}g / dw]z /ge'Nndf lbzfljxLg aGb} g}/fZotfsf] cj:yfdf k'uL /x]sf] 5 .

oL b'O{ zlQm ljk/Lt rl/qsf] ePtfklg dw]zdf cfGbf]ng kZrft ;+rfng u/]sf] ultljwLn] dw]zsf] zlQm vl08t ePsf] 5, dw]znfO{ 3f6f ePsf] 5 . /fHo ;'v ef]Ug] ;jfndf dw]zjfbL bnx? Ps x'g' / dw]zsf] ;jfndf Ps gx'g' dw]zsf] g}/fZotfsf] 7'nf] sf/0f ag]sf] 5 . nfdf] df}gtf e+u u/]/ xfn tdnf]kfn] dw]zsf d'2f ;Daf]wg ul/Pg eg] xfdL ;/sf/af6 ;dy{g lkmtf{ lnG5f}+ eg]/ cfkmgf] g}ltstf hf]ufof] t/ c? bnx?=====<

dw]zdf u}/yf?, u}/ d'l:nd, u}/ blntnfO{ dw]zL kl/eflift u/]/, ;d'bfoaLr j}dgiotf pTk u/]/ kg'Zr e]befjsf] k/Dk/fut z}nLnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg' ef]nL of] cfkmg} ktgsf sf/0f a ;S5 . dw]z / dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] sdhf/Lsf] kmfO{bf p7fP/ dw]znfO{ pk]Iff ug'{ 7'nf] e"n x'g]5 .

g]kfnsf] blIf0fL ;dy/ e"efunfO{ dw]z / o;df a;f]af; ug]{ ;Dk"0f{ hfthfltnfO{ dw]zL e] rng k|frLgsfn b]lv rNb} cfPsf]n] of] ca Oltxf;sf] vf]hLsf] laifo /x]g . dw]z / dw]zL, dw]zaf;Ln] cfkmgf] nflu cfljisf/ u/]sf] zAb klg xf]O{g . dw]zL s'g} hft xf]O{g, If]qLo PsLs[t efjgf xf], h;sf] 7'nf] kl/efiff dw]z cfGbf]ngn] ul/ ;s]sf] 5 .

ljsf;sf] qmddf kl/jt{gsf] dfWodaf6 k'/fgf] gfz eP/ gjLgtf k|:km'l6t x'G5, o; oyfy{tfnfO{ s;}n] gsfg{ ;Sb}g . dw]z cfGbf]ng o;} oyfy{tfsf] cfwf/df gofF dw]zdf kl/jlt{t x'g rfx]sf] 5 . kl/jt{gsf cfwf/x? kl/kSj e} ;s]sf] 5 . kl/jt{g cjZoDefjL 5 . ;+;f/df hftLoIf]qLo e]befjsf lj?4 cg]s ;+3if{x? ePsf 5g . ;+3if{n] zf]if0fsf 7'N7'nf b'u{, lsnf, dxnx? eTsfP/ :jfoQtf xfl;n u/]sf 5g . To;}sf] Pp6f s8L dw]z cfGbf]ng xf] . cfkmgf] an, a'l4n] dw]z hfu]sf] 5, zf]if0fsf cjojx? Klxrfg u/]/ dw]z hfu]sf] 5, gofF dw]zsf nflu hfu]sf] 5, dw]zsf] ;]G6Ld]G6 lnP/ Pstfa4 eP/ hfu]sf] 5 . sf7df08f}+df dw]zLdfly kmofFlsPsf] 9'Fufaf6 ;du| dw]znfO{ rf]6 nfu]sf] sltko 36gfx?nfO{ ;/sf/n] lj;{g' x' .

dw]zsf] df}lns xs, clwsf/ ;'lgZrt ug]{ of] a]nfdf ;+ljwfg ;ef, ;+j}wflgs ;ldltdf dw]zL cNkdtdf /x] tfklg ;dfg ljrf/ lnP/ Pstfa4 eO{ s8f k|ltjfb ug{ dw]zsf] kIfdf pleg cfjZos 5 .

@)^^ df3 !% ut]

/fHo k'g;+{/rgf ubf{ dw]zL bnx?sf] tyf l;f] dw]zL hgtfsf] efjgf ljk/Lt ;+j}wflgs ;ldltn] km/s dt ;lxtsf] !$ k|b]zsf] cjwf/0ff ;+ljwfg ;efdf 5nkmnsf] nflu k]z u/]sf] 5 . dw]znfO{ v08 v08df afF8]/, lrtjg / gjnk/f;Lsf] dw]zL afx'Nosf] e"efunfO{ u}/ dw]zL k|b]zdf ufe]/ NofOPsf] cfwf/ d:of}bf k"0f{ k'jf{u|xL ?kdf k|:t't ePsf] 5 . /fHon] s'g} g s'g} ?kdf cfkmgf] ;f]rsf] ;+sL0f{tfnfO{ k|blz{t u/]sf] 5 . k'j{ dw]z / klZrd dw]z eg]/ vl08t dw]zsf] gfdfs/0f u/]/ km]l/ kl/jlt{t ?kdf e]befjsf] gofF ;+:s/0f NofPsf] 5 .

gofF g]kfn lgdf{0fsf] ;+be{ / ;lbof}+ b]lv pk]Iffefjdf lhjLt dw]zL, ljb|f]x u/]/ l;f] dw]zsf] PsLs[t efjgf k|blz{t u/]sf] lyof] . ToxfF ;du| dw]z Ps k|b]zsf] efjgf kl/nlIft lyof] . dw]zLn] cfkm'df e]befj u/]sf] b]lvPg . ;a}n] Hofgsf] afhL nufP/ ;+3if{df efu lnPsf lyP . ;lbof}+ b]lv ul/Psf] lje]bsf] lj?4 cfGbf]ng dfkm{t dw]zLx?n] :jfoQ dw]z k|b]zsf] df+unfO{ cuf8L a9fPsf lyP . vl08t dw]z, k/Dk/fut zf]if0fsf] lg/Gt/tfsf] kl/jlt{t ?k xf] . dw]z / klZrdL dw]zsf] nHhfhgs, xf:of:kb d:of}bfsf] ?kdf cfPsf] k|fb]lzs cjwf/0ff dw]znfO{ ckf agfpg] lgot afx]s c? s]xL xf]Og . kl/jt{gsf] gfddf sf]/f{ sf] ;f nL x'g ;Sb}g . ;+j}wflgs ;ldltn] k]z u/]sf] /fHo k'g;+{/rfsf] cjwf/0ffn] dw]z cfxt ePsf] 5, lg/fz ePsf] 5 .

dw]zL /fhgLlts bnx?af6 d:of}bfsf] lj/f]w eO{ /x]sf] cj:yfdf tLgj6} 7"nf /fhg}lts kf6L{n] of] k|f/lDes d:of}bf xf], ;+ljwfg ;efdf 5nkmn x'g afFsL 5, dw]zjfbL bnx?n] clxn] g} lrQ b'vfpg' h?/L 5}g eg]sf] 5, t/ 6'lqmPsf] dw]zsf] ljjflbt gSzfn] ;+ljwfg ;efdf cNkdtdf ePsf dw]zL ;ef;bn] dw]z cfGbf]ngn] ck]Iff u/]sf] dw]z k|b]znfO{ dfGotf lbnfpg w]/} s7Lg 5 . k'jf{u|xo'Qm dgf]efjgf lnP/, z+s} z+sfn] u|l;t dgf]ljrf/n] tyf u}/ dw]zL /fhgLlts bnx?sf] pRrtd bjfjaf6 k|]l/t eP/ NofOPsf] of] ljjflbt k|b]zx?sf] d:of}bf dw]z ;d:ofnfO{ xn ug{ ;S5 < o;n] dw]zsf] Go"gtd df+unfO{ klg ;Daf]wg ug{ ;Sb}g . o; kl/jlt{t kl/j]zdf klg dw]znfO{ z+sfsf] b[li6n] x]g]{ ;/sf/sf] k/Dk/fut b[li6sf]0fn] dw]zsf] dd{ a'em]/ dw]zsf] ;d:ofnfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ ;Snf < dw]znfO{ cfTd;ft ug{ g;Sg], 3[0ff, ]ifefjn] x]g]{ cflb h:tf Jojxf/n dw]znfO{ 7'N7'nf Glt/ ws]Ng] k|of; afx]s c? s] x'g ;S5 .

/fhtGqfTds ;/sf/ xf]; ls nf]stflGqs ;/sf/, o;nfO{ dw]zsf] s[lif cfo, cf}Bf]lus cfo, /fh:j cfo, jg cfo, dw]zsf] >dzlQm cflb rflxG5, dw]zL rflxb}g . /fHoaf6 ePsf] e]befjn] g} dw]z ljb|f]xsf] ;[hgf u/]sf] lyof] . e]befj x6fpg], Go"g ug]{ dw]zsf] ;d:of dfq geP/ /fli6o ;d:of xf] . dw]z g]kfnsf] d]?b08 xf] . of] Tolts} oyfy{ xf] hlt ;/sf/sf] dw]zk|ltsf] k'jf{u|xL Jojxf/ . dw]zsf] d'2fk|lt ;/sf/ ;+j]bgzLn gx'g' klg dw]zsf] yk ;d:of xf] . ;/sf/n] ;fdGtL Joj:yfdf 7f9f] Jojxf/ u/]/ zf]if0f ug{ kfOG5 eg] nf]stGqdf ldqjt Jojxf/ u/]/ zf]if0f ul/G5 oltdfqa'em]sf] 5 . oxL ;f]rsf] e/df b]zaf6 G lj:yfkg ug'{ lbjf :jKg g} x'g]5 .

/fhgLltdf s7f]/tf, Joj:yfnfO{ ;d"n gi6 ug]{ sf/s tTj x'g, eg] nrstf s'g} klg /fhgLlts Joj:yfnfO{ nf]slk|o agfpFb5 . nf]stGqsf] ;j{dfGo l;4fGtn] oxL kl/efiff ub{5 . dfgjflwsf/sf] ;+/If0f / ;+j4{g oxL l;4fGt leq kb{5 . b]zsf] cfwL hg;+Vof cf]u6g] dw]znfO{ z+sfsf] gh/n] b]v]/ nf]stGqsf] gfpFdf p6k6fFu kl/efiff ub}{ Joj:yfsf] :j?k lgwf{/0f u/of] eg] g G lj:yfkg x'G5, g b]zdf /fhg}lts l:y/tf cfpF5 . nf]stGqsf] clego u/]/ b]zdf lbgfg'lbg ylkb} uO{ /x]sf] ;d:ofnfO{ Go"g ug{ ;ls+b}g . b]znfO{ k]jf agfpg] h8;"qjfbL ljrf/nfO{ ca TofUg} kb{5, lsgls hg cfGbf]ng / dw]z cfGbf]ngn] b]z Pp6f ju{sf] geP/ ;a}sf] ;femf xf] eg]/ ;a}nfO{ ;r]t u/]s} xf] . lje]bdf kfl/Psf ;d'bfonfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]/ ;a}sf] xs clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug'{ g} nf]stflGqs cfr/0f x'g' kb{5 . cfkmgf] JolQmut jf bnut :jfy{ k"/f u/fpg s'ts{sf] av]8f v8f u/]/ hg cfjfhnfO{ j]jf:tf u/L b]znfO{ kl/jt{gsf] lbzfaf6 kmsf{P/ /fHosf] k'/fg} :j?k v8f ug]{ b':k|of; ul/of] eg] b]zn] 7"nf] b'ef{Uo ef]Ug] l:ylt cfpF5 / Oltxf;n] b]zsf gfd"b /fhg]tfx?nfO{ s'g >]0fLdf /fV5, ljrf/ ug]{ s'/f xf] .

ofjt hLj]t, ;'vd hLj]t . C0f+ s[Tjf 3[t+ kLj]t e] pvfgaf6 k|]l/t oL gfd"b /fhg}lts bnx?n] cfkmgf] ceLi6 k'/f u/fP/ 5f8g] lh2 /fj0fn] lnPsf] lh2 ;/x g} x'g]5 . o;nfO{ /fi6lgdf{0f ug]{ /fhgLlt xf]Og, /fi6nfO{ Wj:t ug]{ gLlt elgG5 . b'of]{wg / /fj0fsf] gLlt xf]Og, ;dfg ;x cl:tTjnfO{ :jLsf/ u/L, ;a}sf] larf/nfO{ ;j{dfGo ljrf/ agfP/ dfq Gsf] ej;fu/ kf/ x'g ;Sb5 .

@)^^ df3 @@ ut]

pk/fi6kltsf] lxGbL k|s/0fdf ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] km};nfn] g]kfnL /fhgLltdf NofPsf] xnrnnfO{ ;/sf/n] a'ldfgLk'j{s /fi6klt, pk/fi6klt / k|wfgdGqLn] dft[efiffdf zky lng ;Sg] ;DalGw cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgsf] ;ftf}+ ;+zf]wg ljw]os kfl/t u/]/ pk/fi6kltnfO{ ;s[o u/fpg] k|of; k|z+;gLo 5 . dw]zL /fhgLlts kf6L{{sf] ;lqmotf, dfcf]jfbL kf6L{sf] ;xdltn] of] ;xhtf cfPsf]n] logLx? lgZro g} k|z+;fsf kfq x'g . dw]zn] klg ls+lrt /fxt dx;"; u/]sf] 5 . ;d:ofdf cGtlg{lxt sf/0fnfO{ a'em]/ /fhgLlts ?kn] hl6ntfsf] lgjf/0f ug'{ g} /fhg}lts s'zntf xf] / s'zn /fhgLlt1sf] klxrfg klg xf] .

;d:ofnfO{ gh/ cGbfh u/L sfNklgs ljrf/sf] e/df b]znfO{ t s] kl/jf/nfO{ klg xfFSg ;lsGg . b]z clxn] ;d:o} ;d:of em]nL /x]sf] 5 . ;xh lgsfz kfpg olt ;lhnf] 5}g . j:t'lgi7 ;f]r / /fhg}lts ;'ema'emsf] cefjdf ;xhtf xf]O{g, hl6ntf ylk+b} hfG5 . c;dembf/L aLr ;dembf/L vf]Hg' g} s'zntfsf] Bf]ts xf] . pk/fi6kltaf/]sf] k|of; o;}sf] pbfx/0f xf] . bnut :jfy{ xf]Og, b]zsf] :jfy{nfO{ cfkmgf] :jfy{ dfg]/ dfq ;dembf/Lsf] dfu{ vf]Hg ;lsG5 . zflGt ;Demf}tf klg oxL ;dembf/Lsf] gd"gf xf] . kf/:kl/s ljZjf;sf] ;+s6af6 pTk cfk;L j}dg:otfn] b]zsf] cGof]nu|:t /fhgLlts cj:yfnfO{ lgsfzlt/ 8f]/ofpg ;Sb}g . clxn] /fli6o ;xdltsf] ;/sf/ ckl/xfo{ ljifo ag]sf] 5 .

tLg /fhgLlts bnsf] pu| dxTjfsf+Iffsf] 6s/fx6n] b]zdf pTk c;xh kl/l:yltn] s] kl/0ffd Nofpnf, e] s'/f lt/ Wofg gk'/ofP ;/sf/n] c;kmn ;/sf/sf] pkflw kfpg t lglZrt 5, ;fy} oxL ;/sf/n] b]znfO{ c;kmn /fi6 agfof] e] sn+s klg nfUg] a]/ 5}g . s'zn /fhgLlt1sf] ?kdf Oltxf;df :yflkt x'g klg ;lxi0f'tfsf] w/ftndf pleP/ Odfgbf/Lsf ;fy cfkmgf] bfloTj lgjf{x ub}{ b]znfO{ ;+s6 d'Qm ug'{ kb{5 . b]zdf JofKt xTof, lx+;f, ckx/0f, ha/0f rGbf c;'nL, e|i6frf/, sfnf ahf/L, dxuL, c;'/Iff cflb cgluGtL ;d:of, hf] b]znfO{ c;kmn /fi6 agfpg kof{Kt 5g, n] s;}sf] /fhg}lts k|lti7f / /fhg}lts cl:tTj :d]t /xg lbb}g . oxL cj;/ xf], s'zn /fhgLlt1x?sf] ;/sf/sf] kl/ro lbg] df}sf . Ps ;o P3f/x lbg dfq afFsL 5 ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ . ukm u/]/ kf}g] b'O{ aif{ laTof] . ;/sf/ agfpg ;lhnf] 5, s'zntfk'j{s xfFSg / nf]slk|otf sdfpg w]/} s7Lg 5 . lgwf{l/t ;dodf ;a}sf] xs, clwsf/ ;'lglZrt u/]sf] ;+ljwfg hgtfnfO{ lbg'af6 g} ;/sf/sf] ;Ifdtf ;flat x'g]5, cGoyf ;/sf/sf] c;kmntf g} dflgg] 5 .

@)^^ df3 !# ut] dw]zL hg clwsf/ kmf]/d, g]kfn / y?x6 ;+o'Qm ;+3if{ ;ldltaLr sfo{ut Pstf ePsf] 5 . dw]zsf] oL b'O{ ;d'bfoaLrsf] Pstfn] dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ phf{jfg agfPsf] xfdL 7fGb5f}+ . of] Pstf s;}sf] if8oGqsf] lzsf/ gagL :yfloTj wf/0f u/f]; d]/f] z'esfdgf 5 .

dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ zlQmxLg / lg:t]h kfg{ oyfl:yltjfbL zlQmx? /fhgLlts hfnem]nsf cg]s tfgfafgf a'g]/ dw]zdf hftLo, efifLs, wfld{s, juL{o, ;fDk|bflos j}dg:otf km}nfP/ kf/:kl/s b+uf u/fpg] / dw]znfO{ clwsf/ljxLg cj:yfdf /fVg] if8oGqnfO{ of] Pstfn] ljkmn agfPsf] 5 . t/, oL of]hgfsf/ zlQmx? r'k nfu]/ a:g]jfnf 5}g . clxn] of] PstfnfO{ :yfloTj k|bfg ug{ hftLo :jfy{nfO{ If]qLo :jfy{df ljsf; ug{ h?/L 5, cfk;L ;befj, ;lxi0f'tfsf] w/ftndf /fhgLlts ;'ema'emsf ;fy cuf8L a9g h?/L 5 . csf{nfO{ b]v]/ cfkmgf] cl:tTj u'Dg] z+sf, pkz+sfaf6 d'Qm x'g' kb{5 . ;fd'bflos afx'Notfsf] cu|flwsf/ x'Fbfx'Fb} j}dg:otfsf] lzsf/ eP/ cfk;L Gaf6 k|fb]lzs clwsf/ klg u'Dg] ;Defjgf k|an 5, o;k|lt ;r]t x'g h?/L 5 . t/fO{, dw]z h] eg] klg of] e"efu xfd|f] xf] . o;nfO{ clwsf/ ;Dk :jfoQ k|b]z agfpg ;a}sf] Pstf cfjZos 5 .

/fhgLltdf cGw e] zAbsf] rng v'a} x'G5 . sDKo'6/sf] efO/; h:t} of] hxfF klg l55{ . h;/L efO/; sDKo'6/df k;]/ ;a} k|f]u|fd lauf5{, To:t} /fhgLltdf k;]/ of] cGw zAb ;a} s'/f laufg]{ u/]sf]n] o;af6 aRg' kb{5 . /fhgLlts ;'ema'em eg]sf] klg oxL xf] . b'wdf lkm6ls/L k/] h:t} of] Pstf gxf]; / Pstf ;an agf]; d]/f] z'esfdgf 5 .

@)^^ df3 @( ut]

lje]b lj?4sf] ;zQm dw]z cfGbf]ngn] Psflt/ cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgdf :jfoQ ;+3Lo k|b]zsf] cjwf/0ff n]vfpg ;kmn eof] eg] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] pFrfO{ b]v]/ eoeLt oyfl:yltjfbL zlQmx? Psl9Ssf dw]znfO{ 6'qm\ofpg PsLs[t ?kdf if8oGqsf tfgfafgf a' yfn] . ljut s]xL lbg;Dd dw]zdf ;/sf/sf] of] k"gLt cleofg ;kmntfk'j{s clegLt eof] . ;du| dw]zsf] If]lqo cfGbf]ngsf] lj? hftLo cfGbf]ngnfO{ k|f]T;flxt u/]/ le8Gtsf] cj:yf ;[hgf ul/of] . dw]znfO{ /fhgLlts ?kn] tx; gx; ug{ if8oGqsf cg]s of]hgfsf] ;'qkft eof] . o;} of]hgf txt yf?x?nfO{ hftLo clwsf/ cfGbf]ngsf] gfddf dw]zL lj?4 cfqmfds ?kdf k|:t't u/fOof] . d';ndfgnfO{ xfdL d'l:nd xf}+, dw]zL xf]Ogf}+ e nufOof] . On]S6f]lgs dLl8of, lk|G6 dLl8of cflbn] w'jfFwf/ lsl;dn] b'a} ;d'bfosf g]tfx?nfO{ k/:k/ ljjfb v8f x'g] lsl;dsf] cGtjf{tf{ lnP/ k|rf/ u/\of] . dw]zLsf] cl:tTjnfO{ lsdfy{ :jLsf/ gug]{ u/L yf? ;d'bfonfO{ prfNof] .

yf? ;d'bfosf] nflu dw]zL k|d'v b'Zdg xf] e] dfgl;stf ljsl;t u/fP/ gf6s d~rg u/fO{of] . v'Nnf l;dfgfsf sf/0f dw]zLx? g]kfn k;]sf ljb]zL x'g eg]/ dw]zs} Pp6f 7'nf] ;d'bfonfO{ ;flat ug{ nufpFbf cGttM oL ;f/f if8oGqsf] kbf{kmf; ePsf] 5 . ;dfhdf ljBdfg k|d'v cGtlj{/f]wsf] j:t'ut ljZn]if0fsf] cefjdf ePsf] uNtL ;lRrP/ yf?, dw]zLsf] Pstfn] cfGbf]ngnfO{ cu|udgsf] lbzfdf 8f]/\ofPsf] 5 eg] oyfl:yltjfbL zlQmnfO{ o:tf 3[l0ft v]n gv]Ng r]tfjgL klg lbPsf] 5 .

/fHon] dw]z e"efunfO{ g} /fli6o /fhgLltssf] d"n k|jfxaf6 al~rt /fVbf dw]zdf ePsf cflbjf;L hghflt, blnt, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf ju{, cNk ;+Vos nufot ;Dk"0f{ ;d'bfo pk]lIft hLjg hLpg afWo ePsf] 5 . /fHof/f ul/Psf] zf]if0fsf] df/df sdf]j]z dw]zsf ;a} ;d'bfo k/]sf 5g\ . yf?x? ;aeGbf a9L zf]lift ;d'bfo x'g of] ;a}n] :jLsf/]sf] s'/f xf] . ;+ljwfgdf ;a}sf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt gePsf] cj:yfdf ;d'bfox? Dfgjflwsf/af6 al~rt x'G5g\ . ;f]xL adf]lhd ePsf] klg xf] . k|d'v cGtlj{/f]w /fHo;+u x'g' kb{5, dw]zsf cGo ;d'bfo;+u xf]O{g . zf]if0fsf k|d'v sf/s tTjnfO{ klxrfg gu/L cfGbf]ngsf] wf/nfO{ lglb{i6 ug{ s7Lg x'G5 / cfGbf]ng kl/0ffdd'vL x'g ;Sb}g . b'Zdg / ldqzlQmsf] klxrfg / ;DaGw;+u g} cfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntf / c;kmntf ufFl;Psf] x'G5 . yf? ;d'bfo ev{/} dfq dw]zLnfO{ ldqzlQm a'em]/ u/]sf] sfo{ut Pstf P]ltxfl;s pbfx/0f xf] .

kl/jt{g k|fs[lts lgod xf] . o;nfO{ s;}n] cj?4 ug{ ;Sb}g . j:t'df cGtlg{lxt kl/jt{gsf sf/s tTjx? kl/kSj eP/ csf]{ j:t'df kl/jt{g u/fpFb5 . ;"Idflt;"Id b]lv :y"n ;Dd sfo{ km/s b]lvP klg lgod Pp6} x'G5 . g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df /f0ffx?sf] ;Qf aa{/ bf;o'uLg ;Qf lyof] . /f0ffx?sf] 7f9f] / d'v} zf;gnfO{ g]kfnL hgtfn] !)$ jif{ em]Nof] . d'v} zf;gn] /f0ff afx]s s;}sf] cl:tTjsf] klxrfg lbPg . :jo+ /f0ffx?aLr cGtlj{/f]w hGDof] . /f0ffx?sf] aa{/ zf;g g} kl/jt{gsf] sf/0f aGof] / kl/jt{g eof] . /f0ff ;Qfs} ue{af6 k'j{ lgl:qmo /fhtGq cyf{t\ ;fdGtjfbsf] hGd eof] . o; kl/jt{gsf] k'j{ ;GWofdf 8]df]qm];L / sDo'lgHd sf] aLhf/f]k0f eO{ ;s]sf] lyof] . @))& ;fnsf] kl/jt{g kl5 /f0ffeGbf cln km/s t/ cfkm\gf] c;nL ?kdf em08} #) jif{, pbf/tfsf] gf6s u/]/ )$^ ;Dd !^ jif{ / j}wflgs /fhtGqsf] x}l;otn] )^@ ;Dd !^ jif{ cyf{t\ ^@ jif{ /f0ffkl5 /fhfsf] zf;g /x\of] . g]kfnL hgtf ;a} vfn] zf]if0faf6 d'lQm rfxG5 . @))& b]lv clxn] ;Ddsf n8fO{ g]kfnL hgtf n8]sf x'g t/ g]kfnL hgtf zf]if0faf6 d'lQm kfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ . p;sf] lx:;fdf ul/aL, ef]sd/L, a]/f]huf/L, dxuL g} k/]sf] 5 . /fhtGq cyf{t\ ;fdGtjfbsf k|tLs, hgtff/f x6fOP klg p 5b\de]ifdf zlQmsf] ?kdf ;Qfdf ljBdfg 5 / o;}sf/0f hgtf s]xL kfO{ /x]sf] 5}g . ;Gbe{ kl/jt{gsf] xf], kl/jt{g s} s'/f u/f}+ . k[YjL gf/fo0f zfxn] cHof{sf] d'n's g]kfndf pgsf j+zhn] cfkm\gf] cl:tTj arfpg ;s]g . g]kfnaf6 hgtfn] /fhtGqsf] cGt u/\of] . kl/jt{g k|s[ltsf] zfZjt\ lgod xf] . o;nfO{ s;}n] /f]s]/ /f]lsb}g .

hLjg nLnf ;dfKt x'g] nIf0f kl/nlIft x'g nfUbf dflg;sf] afFRg] /x/ tLa| eP/ cfpF5 . pm afFRgsf nflu x/ ;Dej k|of; klg u5{ . cfkm\gf] k|of;df s]xL lbg afFr] klg d[To' lglZrt 5 . To:t} /fhgLltdf klg x'G5 . g]kfnL hgtf zf]if0fsf ;a} lsNnf eTsfP/ b]zdf cfd"n kl/jt{g Nofpg vf]hL /x]sf] 5 . oyfl:yltjfbL zlQmx? k'j{jQL{ Joj:yfsf cjz]ifx? Effl:;b} cj:yfaf6 arfP/ k'jf{j:yfdf Nofpg c;kmn k|of;df tNnLg b]lvG5g\ . cyf{t\ kl/jt{gnfO{ clgR5fk'j{s :jLsfg]{ afWotf 5 . clxn] /fhgLlts cGof]n b]lvPsf] o;} sf/0fn] xf] . t/ ;do hlt nfuf];\ kl/jt{g cjZo x'G5 . g]kfnL hgtfsf] kl/jt{g Nofpg] b[9 OR5fzlQm cuf8L /f0ff l6s]g, /fhf l6s]g, c? sf]xL l6Sg ;Sb}g .

@)^^ kmfu'g & ut]

;+++ljwfg ;efnfO{ ca (& lbg afFsL 5 . gofF sn]j/ lbPklg /fhgLlts ult/f]w sfod 5 . ;/sf/n] lgwf{l/t ;dod} ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug]{ hlt;'s} cfZjf;g lbPklg b]zn] /fhgLlts lgsfz lng ;s]sf] 5}g . /fhg}lts bnx? JolQmut tyf bnut :jfy{ eGbf dfly p7g ;s]sf] 5}g . ;xh ?kdf b]z cu|udgsf] lbzflt/ hfg ;ls /x]sf] 5}g . t}klg ;+ljwfg agfP/ 5f8g] ;/sf/sf] c7f]6 5 . /fhgLlts ult/f]w sfod /x]sf] cj:yfdf hgtfsf] hgfb]z ljkl/t ;+ljwfg agfpg] k|of; ul/of] eg] Tof] ;+ljwfgsf] s'g} cf}lrTo sfod x'g ;Sb}g . o;n] k'gZr G lgDTofp5 . !$ k|b]zsf] cjwf/0ff ;a} /fhgLlts bnsf] lj/f]wsf] sf/0f alg ;s]sf] 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf ;+ljwfg agfpg] ;/sf/sf] em'7f cfZjf;gdf g]kfnL hgtf slt e/ kg{ ;S5g .

dw]znfO{ /fli6o /fhgLlts d"n k|jfxdf ;xh ?kn] ;dfj]z u/fpg] ;/sf/sf] ls+lrt b[li6sf]0f klg 5}g . !$ k|b]zsf] cjwf/0ffn] of] s'/f ;flat u/L ;s]sf] 5 . lgtfGt k'jf{u|xL b[li6sf]0fn] b]znfO{ ;xh lgsfz lbg w]/} sl7g 5 . ;x cl:tTjsf] cfwf/df xf]Og, clwsf/ k|fKt tLg /fhg}lts bnn] dfq g]kfnL hgtfsf] efUo sf]g{ ;S5g e] bDen] b]zn] ;xh lgsfz kfpnf < km/s ;+:sf/ ePsf tLg /fhgLlts bnsf] bDesf] 6s/fx6n] b]z x/]s lsl;dn] c;kmntflt/ pGd'v eO{ /x]sf] 5 . g]kfnL hgtf /fhg]tfx?sf] /fh ug]{ tl/sfaf6 jfSs ePsf 5g . !% jif{b]lv g]kfnL hgtf Go"gtd dfgjflwsf/af6 al~rt eP/ gofF g]kfndf /fd|f] hLjg hLpg kfOPnf e] cfz klg x/fpg nfu]sf] cj:yf 5 . hgtf lbgfg'lbg lg/fz x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf 5g . hgtfsf] g}/fZotf k'gZr 7'nf] e'sDksf] hGd lbg ;S5, of] ;a}n] hfg]sf] s'/f xf] . clxn] klg ;do 5, cfkmgf] cfkmgf] x7wld{tf Tofu]/ nIolt/ a9g .

dw]z /fhgLltsf] s] s'/f u/f}+, dw]zsf] nflu ;/sf/sf] k'jf{u|xL dfgl;stf tyf dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] lqmofsnfkaf6 dw]z w]/} cfzfjfbL 5}g . dw]z cfGbf]ngn] ck]Iff u/]sf] s]xL pknlAw xfy g nfu]kl5 dw]zL hgtfdf Psflt/ g}/fZotf 5 eg] csf]{lt/ 7'nf] Hjfnfd'vLsf] k[i7e"ld tof/ x'g] cj:yf klg 5 . xtfz / lg/fzfn] cGttMM ljb|f]xnfO{ g} hGd lbG5 . ;+ljwfg ag] klg gag] klg dw]zn] s]xL gkfpg] s'/f !$ k|b]zsf] cjwf/0ffn] ;flat u/L ;s]sf] 5 . cGttf]uTjf dw]zsf] nflu cfGbf]ngsf] ljsNk /x]g . dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;Dk agfpg dw]zn] k'gZr Psdfq ljsNk cfGbf]ngnfO{ g} c+ufNg' kb{5 .

dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx?df klg bfloTjaf]w x'g h?/L 5 . ;/sf/df ;fd]n x'g' dw]zsf] pknlAw df ;ls, dw]znfO{ clwsf/ lbnfpg ;Sg' kb{5 . ljutsf ( dlxg] ;/sf/ tyf clxn] klg ( dlxgf ;/sf/df /xFbf klg dw]zL /fhgLlts bnx?n] dw]zsf nflu s]xL ug{ g;s]sf] cj:yf 5 . u}/ dw]zL /fhgLlts bnx?sf] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/df dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] ;xeflutfnfO{ !* dlxgfsf] d"NofFsg ubf{ dw]zsf] /fhg}lts pknlAweGbf JolQmut kmfO{bf lng ;/sf/df hflu/ ;/x g} df ;lsG5 . ljut b]lv clxn] ;Dd dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] ;/sf/df ;xeflutfn] JolQmut kmfO{bf ePklg dw]znfO{ 3f6f g} ePsf] 5 . dw]zjfbL bnx? cfkm'nfO{ ;/sf/d'vL agfpg afWo eof], t/ ;/sf/nfO{ dw]zd'vL agfpg ;s]g . dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] ;dy{gdf of] ;/sf/ cl:tTjdf cfPsf] xf] . g ;/sf/ dw]zk|lt ;sf/fTds b]lvPsf] 5, g dw]zjfbL bnx? ;/sf/nfO{ r'gf}lt lbP/ ePklg dw]zk|lt ;sf/fTds agfpg ;s]sf] 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ng kl5 clxn] ;Dd dw]zL hgtfn] /fxt kfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . /fxt eg]sf] cfGbf]ngsf/Lx?sf] nflu t'?Gt} pknAw ul/g] Go"gtd cfjZostf xf] . nf]stflGqs ;/sf/ / ;/sf/df ;fd]n dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] nflu klg of] dxTjsf] laifo a ;s]sf] 5}g .

dw]zL hgtfsf] cfnf]rgfaf6 aRg Pp6f lgik|f0f pRr :t/Lo cg'udg ;ldlt agfP/ rf/j6} dw]zjfbL bnsf] k|ltlglw ;b:o /fv]sf] 5 . of] u7g ePsf] % dlxgf laTbf klg ;ldltn] s]xL sfd ug{ g;Sg' g} of] ;ldltsf] dg;fo s] xf], :ki6 x'G5 . dw]zjfbL /fhgLlts bnsf] g]t[Tjdf a] cg'udg ;ldlt clxn] ;Dd cfkmgf] sfd k'/f ul/ ;SYof], zflGt dGqLsf] cWoIftfdf ag]sf] ;ldltn] sfd u/]sf] gu/]sf] ;Dk"0f{ bfloTj pxfFdfly g} hfg] s'/f k|i6 5 . of] ;ldltn] clxn] ;Dd Pp6f a}7ssf] cf}krfl/stf lgjf{x ug{ afx]s s]xL u/]sf] 5}g, cyf{t of] ;ldlt ;Lldt dfgl;stf af]s]sf] ultxLg cj:yfdf g} /xg ?rfPsf] efg x'G5 .

;/sf/n] dw]znfO{ /fxt lbg tof/ 5}g eg] :jfoQ dw]z k|b]z h:tf s'/f s;/L lbg ;S5 < htfaf6 klg ;/sf/nfO{ x]bf{ dw]zk|lt afFlug] :jfefj g} b]vf k5{ . dw]zsf] nflu ljsNk s] t < cfGbf]ng cfGbf]ng Psdfq cfGbf]ng

@)^^ kmfu'g !$ ut]

b]zdf x/]s lsl;dsf qmfol;; lbgfg'lbg hlGdb} 5g . /fhgLlts cGof}nsf] cj:yfdf ;d:of Go"gLs/0f xf]Og, tLa| ?kn] a[l4 eO{ /x]sf] 5 . jt{dfg ;/sf/sf] ultxLgtfn] ;d:ofx? Ylkb} hfFbf b]z u[xo'4lt/ cu|;/ eO{ /x]sf] /fhgLlts j[tdf ;a}nfO{ cfef; ePs} cj:yf 5 . P= dfcf]jfbLn] ;Qf sAhf ug]{ cft+s v8f u/]/dfwj s'df/ g]kfnsf] ultxLg nf]stflGqs ;/sf/ lg/Lx k|f0fL h:t} d}n] s] ug]{ eg]/ g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ ;Gb]z lb+bf hgtfn] ;Ifd ;/sf/ a'emg] ls csd{0o <

dfcf]jfbLnfO{ xf}cfsf] ?kdf k|:t't u/]/ ;/sf/n] Joy}{ ljZjf;sf] ;+s6 lgDTofPsf] 5 . dfcf]jfbL;+usf] ;xsfo{ ljutdf ePs} xf], Tof] klg nf]stflGqs ;/sf/ g} lyof] . clxn] cfkm'nfO{ nf]stflGqs lsQfdf /fv]/ dfcf]jfbLnfO{ k/ ws]Ng' s;}sf] lxt x'Fb}g . 7'nf /fhg}lts bnx?sf] x7 wld{tfn] b]zn] 7'nf] b'3{6gf Jof]xf]g'{ kg]{ cj:yf 5 . b]z /fhgLlts ?kn] ;fdfGo cj:yfdf cfO{ ;s] kl5 /fhgLlts bfjk]+r ug'{ ;j{dfGo x'g ;S5, t/ clxn] cfkm'g} g]kfnL hgtfsf] efUoljwftf eg]/ bDesf ;fy /fhgLlts bfjk]+rdf b]znfO{ aaf{b kfg'{ lsdfy{ hgtfsf] nflu ;Xo x'Fb}g . b]z cefjsf] sf/0fn] hgtf ck/fwd'vL eO{ /x]sf], r]nLa]6L cl:dtf a]r]/ k]6 kfnL /x]sf], vfgfsf] cefjdf, pkrf/sf] cefjdf ;Dk"0f{ kl/jf/ cfTdxTof ul/ /x]sf], of] cj:yfdf /fhgLlts zf:qsf l;4fGt 5fF6g] xf]O{g, cljnDa g}ltstfaf]wsf ;fy ;xsfo{sf dfWodn] g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ /fxt lbg] sfo{df cu|;/ x'g' kb{5 . ;xdltsf] cfwf/df ;xsfo{ g} lglj{sNk /fhgLlts lgsfzsf] af6f] ePsf]n] ;a}n] ljj]s k|of]u u/L Ps 7fFpdf pleg cfjZos 5 .

cfkmgf] b]zsf] ;d:of ;a}sf] ;femf ;d:of ePsf]n] b]zdf ljBdfg kl/l:yltnfO{ dgg u/L j:t'lgi7 ;d:ofsf] lgbfg cfkmgf] ljj]s k|of]u u/]/ ;a}sf] ;xdltsf] cfwf/df vf]Hg' kb{5 . csf{sf] e/df lgbfg vf]Hg' cfkmgf] lgsDdfkg afx]s c? s]xL x'g ;Sb}g . xfdLnfO{ xfd|f] ;+s6af6 lgsfNg] xfd|f] Ifdtf, sfo{bIftf / nugzLntf g} x'g ;S5 . c?sf] e/df ;d:of hl6n eP/ hfg] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g . c?sf] ;xf/f lnP/ lx8g]nfO{ ckf g} elgG5 . ;w}+ /fli6otfsf] dfnf hKg] /fhg]tfx? /fli6o ;d:ofk|lt lsg ;+j]bgzLn eO{ /x]sf] 5}g < b]zsf] ;+s6 ;'/Iff h:t} k|To]s g]kfnLnfO{ cfkmgf] uf; agfpFb} uO{ /x]sf] 5 . xfd|f] ;/sf/ df}g, lgliqmo ylk+b} uO{ /x]sf] ;d:ofnfO{ d"sbz{s eO{ x]/L /x]sf] cj:yf 5, cyjf eg"F c?sf] d'v tfs]/ lg/Lx k|f0fL em}+ a;]sf] cj:yf 5 .

/fli6o /fhgLltdf Psflt/ ;/sf/sf] lg/Lxtf k|blz{t eO{ /x]sf] 5 eg] dw]zdf ljz]if ;'/Iff gLltsf] gfddf lgbf]{if dw]zLx?dfyL bdgrqm rnfO{ /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . xfn} slknj:t'sf] s[i0fgu/df dw]zL o'jf kmf]/dsf s]Gb|Lo cWoIf of]u]Gb| /fo ofbadfyL k'ln;sf] ;f+3flts xdnf eT;{gf of]Uo 5 . zflGtk"0f{ ?kn] sfo{qmd ubf{ of]u]Gb| ofbanfO{ k'ln;n] d/0ff;Gg s"6kL6 ug]{ ;/sf/sf] bdg gLlt geg]/ c? s] e] < kmfNu'g !! ut] pkTosfdf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq ;+j}wflgs ?kn] :yflkt eO{ ;s]sf] cj:yfdf /fhtGq kmsf{pg], ;+3Lotfsf] lj/f]wdf /fhfjfbL k"j{k+rx?sf] lj/f]w h'n'; lgl:sbf ;/sf/ 6'n'6'n' x]/L /xof] . t/ s[i0fgu/df of]u]Gb| ofba ;/sf/nfO{ 5fkfdf/ u'l/Nnf h:t} nfUof] .

;z:q ;d"xx?;+usf] jftf{ lgisif{df k'u]sf] 5}g . cfh;Dd h'gh'g ;d"x;+u ;/sf/n] ;Demf}tf u/]sf] 5, sfof{Gjog eg] s;}sf] ePsf] 5}g . clwsf/jfbL cfGbf]ngsf cu'jfx?nfO{ ;/sf/n] jftf{sf] cg]sf}+ k|nf]eg b]vfP/ cfGbf]ngnfO{ lgliqmo kfg]{, :ylut ug]{ k|k+rn] k|]l/t if8oGq afx]s c? s]xL b]lvb}g . s'g} klg ;Demf}tf lgisif{df gk'Ubf ;d:of Ho"F sf To"F ljBdfg /xG5 . ;/sf/sf] of] 6fn6'n] gLltn] ;d:ofnfO{ ;dfwfg ub}{g, a? hl6ntf ylk+b} hfG5 . xfd|f] cfjfh /fli6o /fhgLltdf k|wfgtf kfcf]; eg]/ clwsf/jfbLx? cfGbf]ng dfkm{t cfkmgf cfjfh a'nGb u/]sf lyP . jftf{ xf]; / xfd|f df+u k|fyldstfsf ;fy k"/f ul/of]; clwsf/sdL{x?sf] oxL rfxgf lyof] . t/ cfGbf]ngnfO{ jftf{sf] dfWodaf6 ;dfKt kfg]{, lbg rflx+ s]xL glbg] if8oGqsf/L s'l6n dfgl;stfn] k|]l/t ;/sf/ cflv/ cfkmgf] sfo{ of]hgfdf ;kmn g} b]lvG5 . t/ s] ;d:ofsf] cDaf/dfly ;/sf/sf] ;kmntfsf] cfxf; ug{ ;S5 < sbflk xf]Og . ;d:ofsf] Hjfnfd'vLdfly s'g} klg ;/sf/sf] cl:tTj x'Fb}g . t/ s] ug]{ < b]zdf hlt;'s} kl/jt{g ePklg ;Qfdf xfjL PsfTds v;jfbL lrGtg g} ;d:of ;dfwfgsf] af6f]sf] k|d'v afws xf] . dfcf]jfbL hgo'4, )^@ sf] hgcfGbf]ng / dw]z cfGbf]ngdf o;sf] k|efj sd ePklg k'gZr of] cfkmgf] :yfgdf s'08nL df/]/ b'?:t a;]sf] 5 . ;do ;fk]If o;df kl/jt{g x'g' Pp6f s'/f xf] . t/ clxn] kl/jt{gnfO{ cfkmgf] ultdf a9g glbg, kl/jt{gnfO{ cfkmgf] k/Dk/fut lrGtgdf s}b /fVg], kl/jt{gnfO{ cfkmgf] lx;fan] kl/eflift ug]{ cflb k|of;n] /fli6o /fhgLlt cGof]nu|:t ePsf] 5 .

@)^^ kmfu'g @! ut]

b]zdf em08} ^) jif{ kl5 hg rfxgf cg';f/ hgcfGbf]ng dfkm{t ;+ljwfg ;ef cfPsf] xf] . ^)! hgf ;+ljwfg ;ef ;b:onfO{ lyrf]ldrf]df k/]sf, /fHoaf6 a+lrt g]kfnL hgtfsf] xs clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{ hgfb]z k|fKt 5 . ;+ljwfg ;efdf lje]b lj?4 cfGbf]ng u/]sf qmflGtsf/L cu'jfx?sf] hg k|ltlgwL ?kdf sdL 5}g . ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ *# lbg dfq afFsL 5 . /fhgLlts bnx? aLr a9]sf] c;dembf/Ln] pTkGg /fhgLlts ult/f]wsf sf/0f ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmof cj?4 ePsf] 5 . ultxLgtfsf] cj:yf k|fKt u/L ;+ljwfg agfpg grfxg] zlQmx? ;lqmo x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf 5g . /fhgLlts cl:y/tfsf] bnbndf w;]sf] b]z aflx/ cfpg hlt;'s} k|of; ubf{ cem wl:;b} hfg] cj:yf 5 . /fhgLlts ult/f]wsf sf/0f /fhgLlts j[tdf 3f]/ lg/fzf, xtfz dgMl:ylt JofKt 5 . /fhg}lts bnx?sf] c;dembf/Lsf sf/0f b]znfO{ o:tf] rf}/fxfdf NofO{ v8f u/]sf] 5 hxfFaf6 b]znfO{ h'g;'s} lbzfdf nUg ;lsG5 . lbzf lglb{i6 eP cg';f/ cu|udgsf] ult /f]lsof] eg] b]z oyfl:yltdf klg w]/} lbg /xg ;Sb}g, kZrudgsf] lbzfdf :jfefljs ?kn] ultzLn x'g yfNb5 . /fhgLlts ultxLgtfsf] cj:yfdf /fHo ;+oGq of t lgl:qmo x'G5 of lbzfxLg . hgtfn] /fHoaf6 ck]Iff u/]sf ;]jf ;'ljwf kfpgaf6 al~rt ePkl5 ck/fw kmi6fpg yfNb5 . b]z ck/fwLs/0f eO{ /x]sf] ;a}n] dx;"; u/L /x]s} s'/f xf] .

vf;u/L, dw]zdf JofKt ul/aL, a]/f]huf/L, dxFuL / /fhgLlts z"Gotfn] ck/fw c? 7fpFsf] t'ngfdf lgs} a9]sf] cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . dw]zdf c? If]qdf /fHosf] cg'kl:ylt tyf ;'/Iff If]qdf pu| bdgfTds pkl:yltn] klg ck/fw kmi6fPsf] cj:yf 5 . dw]zdf ck/fw a9g', dw]z dfq xf]Og, s;}sf] nflu lxtsf/L x'Fb}g . wldnf] kfgLdf df5f dfg{ ;a} zlQmx? dw]zdf s]lGb|t x'G5g / dw]znfO{ a}6n kmLN8 agfp5g . dw]z h'g PsLs[t efjgfn] dw]z cfGbf]ng u/]sf] lyof], To;af6 Ro"t u/L sf]zf}+ 6f9f ofFls lbG5g oL zlQmx? . /fHosf] /fhgLlts ultxLgtf / dw]zsf ;Qf nf]n'k /fhg]tfx?sf sf/0f dw]zn] /fxt gkfPsf] cj:yfdf dw]zdf g}/fZotf a9g' :jfefljs xf] t/ o;sf] k|ltlqmofTds ?kdf ck/fwnfO{ k|>o lbg' 7'nf] e"n xf] . ck/fwsf] s'g} uGtJo x'Fb}g, /fhg}lts p2]Zo x'Fb}g . o;n] cfk;L Pstf, kf/:kl/s ;befjnfO{ vl08t u/L p2]ZoxLg agfpFb5 . dw]znfO{ ck/fwLs/0f x'g glbgaf6 hf]ufpg' xfdL ;a}sf] sQ{Josf] laifo xf] . cfGbf]ng ug{ ;lhnf] 5, cfGbf]ngsf] dd{nfO{ Pstfa4 ?kdf l6sfO{ /fVg w]/} s7Lg 5 . o;nfO{ 6'qmofpg cg]s zlQmx? cg]s ljwL u/]/ nflu k/]sf 5g .

dw]z cfGbf]ng dfkm{t cleJoQm dw]z d'2fnfO{ ;/sf/n] ;Demf}tff/f :jLsf/] klg ;Demf}tf adf]lhd ;+ljwfgdf dw]z d'2fnfO{ ;dfj]z ug{ O{dfgbf/ b]lvb}g . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] olt cNk ;dodf ljleGg axfgfsf] av]8f lems]/ dw]z d'2fnfO{ cf]em]ndf kfg{ dw]z Ot/ kIfsf] ;a} /fhg}lts bnx? Psdt /x]sf] cg'ej ug{ ;lsG5 . o; dfldnfdf dw]zjfbL bnx? klg df}g /x]sf] sf/0f ck]lIft ;kmntf kfpg s7Lg 5 cyjf Ot/ kIfnfO{ g} kmfObf k'Ug hfG5 .

b]zsf] jt{dfg las6 kl/:yltdf ;a}n] cfkmgf clwsf/ ;'lglZrt u/fpg] a]nfdf dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] df}gtfn] lgZro klg dw]zsf nflu lxtsf/L 5}g . o; cj;/df dw]znfO{ w|'jLs/0f x'g h?/L 5 . dw]z /fhgLltdf hlGdPsf h8;"qjfbL, cj;/jfbL tyf pu| kl/jt{gsf/L zlQmx?af6 aRb} ;Dk"0f{ dw]z PskN6 km]/L Pstfa4 eP/ cfkmgf] clwsf/ ;'/If0fsf nflu n8g cfjZos 5 . b]z s'g} Ps ju{sf] geP/ ;a}sf] ;femf ePsf]n] ;+ljwfg agfpg tLg bnsf] Psflwsf/ ca dw]zsf] nflu dfGo gx'g] s'/f k|i6 5 .

@)^^ kmfu'g @* ut]

;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb ca &^ lbgsf] cNkfjlw afFsL 5 . bnut x7wld{tfsf sf/0f pTk /fhgLlts ult/f]wn] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f b]lv lnP/ x/]s If]qdf g/fd|f] lsl;dn] k|efj kf/]sf] 5 . ;'/Iff Joj:yfaf/] ;fj{hlgs ?kdf u[xdGqLn] hlt 8L+u xfFs] klg gful/snfO{ eod'Qm cj:yfsf] ;[hgf ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . cfkmg} kf6L{af6 u[xdGqLsf] /fhLgfdfsf] dfFu eO{ /x}sf] 5 . lsg g xf];, df3 @$ ut] lbg bxf8} hdLd zfxsf] xTof x'g' / dlxgf laTg nfUbf klg ;'/Iff lgsfof/f xTof/f kQf nufpg g ;Sg', hgsk'/ 6'8]sf k|f]k|fO6/ tyf k|sfzs c?0f l;+3flgofFsf] xf]nLs} lbg rxnkxn /x]sf] rf}sdf xTof ePsf], xTof/f kQf nfUg g;s]sf], kDkf6Lsf] cfkmg} lgjf;df xTof k|of; ePsf], ck/fwsf oL ;a 36gfn] oxfFsf] ;'/Iff Joj:yf slt lkmtnf] 5 e] s'/f bzf{O{ /x]sf] 5 . ck/fw hutsf] ;Ifd of]hgfsf] r'gf}ltnfO{ ;'/Iff lgsfon] l;/ lgx'F/fP/ a:g] cj:yf 5 .

/fhgLlts ult/f]w / ;'/Iff lgsfosf] ld; o'h af6 ;'/Iff Joj:yf sdhf]/ ePsf] xf] . ;/sf/af6 g}lts an, k|f]T;fxg gkfP/ ;'/Iff lgsfodf knfpFb} uO{ /x]sf] z6{s6 u]g dgLsf] nfnrL efjgf, vl:sbf] g}lts w/ftn, pRr cf]xbfsf] lghL :jfy{sf nflu k|of]u u/]sf] x}sdL k|j[lt, rfs8L / rfkn';L k|ultsf] cfwf/, lghL :jfy{sf nflu k|of]udf NofOPsf] s8f cg'zf;g, ck/fwLnfO{ /fhgLlts bjfjsf sf/0f 5f]8bfsf] kL8f, /fd|f] sfdsf] lgikIf d"NofFsg gx'g', sfg"gnfO{ lghL :jfy{ cg';f/ kl/efiff ug'{, k|of]u ug'{ cflb ;'/Iff lgsfonfO{ sQ{JoRo"t ug]{ k|d'v sf/0fx? x'g .

b]zdf a9b} uO{ /x]sf] xTof, lx+;f, n"6kf6, ckx/0f,j:t'x?sf] rsf]{ d"No a[l4, a]/f]huf/Ln] ;fdflhs ;+/rgf Wj:t eO{ /x]sf], ck/fw pGd'v eO{ /x]sf], c/fhs cj:yfsf] ;[hgf eO{ /x]sf] lt/ ;/sf/ lsg uDeL/ x'Fb}g, cfZro{sf] s'/f xf] . cfkmgf] s';L{ hf]ufpg afx]s b]zsf] bogLo cj:yfaf6 ;/sf/ b|ljt x'b}g, cyjf lg/Lxtfsf] lzsf/ ePsf] 5 . s] o:tf] cj:yfn] l:y/ ;/sf/sf] sNkgf ug{ ;ls+G5 < ;/sf/df pknAw ;fwg ;|f]t, ;'v ;'ljwfsf] gzfdf b]zsf] c/fhs / bogLo l:yltlt/ Wofg lsg hfjf]; . ;'sd}{ gfd ls s'sd}{ gfd . b]znfO{ ufFhL /x]sf] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfgsf] s'g} lgsfzlt/ ;/sf/sf] Wofg g/xFbf pTk yk ;d:ofn] ;/sf/nfO{ ;'sd{sf] gfd t sdfpg lbb}g . s'sd{sf] gfd eg] Oltxf;n] ;w}+sf nflu ;lDem /xg]5 .

dw]zdf tLa|t/ ?kdf a[l4 eO{ /x]sf] xTof, ckx/0f, rGbf c;'nL, n"6kf6, cflb 36gfn] dw]zsf] hg hLjgnfO{ abt/ agfpFb}5 . /fhgLlts ultxLgtfsf sf/0f b08xLgtfsf] l:ylt, zflGt ;'/Iffsf] Uof/]G6L lbg g;s]sf] ;/sf/sf] cj:yf, ;dfhsf] ck/fwLs/0f / ck/fwsf] ;dfhLs/0fsf] cj:yf, cfsflzbf] dxuLn] hLjg wfGg g;sbf ;':t/L ck/fwsf] b'lgofFdf ?kfGtl/t x'Fb} dw]zL ;dfh, s] dw]zsf] o:tf] lrqn] ;d't, ;an, ;d[4 dw]zsf] sNkgf ug{ ;lsG5 < bnut :jfy{sf] x7n] g]kfnL hg hLjg clt bogLo cj:yfdf k'Ubf klg ;/sf/nfO{ g}ltsaf]w x'Fb}g . o:tf] kl/l:yltdf rf/}lt/af6 u[xdGqLsf] /fhLgfdfsf] dfFu ug'{ c:jfefljs xf]Og . zlgjf/ Pdfn]sf] s]Gb|Lo sld6Lsf] a}7sdf u[xdGqLsf] /fhLgfdfsf] dfFu u/]kl5 d /fhLgfdf lb eg]/ b]vfPsf] cfF6 b]zsf] lalu|Psf] zflGt ;'/Iffsf] cj:yfdf ;''wf/ Nofpg]df klg cfF6 b]vfpg' k/of] . ;'v ;'ljwf ef]Ugsf nflu dfq xf]Og .

&^ lbgsf] cNk ;dofjlwdf hl6n ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmof lgisif{df k'Ug g;Sg] cj:yf, ;dod} ;+ljwfg hf/L x'g' kg]{ hg bjfj, Dofb gyKg]lt/ a9bf] ;dy{g, cflb s'/fn] ;/sf/nfO{ stflt/ 8f]/ofpnf < ;/sf/sf] /0fgLlt s] xf]nf < /fhg}lts bnx?df c;dembf/L a9b} uPsf] 5 .

c;dembf/L a9g'sf] k|d'v sf/0f ;Qf xf], bnut :jfy{ xf] . bnut :jfy{nfO{ /fli6o :jfy{;+u hf]8]/ cuf8L a9]df dfq ;dembf/Lsf] 9f]sf v'N5 . ;dembf/L lagf ;xdtL x'Fb}g . ;xdtL lagf b]zn] /fhgLlts lgsfz kfpg ;Sb}g . clxn] ;Dd ;dembf/Lsf] x/]s k|of; ljkmn ePsf] 5 . oltsf 5f]6f] cjlwdf ;dembf/L ag] klg ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f x'g] ljZjf; eg] IfL0f x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . ank"j{s ;+ljwfg cfof]uf/f ;+ljwfg hf/L ug{ nufO{of] eg] Tof] sfuhsf] vf]:6f] ;/x x'g] / k'gZr cfGbf]ngsf k|d'v sf/0f a] s'/f lglZrt 5 .

@)^^ r}t ^ ut]

ljleGg ;+3, ;+:yf, ;fgf gful/s ;dfhsf cu'jfx? ;+ljwfg ;ef ejg cuf8L lgwf{l/t ;dodf ;+ljwfg hf/L u/ eGg] Kn]sf8{ lnP/ lbgx'F wgf{ al; /x]sf] 5 . b]zdf nfdf] ;do b]lv /fhgLlts ult/f]w sfod 5 . hgcfGbf]ng / dw]z cfGbf]ngn] cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgdf :yflkt u/L ;s]sf] ;+3Lotfsf] lj/f]wdf Pp6f nfdf] hdft tof/ eO{ ;8s ttfO{ /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . /rgfTds efjgf eGbf ljWj+zfTds wf/0ff tLj| ultn] a9L /x]sf] cj:yf 5 .

ls g"g b]pm, xf]Og eg] laif lbP/ hfpm eGg] g]kfnL hgtfsf] cfQ{gfb JofKt x'g yfn]sf] 5 . x/]s If]qdf b]z hh{/ ePsf] 5, cjfFl5t tTjx? ;+u7Lt /kdf ;NanfO{ /x]sf] kl/l:yltdf b]z /rgfTds ?kdf cuf8L a9g] sNkgf s;/L ug]{ <

;+ljwfg ;efsf] ^* lbgsf] cNk ;dofjlwdf ;Qf?9 /fhg}lts bnsf] xtfz / xtf/ dgMl:ylt tyf ;8saf6 hgtfsf] Jofks bafjn] ;/sf/sf] hgd'vL ;f]rsf] sNkgf ug}{ ;lsGg . ult/f]w sfod /x]sf] ljBdfg kl/l:yltdf hg bafjsf sf/0f ;/sf/n] ank"j{s ;+lawfg NofP klg Tof] ;+ljwfg hgd'vL x'g} ;Sb}g . s] xf]nf t ca < b]zsf] hl6n /fhg}lts cj:yfn] ;xh lgsfz lbg ;S5 < ;/sf/ afx]s ca s;}nfO{ ljZjf; /x]g .

Em08} ^) jif{sf] k|tLIff kl5 cfPsf] ;+ljwfg agfpg] cj;/ lhDd]jf/ /fhg}lts bnx?s} sf/0f u'Dg] cj:yfdf 5 . bnut :jfy{sf sf/0f pTkGg kf/:kl/s le8Gtn] of] kl/l:yltsf] ;[hgf ePsf] xf] . clxn]sf] kl/l:yltdf ;a} /fhgLlts bnx?sf] cfk;L ;dembf/L / ;xdltn] ;xh k|lqmofaf6 Jofks 5nkmn u/]/ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg x'g ;Sb5 . b]zsf] ;jf{lwsf/ tLg /fhgLlts bndf lglxt /x]sf] s'/f clxn]sf] /fhgLlts kl/b[iodf x]g{ ;lsG5 .

tLg} /fhgLlts bnx?sf] ;os8f}+ a}7s eP klg ;dembf/L z"Goaf6 cuf8L hfg ;s]g . cfkmgf] c8fgdf sfod oL bnx? cfkm"dfq b]zsf lgdf{tf, g]kfnL hgtfsf efUoljwftf eGg] ;flat ug{ nflu k/]sf 5g . G lj:yfkg eGbf G a9fpg] lbzfdf cu|;/ bnx?sf] x7wld{tfn] b]z km]l/ u[xo'4 lt/ ws]lng] ;Defjgf k|an ePsf] 5 .

/fhgLlts bnx?sf] ultljwL, ;/sf/sf] dfgl;stf tyf b]zdf ljBdfg kl/l:yltdf ;+ljwfg ag] klg g ag] klg dw]z cfGbf]ngn] ck]Iff u/]sf] pknlAw kfpg s7Lg 5 . xfn} cfPsf] !$ k|b]zsf] cjwf/0ffn] vl08t dw]zsf] $ k|b]zsf] gSzfn] ;flat u/L ;s]sf] 5 .

dw]z k|b]z afx]ssf] k|b]zdf ;fdfGo dtleGgtf 5 t/ dw]z k|b]z ;a}sf nflu l;/bb{ ag]sf] 5 . dw]zn] cfGbf]ng dfkm{t dfFu u/]sf] ;du| dw]z Ps k|b]z s'g} /fhg}lts bnsf] dfgl;stfdf kb{}g . gofF g]kfnsf] vfsf sfg]{ ;jf{lwsf/ lnO{ a;]sf oL /fhgLlts bnx? dw]zk|lt pbf;Lg x'g' dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ lgDTofpg afx]s c? s] x'g ;Sb5 . dw]z ;du| ?kn] cfkmgf] ;Dk"0f{ xs ;'lglZrt geP ;Dd cfkmgf] c8fg sfod /fVg] cj:yfdf cfGbf]ngsf] ljsNk b]lvb}g . clxn] ;Dd /fhgLlts bnsf] ultljwLn] ;xh ?kdf ;+ljwfg aGof] eg] klg dw]zn] s]xL gkfpg] lglZrt 5 . dw]zn] ;du| dw]zsf] :jfoQtf lagf cfkmgf] klxrfg sfod u/fpg ;Sb}g . dw]zsf] ;d:of /fli6o ;d:of xf], ;a} /fhgLlts bnx?nfO{ o;sf] bfloTj x'g'' kb{5 .

dw]znfO{ gh/ c+bfh u/]/ Pp6f ;an /fi6sf] sNkgf ug{ ;lsGg . dw]zaf6 eofqmfGt eP/ dw]zsf] lje]bk"0f{ vfsf sf]g'{ sydlk dw]znfO{ :jLsfo{ x'Fb}g eGg] s'/f :d/0f u/fO{ /xg' kb}{g . dw]z hfu[t eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . o;nfO{ cfGbf]ngdf g ws]lnof]; . dw]z clwsf/sf nflu cfGbf]ngdf uof] eg] /fHosf nflu Tof] lbg w]/} hl6n x'g]5 / /fHosf] dw]zk|ltsf] lje]b ;+;f/sf] ;fd" :ki6 ?kn] cfpg]5 .

@)^^ r}t !# ut]

g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf ^ bzs ;Dd cys ;lqmo /xFb}, ;sf/fTds gsf/fTds kl/l:yltsf] ;fdgf ub}{, ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds g]kfnsf] :yfkgfy{ ;a} /fhgLlts bnx?;+usf] ;xsfo{sf] dfWodaf6 lgwf{l/t ;dodf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f, zflGt :yfkgf ug]{ c6n ljZjf; /fv]sf] lzv/ k'?if lul/hf k|;fb sf]O/fnfsf] oxL r}t & ut], b]zdf /fhgLlts ult/f]w sfod /x]sf] a]nfdf b'vb lgwg ePsf] 5 . ckf/ hg;fu/n] pxfFsf] kfly{j z/L/df km"nsf] dfnf r9fP/ >4fFhnL lbPsf] 5 . ;a} /fhg}lts bnx?sf] ;xsfo{af6 /fhgLlts ult/f]w x6fP/ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f, zflGt :yfkgf ug'{ g} lbj+ut lul/hf k|;fb sf]O/fnfk|ltsf] ;Rrf >4fFhnL x'g]5 .

;+ljwfg ;efsf] afFsL ^@ lbgsf] ;dofjwL / ljBdfg /fhgLlts ult/f]wn] g]kfnL hgtfsf] ljZjf; 6'6g yfn]sf] cj:yfdf /fhg}lts bnx?n] clxn] rdTsf/L e"ldsf v]Ng' h?/L 5 . kf/:kl/s ljZjf;sf] ;+s6nfO{ x6fP/ /fhg}lts bnx? ;xsfo{sf] dfWodaf6 ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofdf h'6g cfjZos 5 . xhf/f}+ ;d:ofaf6 b]z h'emL /x]sf] a]nf klg /fhgLlts bnx? ljj]sk"0f{ /fhg}lts bfloTj lgjf{x ug{ g ;Sg' b]zsf] nflu b'ef{Uo g} 7xl/G5 .

;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfnsf] /fhg}lts :j?k lgwf{/0f eO{ ;s] kl5 klg o;nfO{ eTsfP/ g]kfnnfO{ k'jf{j:yfdf kmsf{pg] rnv]n z'? ePsf] 5 . cGof]nu|:t /fhg}lts cj:yfsf] kmfObf p7fP/ ;+3Lotfsf] lj?4 s]xL tTjx? lz/ p7fpg yfn]sf] 5 .

b]zdf cdg r}g sfod ug{ vl6Psf] ;'/IffsdL{sf] cg}lts lqmofsnfkn] ;dfhdf laifd kl/l:yltsf] ;[hgf eO{ /x]sf] 5 . ;dfh ck/fwf]Gd'v / ck/fw ;dfhLs/0f eO{ /x]sf] 5 . /fhg}lts kf6L{sf] bnLo :jfy{n] klg 6fpsf] p7fO{ /x]sf] ck/fwnfO{ k|f]T;fxg u/L /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . zflGt :yfkgfy{ laz]ifflwsf/ kfPsf ;'/IffsdL{x? g}lts bfloTjaf6 tn em/]/ ;dfhdf ljt08f dRrfpg' lgZro klg ;dfhdf zflGt Nofpg] nIf0f xf]Og . xfn} hgsk'/df pRr cf]xbfsf ;'/IffsdL{f/f ul/Psf] anfTsf/sf] 36gfn] hgsk'/ cfh ;ftf}+ lbg aGb 5 . o:tf 36gfx? ;'/IffsdL{n] slt k6s 36fO{ ;s]sf] 5 . oL s'/fn] ;'/Iff lgsfosf] g}lts w/ftn vl:sPsf] k|i6 x'G5 . s] o:tf 36gfn] ;/sf/ abgfd eO{ /x]sf] 5}g < ;/sf/nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ ;+oGqnfO{ ljZjf; ug{ ;lsG5 <

lbgfg'lbg lalu|b} uO{ /x]sf] b]zsf] l:ylt, c;xof]uL dfgl;stfn] k|]l/t ;/sf/L ;+oGqsf lqmofsnfk, k|ltufdL tTjx?sf] ;anLs/0f / ;dfhdf ljt08f dRrfO{ /x]sf] ck/fw s'g} Pp6f /fhg}lts bnsf] lgoGq0f Ifdtf eGbf aflx/ 5 . b]zsf] kl/l:yltn] klg ;a} /fhgLlts bnx?nfO{ Ps 7fFpdf cfpg afWo u/]sf] 5 . lautdf eP h:t} b]zdf xTof lx+;f ck/fw rsf{P/ zf;g ug]{ s'l6n k|j[lt clxn] sfd nfUb}g . b]z w]/} cuf8L al9 ;s]sf] 5 . clxn] Tof] dfgl;stfsf] k|of]u vt/gfs x'g ;S5 .

hgtf o:tf k|j[ltaf6 jflskm 5g . To;sf/0f ;a} /fhgLlts bn ;a} bnsf] cl:tTjnfO{ :jLsf/ u/]/ cfk;L ;dembf/L / ;xdtLsf] cfwf/ sfod u/L b]znfO{ /fhgLlts lgsfz lbg' kb{5 . oxL ;j{dfGo nf]stflGqs k4lt xf] . /fli6o ;jfndf ;a} kf6L{nfO{ Ps 7fFpdf NofP/ cuf8L a9g' g} /fhg}lts s'zntf xf] / clx]sf] /0fgLlt klg .

;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0tGq xfd|f] k|:yfg ljGb' xf] . o;nfO{ ;Rofpg' cyjf k5fl8 hfg' kZrudg xf] . cu|ufdL, kl/jt{gsf/L zlQmx?n] o;sf] lj?4 p7L /x]sf] ;+ul7t cfjfhk|lt rgfvf] x'g h?/L 5 . oL tTjx? b]zdf /fhtGqsf] cfjZostf l;4 ug{ 7"nf] u[xo'4 lgDTofpg k|oTgzLn 5g, oL kl/l:yltsf] ;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ ;a} bnx?n] a'emg' kb{5 .

g]kfns} Oltxf;sf] Pp6f kfgfdf sDo'lgi6 / sfFu|]; ljk/Lt w|'jsf] /fhgLlts bn lyof] . Ps gbLsf] b'O{ lsgf/f h:t} sxL+ ldng ljGb' lyPg . ;do / b]zsf] kl/l:yltn] b'a} ljk/Lt w|'jLo /fhgLlts bnnfO{ /fli6o ;jfndf ;xsfo{ ug{ Ps}7fFpdf pEofPsf] Oltxf;sf] bf]>f] kfgfdf pNn]v 5 . o;n] s] b]vfof] eg] bnLo l;4fGt eGbf /fli6o ;jfn dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . o:tf /fhgLlts cEof; lautdf eO{ ;s]sf] cj:yfdf clxn] /fhgLlts bnx?;+u ;xsfo{ x'g g;Sg] s'g} sf/0f 5}g .

b]zsf] /fhgLlts cj:yfsf] ;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ ljj]sk"0f{ 9+un] a'em]/ ;a} /fhgLlts bn cfk;L ;dembf/L / ;xsfo{af6 ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f, zflGt :yfkgf tyf b]znfO{ ;d:ofd'Qm ug'{ g} /fli6o bfloTj k"/f ePsf] 7xl/g]5 .

@)^^ r}t @) ut]

kl/jt{g k|s[ltsf] zfZjt lgod xf] . o;n] ;a} j:t'nfO{ ?kfGt/0fsf] dfWodn] gjLgtflt/ cu|;/ u/fpFb5 . k'/ftg ?kfGtl/t eP/ gjLgtf :yflkt x'G5 . oxL lgodn] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, tyf /fhgLlts ?kfGt/0f u/L gofF ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug{ cxd e"ldsf v]Nb5 . clxn] xfd|f] b]z klg /fhgLlts ?kn] k'/ftg Joj:yfaf6 hg cfsfFIff cg'?k ;+qmldt eO{ gofF ;dfh lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofdf cuf8L a9]sf] 5 . b]z ca ;+3Lo ;+/rgfdf hfgsf nflu cuf8L a9L ;s]sf] 5 . hg cfGbf]ng tyf dw]z cfGbf]ngaf6 cfPsf] hg cfjfh ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgdf n]lv ;s]sf] 5 .

;+3Lo :j?k s;/L x'g], 5nkmn x'g afFsL 5 . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb &#% lbg dWo] %% lbg dfq afFsL 5 / /fhgLlts ult/f]w sfod 5 . cNk ;dofjwLdf;xdtL vf]Hg xtfl/Psf /fhg]tfx? xtfz dgl:ylt lnP/ e]63f6df tNnLg b]lvG5g . ljut s]xL dlxgf b]lv ;xdtLsf nflu g]tfx? cys k|of;/t 5g . ;kmntf eg] z"Go 5 . ;DejtM OdfGbf/Lsf] cefjn] xf]nf . /fli6o ;xdtL clxn] ckl/xfo{ laifo ePsf] 5 .

b]zdf /x]sf] cGof]nu|:t /fhgLltsaf6 pTkGg ;+s6af6 d'lQm kfpg ;a} /fhg}lts bnx? Psh"6 x'g} kg]{ cj:yf cfPsf] 5 . /fhgLlts bfpk]+r v]Ng] ;do JotLt eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . clxn] klg bnut :jfy{df nfu]/ /fhgLlts bfpk]+rnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbP 7"nf] P]ltxfl;s e"n x'g]5 . hgfb]zk|lt ;+j]bgzLn eO{ /fli6o ;+s6af6 lghft kfpg cfkmgf] /fhg}lts lhDd]jf/L lgjf{x ug]{ lsl~rt cj;/nfO{ la;{g' x'b}g . clxn] bnut :jfy{sf] 6s/fx6af6 cfxt ePsf] hgtf hg k|ltlgwLaf6 cdg r}gsf] ck]Iff u/]sf 5g g ls Gsf] k'g/fj[ltsf] . o; ;+s6af6 ;xh lgsfzsf nflu ;dembf/L / ;xdtL ckl/xfo{ 5 . ;xdtL gx'g' b]znfO{ Gdf ws]Ng' xf] .

;xhtfsf] ;a} cj;/ JotLt eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . hg ck]Iffsf] ;+ljwfg Nofpg Jofks 5nkmn / kof{Kt ;do rflxG5 . ;xdtL eof] / 5 dlxgfsf] ;do a9fO{of] eg] klg of] ;do kof{Kt x'Fb}g . hgtfn] dfu]sf] ;+ljwfg / oxfFaf6 lbg] ;+ljwfgdf cfsfz kftfnsf] km/snfO{ olt sd ;dodf s;/L 36fpg] < ;+ljwfg d:of}bf cfof]u cyjf ank"j{s 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] ;+ljwfg s] hgtfn] ;xh :jLsf/ ug{ ;S5 <

ut df3 ! ut] NofO{Psf] !$ k|b]zsf] cjwf/0ffsf] cfkmg} cfkmg} t/Lsfn] ;a}n] lj/f]w u/]sf 5g . Tof] lj/f]w ;fDo x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . Jofks 5nkmnaf6 Tof] cjwf/0ff lgisif{df 6+'Uofpg] vfFrf] lyof], Tof] k|of; g} ePg . xtf/df aGg] jf gaGg] ;+ljwfg dw]zsf] nflu sfusf] nflu a]n kfSof], g xif{ g la:do ;/x g} x'g]5 . hg cfGbf]ng tyf dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] dd{nfO{ gh/cGbfh u/]/ ca xtf/df NofOg] ;+ljwfgsf] s'g} cy{ 5}g .

clxn]sf] ;dodf ank"j{s ;+ljwfg NofP ljb|f]x, gNofP klg ljb|f]x x'g] ;Defjgf k|jn 5 . ;+ljwfg agfpg] ;xh k|lqmofnfO{ j]jf:tf u/]kl5 o:tf] ;Defjgf hlGdg' c:jfefljs xf]Og . ;+ljwfg n]Vg ;lhnf] 5, ;a}sf] ;xdtLaf6 ;+ljwfg Nofpg w]/} hl6n 5 . o;tkm{ cEof; yflnPs} 5}g . ;xdtLaf6 NofOPsf] ;+ljwfgn] dfq b]zdf /fhg}lts l:y/tf Nofpg ;S5 . anhtL NofOPsf] ;+ljwfgn] G hGdfpg]5 .

h]xf];, ;a} /fhg}lts bnx?n] ;dembf/L sfod u/]/ ;xdtLsf] /fhgLltsf] z'?jft ug{ h?/L 5 . To;kl5 ;xh ?kn] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmofdf OdfGbf/Lk"j{s ;do v]/ gkmfn]/ h'6g cfjZos 5 . ;xdtL s} /fhgLlt clxn]sf] cfjZostf xf] / o;}af6 b]znfO{ sNof0f ;Dej 5 .

@)^^ r}t @& ut]

l9n} ePklg ;/sf/n] @)^^ r}t !& ut] dw]z cfGbf]ngdf dfl/Psf zxLb 3f]if0ff x'g afFsL dWo] !^ hgfnfO{ zxLb 3f]if0ff u/]/ /fxtsf nflu klv{ a;]sf zxLb kl/jf/nfO{ ;'vb cg'e"lt lbP/ tfltPsf] tfjfdf Ps a'Gb kfgL xfn]/ oz sdfPs} xf] . tLg jif{sf] cGt/fndf @$ / !^ u/L b'O{ k6sdf $) zxLb dfq 3f]if0ff ePsf] xf] . afFsL zxLb 3f]if0ff x'g slt ;do nfUg] xf] o;} ljrf/ ug{ ;lsG5 . cem em"7f d'2f lkmQf{, ;DklQ Iflt, 3fOt], ckf, cflbnfO{ /fxtsf] 3f]if0ff ug{ afFsL 5 . dw]znfO{ ;/sf/sf] /fxt lbg] clgR5fk"j{s ultzLntfsf] cfwf/df pk/f]Qm afFsL s'/f ;Daf]wg ug{ slt ;do nfUg] xf] ;xh} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 .

r}t !& ut] 3f]if0ff ePsf dw]z cfGbf]ngsf zxLbx?sf] gfdfjnL o; k|sf/ 5 .

! lhn]/fd ofba -alb{of_ @ v8]/L uf]l8of -afFs]_ # sdn lu/L -afFs]_ $ sf]OnL sf]O/L -afFs]_ % ef]nf/fd ltjf/L -afFs]_ ^ sfzL/fd xl/hg -afFs]_ & rlGb|sf ofba -?kGb]xL_ * z]if cAb'n cG;f/L -af/f_ ( clht cxdb d+;"/ -af/f_ !) lhtf/L ofba -;nf{xL_ !! a|Xdb]j 7fs'/ -wg'iff_ !@ sf/L 7fs'/ -wg'iff_ !# s}o"d 8kmfnL -dxf]Q/L_ !$ nvg ;fkmL -;Kt/L_ !% /fd :j?k d]xtf -;''G;/L_ !^ a]rg ldofF -df]/_ .

Kl5Nnf] dfcf]jfbL ;/sf/n] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf @$ hgf zxLb 3f]if0ff u/]sf] lyof] . tL zxLbx?sf] klg gfdfjnL oxfF p4[t ul/Psf] 5 .

! ;bfgGb ofba -df]/_ @ /fhs'df/ sfdt -df]/_ # lgd{n s'df/ /fhj+zL -df]/_ $ tNn' x:bf x]d/d -df]/_ % lbg bofn d08n -df]/_ ^ Zofd ;'Gb/ d]xtf -;'G;/L_ & xl/ d]xtf -;'G;/L_ * /d]z dxtf] -l;/xf_ ( a]rg ofba -l;/xf_ !) k|df]b ;bf-l;/xf_ !! ljho ;xgL -l;/xf_ !@ df]xDdb clg; -l;/xf_ !# lzj z+s/ ofba -wg'iff_ !$ /fh]z 7fs'/ -dxf]Q/L_ !% cflz; cnL lds/fgL -;nf{xL_ !^ /fd Psjfn /fo -;nf{xL_ !& /fd gf/fo0f ;fx -;nf{xL_ !* ;+ho s'df/ /fo ofba -;nf{xL_ !( lbg]z /fo ofba -;nf{xL_ @) z]if cAb'n c;/km -af/f_ @! Dlhb dxDdb -af/f_ @@ lbk]Gb| ;fx -k;f{_ @# dxfjL/ ;fx -k;f{_ @$ lj/jn d'lvof -k;f{_ .

dw]z cfGbf]ngdf zxfbt k|fKt c? afFsLnfO{ zxLb 3f]if0ff x'g cfjZos 5 . jf:tljs ?kdf zxfbt k|fKtnfO{ zxLb 3f]if0ff gx''g' 7"nf] cGofo x'g]5 . Pp6fsf] zxLb 3f]if0ff x'g' / csf]{n] zxLbsf] ;Ddfg gkfpg' sltsf] Gofo;+ut 5 < ;/sf/dfq xf]Og, vf;u/L dw]zjfbL bndfyL k|Zg lrGx v8f x'G5 . zxLb 3f]if0ff x'Fbf c? dfl/Psf s;/L 5'6] < s'g} hjfkm 5}g . afFsL dfl/Psf zxLb xf]Og eGg' k/of] < afFsL zxfbt lbPsfx?sf] zxLb 3f]if0ffaf6 a+lrt ul/g' ckdfg u/]sf] 7xl/b}g < dw]zsf tLg kf6L{ ;/sf/df ;fd]n eP/ klg c?nfO{ zxLbsf] ;Ddfg lsg lbOPg <

Toltdfq xf]Og, em'7f d'2fdf kmF;fP/ dw]zsf ;a} lhNnfdf ;os8f}+ g]tf, sfo{sQf{x? tf/]v v]kL /x]sf 5g . gjnk/f;Lsf !# hgfsf] d'2f cbfntdf uP/ ca kqmfp x'g] cj:yf 5 . wg'iffsf] lhNnf ;b:o dxfz+s/ 7fs'/ cfuhgL d''2f cbfntdf uP/ kqmfp kg]{ cj:yfdf x'g'x'G5 . c? ;os8f}+ Hofg dfg]{, 8fsf, v/vhfgf, ;fj{hlgs ck/fwdf kmF;fOPsf 5g . em"7f d''2f lkmQf{ ug]{ lbzfdf dw]zjfbL bnx? ;+j]bgzLn b]lvPsf 5}gg .

To:t} 3fO{t] hf] zf/Ll/s kL8f ef]u] / sltko clxn] klg pkrf/df 5g . pgn] /fxt kfPsf 5}gg . ;aeGbf b'Mvb l:ylt ckfx?sf] 5 . h;n] xfy, v'f, cfFvf, sfg u'dfP/ dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ pFrfO{df k'/ofof], h:sf] pknlAw dw]zjfbL bnx? lg/Gt/ ef]uL /x]sf 5g, p;n] /fxt kfPsf] 5}g . s] /fhsLo ;'v ;'ljwf ef]uL /x]sf] dw]zjfbL bnnfO{ ckfsf] kL8fsf] cg'e"lt u/fpg ;Sb}g < ev{/sf o'jfx? Xft v'f u'dfP/ cfkmgf] kl/jf/sf] e/0f kf]if0f ug]{ t s] s'/f, cfkm} k/fl>t eP/ a"9f cfdf afa'sf] af]em aGg] kL8f, lhGbuL g} af]em ePsf] kL8fnfO{ dw]zjfbL bnx?n] lsg a'emg g;s]sf xf]nfg < s] dw]zjfbL bnx? cfkmgf] g}lts bfloTj a'em]/ cfGbf]ngsf/Lsf oL kL8fnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L To; cg';f/ sQ{Jo lgjf{x ug{ ;S5 <

tLg dw]zjfbL bn %* ;ef;bsf] hdft lnP/ dfwj s'df/ g]kfnsf] ;/sf/nfO{ cl:tTjdf NofPsf] lyof] . ;/sf/df ;zQm ?kdf pkl:yt /x]/ klg !) dlxgfdf k"0f{ ?kn] zxLb 3f]if0ff u/fpg ;s]g . 3fO{t], ckf, ;DklQ Iflt, em"7f d'2f vf/]hLsf s'/fx? ;a} afFsL g} /xof] . dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] ;/sf/df pkl:ylt cfg'kflts ?kn] hflu/ vfg' afx]s c? s]xL b]lvPg .

dw]z cfGbf]ngsf/LnfO{ /fxt lbnfpg' dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] klxnf] sQ{Jo x'g' kb{Yof] . !) dlxgfdf kof{Kt ;do lyof] . h;f] t;f] !^ zxLbsf] 3f]if0ff afx]s c? s]xL b]lvPg . ca t ;/sf/sf] ;"o{ klg c:tfrndf k'u]sf] efg x'G5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] pknlAw lng dl/xQ] ug]{ / dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] dd{nfO{ la;g]{ dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] nflu clUgk/LIffsf] ;do glhlsb} 5 . dw]zn] klg olQsf lbgdf ;a}sf] klxrfg u/L ;s]sf] cj:yf 5 .

b]zsf] cfufdL lbgx? w]/} hl6n 5 . clxn]sf] nflu ;dembf/L / ;xdtL h?/L 5 . t/, ;xdtLsf] hlt k|of; u/]klg pknlAw eg] z"Go 5 . h]7 !$ ut]nfO{ $* lbg dfq afFsL 5 . b]z rf}af6f]df v8f 5 . stf hfg] xf], s;}nfO{ yfxf 5}g . ;xdtL ePg eg] s] x'g] < ;+ljwfg ;efsf] j}wflgstf ;dfKt x'g' cufj} ;xdtLsf] cefjdf ;/sf/n] s] ug]{ < dfcf]jfbLn] s] ug]{ < ofjt k|Zgx? t]l;{Psf 5g xfd|f] ;fd' .

@)^& a}zfv # ut]

;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ $@ lbg dfq afFsL 5 . vf]bf kxf8 lgsnL r'lxof eg] h:t} eof] ;+ljwfg ;efsf oL b'O{ jif{ . s[ifsx?sf] nflu r}t dlxgf vg hf]t ug]{, aLp aLhg /fVg] dxTjk"0f{ dlxgf xf] . dw]zjfbL bnx? klg cfufdL v]tLsf nflu aLp aLhg /fVg dw]z bf}8fxfdf 5g . /fd|f] afnLsf nflu s7Lg kl/>d ug'{ :jfefljs xf] . dw]zdf dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] eJo pkl:ylt 5 . hgtf dfem g]tfx? hfg' kb{5, t/ :jR5 dfgl;stfn] . /fhg}lts g}ltstf, dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg agfpg] b[9 OR5f zlQm, lgikIf / :jR5 efjgfsf] g]tfsf] vfFrf] 5 dw]zdf . /fhg}lts Jofkf/L w]/} eof] dw]zdf . dw]z hxfFsf] txL+ 5 .

dw]z cfGbf]ngn] ;+3Lotfsf] s'/f p7fP/ cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgdf ;dfj]z u/fP/ :ylut eof] . pNn]vgLo k|ltlgwL klg ;+ljwfg ;efdf k7fof] . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf pknlAw ;+:yfut ug'{sf] ;f dw]zjfbL bnx? ;Qf xfg yfkdf s]lGb|t /x] . dfwj g]kfnsf] ;/sf/df dw]zjfbL bnsf] dxTjk"0f{ pkl:ylt x'Fbf klg dw]z cfGbf]ngsf cljnDa k"/f ug]{ d'2fx? 3fOt], ckf, em"7f d'2f, ;DklQ Iflt h:tf s'/fx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg u/fpg g;Sg'sf] k5fl8 s] sf/0f x'g ;Sb5 < ;/sf/df ;fd]n oL dw]zjfbL bnx? cfxt dw]zsf] 3fpmdf dnxd ;d]t nufpg g;s]sf] cj:yfdf dw]z bf}8fxfdf rsf{ gf/f lbP/ dw]zsf] ljZjf; lhTg ;Sb5 < pk/f]Qm d'2fx? ;lhn} ;Daf]wg u/fpg ;Sg] l:ylt x'Fbf x'Fb} klg OR5fzlQmsf] cefjdf oL dxTjk"0f{ d'2fx? h;n] dw]zdf g]tfx?sf] /fhg}lts k|lti7f :yflkt ub{Yof], ;Daf]wg u/fpg ;s]g . dw]zn] k|Zg ubf{ dfwj g]kfn h:t} s] ug]{cfn6fn] hjfkm / em"7f cfZjf;g afx]s c? s]xL 5}g . cyf{t ;/sf/df pkl:ylt hflu/sf] nflu dfq ePsf] 5 . !^ zxLbsf] 3f]if0ff u/fP/ u/d tfjfnfO{ lr:ofpg ;a} dw]zjfbL bn Ps Ps a'Gb kfgL xfn]s} xf] . lrl;Pg eg] s] ug]{ < ;f]Wbf, ;a} s'/f Ps}kN6 x'Fb}g, xfd|f] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/ xf]Og, lj:tf/} ;a} s'/f x'G5, eGg] hjfkm cfpF5 ;f]emf ;Lwf hgtfnfO{ . hgtf;+u pkfo klg 5}g . elgPsf] klg 5Mhgtf 3fon, g]tfnfO{ ;'v zon . b'ef{Uo dw]zsf] .

dw]z hfu[t cj:yfdf 5 . dw]zL hgtf cfkmgf g]tfx?sf] dfq xf]Og, b]zsf] ;a} /fhgLlts bnsf g]tfx?sf] dw]zk|ltsf] dfgl;stf, ultljwLnfO{ uxgtd ?kn] x]/L /x]sf 5g . /fli6o /fhgLltdf s;sf] s] e"ldsf 5, / sf] slt Odfgbf/ 5 eGg] ;Dk"0f{ s'/f dw]zn] a'lem /x]sf] 5 . b]zsf] x/]s cjojdf kl/jt{g Nofpg] dw]z s;}sf] d'v tfs]/ a:g] cj:yfdf /Xg ;Sb}g . dw]zsf] zf]if0fsf] olt nfdf] Oltxf; ;+;f/df lj/n} kfOG5 / To;sf] lj/f]wdf p7]sf] :j/ olt ;lhnf];+u bAg]jfnf klg 5}g . dw]z cfGbf]ng kl5 gjf]lbt kl/jt{gsf/L zlQmnfO{ 6'qmofpg /fHon] v]n]sf sk6k"0f{ if8oGqnfO{ oltsf lbgdf dw]z :ki6 ?kdf a'lem ;s]sf] 5 . ;"ema'emsf] cefjdf dw]zL g]tfx? /fHosf] if8oGq ga'em]/ klg dw]zdf ;fDk|bflostf, hflt lj]ifsf] aLif km}lng uof] . ;lxi0f'tf, ;befjsf] w/ftndf plePsf] dw]znfO{ tf]8g /fHon] o:tf] hx/sf] k|of]u ubf{ lgZro g} dw]zdf xnrn dr]sf] 5 t/ of] s]xL ;do kl5 ljnLg x'G5 . lsgeg] ;lxi0f'tf / ;befjsf] dw]zdf xhf/f}+ ;fnsf] Oltxf; 5 . cGtlj{/f]w 5, cGt;{DaGw plQs} alnof] 5 . kf]v/Lsf] l:y/ kfgLdf 9'Fuf kmofFSbf Psl5g xnrn ePklg kfgL km]/L l:y/ cj:yfdf g} cfpF5 . To:t} dw]zdf klg l:y/tf cfpF5 . afXo if8oGqsf] k|efj lelqPklg dw]zn] ;lxi0f'tf / ;befjsf] ;fdflhs cGt;{DaGwnfO{ 5f]8g' x'Fb}g . oxL dw]zL Pstfsf] klxrfg xf], oxL xfd|f] zlQm xf] .

b]zsf] /fhgLlts cvf8fdf g]kfnL sfFu|];, Pdfn] / dfcf]jfbLn] dfq s'ZtL v]n] . c? ;fgf bnx? tdfz]sf] cu|k+lQmdf /x] eg] dw]zjfbL bnx? k5fl8sf] k+lQmdf pleP/ Zofafz, jfx jfx sf] uuge]bL gf/fdf tfn ldnfP . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] cjwLe/ g]kfnL hgtfsf ljwftf oL lqb]j -a|Xdf, lji0f', dx]z_ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f sfo{ 5f]8]/ s'ZtL v]Ng Jo:t /x] . k'/f0fdf syf 5 lji0f' cfo{sf b]jtf lyP eg] lzj c;'/sf . b'a} b]jtfsf u0fflbdf w]/} jif{ ;Dd n8fO{ ePsf] lyof] . s;}sf] hLt xf/ ePg / kl5 b'a} Ps eP . xfd|f nflu b'a} k"Ho eP . k'/f0fx? klg k"Ho 5g . ;f]xL adf]lhdsf] cfr/0f klg g]kfnL hgtfsf oL ltg} lawftfn] ug'{ kb{5 . ;dembf/L / ;xdtL g} ;xh lgsfzsf] d"nf/ xf] . ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f xf]; cyjf gxf];, ;xdtLsf] ljsNk 5}g . clxn]sf] lj1fg, clxn]sf] /fhgLlt / clxn]sf] cfjZostf oxL xf] .

@)^& a}zfv !) ut]

hg k|ltlIft ;+ljwfg ;ef cGttf]uTjf /fhgLlts bfjk]+rsf] lzsf/ eP/ gaGg] l:yltdf k'u]sf] 5 . /fHosf] ;lbof}+ b]lv g]kfnL hgtfdfly nflbPsf] lje]bsf/L gLltsf] lj?4 k6s k6s g]kfnL hgtf ;+3if{df pq]sf x'g . kl/jt{gsf nflu ul/Psf ;+3if{x? /fHon] hlxn] klg rfnfsLk"0f{ lsl;dn] cfkmgf] :jfy{sf] nflu pkof]u u/of] . cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] lbzfdf a9]sf] @)^@)^# sf] hg cfGbf]ng tyf dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] hg pef/ b]v]/ eoeLt ;Qf;Lg zlQmx? cfkmgf] cl:tTj hf]ufpgsf nflu klg hg cfjfhsf] kIfdf pleP . kl/jt{gsf/L g]kfnL hgtfsf] uuge]bL cfjfh ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq grfxg] zlQmx? klg clgR5fk"j{s hg cfjfhdf tfn ldnfP/ :jLsf/ ug{ afWo eof] . cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgdf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq n]lvof] . oxfFaf6 oyfl:yltjfbL / kl/jt{gsf/L zlQmaLrsf] zLto'4 z'? eof] .

ljutdf o;sf nIf0f l56km"6 36gfsf] ?kdf b]lvPklg clxn] 3gLe"t ?kdf ;txdf b]vf kl/ /x]sf] 5 . ;a} cfGbf]ng a8f] rfnfsLk"j{s lgik|efjL ;Demf}tfdf 6'+UofOPsf] 5 . b]zdf clxn] hg cfGbf]ng 5}g . b]znfO{ oyfl:yltdf s;/L Nofpg ;lsG5, o;sf nflu w'/Gw/ /fhg]tfx?, sfg"gnfO{ cfkmgf] kIfdf ts{k"0f{ kl/efiff ug]{ lj1 s"6gLlt1x?sf] /fhgLlt z'? eof] . cGttf]uTjf g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ cfkmgf] lg/Lxtf b]vfP/ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f x'g g;Sg] nHhf:kb pb3f]if klg u/] .

cfk;L ;dembf/Lf/f ;xdtL sfod ug]{ gf/f lnP/ dlxgf}+ a}7s a:bf klg ;xdtL ePg . hgtfsf] lhDd]jf/L, b]zsf] bfloTj eGbf bnut :jfy{ g} ;jf]{kl/ 7fg]/ /fhgLlts bnx? /fhgLlts n8fO{df s]lGb|t /x] . cyf{t ;+ljwfg gagf]; eGg] dfgl;stfaf6 k|]l/t s]xL /fhgLlts bnx?sf] ceLi6 k"/f x'g s'g} z+sf eg] /x]g . @))& ;fndf ;+ljwfg ;efsf] nflu p7]sf] cfjfhnfO{ t rfnfsLk"j{s ;fDo kfbf{ ^) jif{sf nflu s]xL kl/jlt{t ?kdf /fHon] lg/Gt/tf kfof] . clxn] klg ;f]xL adf]lhd ubf{ s] xf]nf eGg] dfgl;stfn] g} b]znfO{ vt/gfs df]8df NofO{ pEofPsf] 5 . olb b]z rnfpg] oxL /fhgLlt xf] eg] o; gLltn] b]zsf] sbflk enf] ub}{g . kl/jt{g rfxg] g]kfnL hgtf o:tf] s"6gLltnfO{ dfGb}g . hg rfxgf cg';f/sf] ;+ljwfg lng pm km]l/ cfGbf]ngdf hfG5 . /fhgLlts bnx?sf] ultljwLn] cfGbf]ngnfO{ p7fpg phf{ k|bfg u/L /x]sf] s'/faf6 cgle1 /fhg}lts bnx? clxn] klg gr]t] 7"nf] b'ef{Uo x'g] s'/fdf b'O{ dt 5}g .

b]znfO{ Gaf6 hf]ufpg ;xdtLsf] /fhgLlt ckl/xfo{ laifo ePsf]n] clxn] klg :jR5 / lgikIf eP/ /fhgLlts bnx? ;xdtLsf nflu cuf8L a9g' kb{5 . of] g} hgtfsf] cfjfh xf] / /fli6o cfjZostf klg . clxn] hLt xf/sf] /fhgLlts k|lti7f agfPsf] tLg k|d'v /fhg}lts bnx? c:j:y /fhgLlts k|lt:kwf{n] b]z d"7e]8sf] l:yltdf k'Ug cfz+sf k|an x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . o'4sf] laeLlifsf;+u n8g a? nueu ;a} /fhgLlts bn cfkm"nfO{ tof/ kfg]{ dfgl;stf agfO{ /x]sf 5g, t/ :jfy{ Tofu]/ b]zsf nflu ;xdtLsf] pbfx/0f aGg sf]xL rfxFb}g .

b]zdf c;xh kl/l:ylt pTkGg u/fP/ hgtfn] cfGbf]ngaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] pknlAw ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq nfO{ cf]em]ndf kfg]{ b'ik|of; afx]s c? s]xL xf]Og . ;+3Lotfsf] lj?4df /fhwfgLsf] ;8sdf cfjfh p7fOPs} xf] . b]z 6'lqmg] eo b]vfP/ :ofn s/fP em}+ ;a}nfO{ s/fpg afWo kfg]{ z'?jft ePs} xf] . cyf{t x/]s sf]0faf6 x]bf{ /fHosf] lgot ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqk|lt 7Ls 5}g eGg] s'/f ;flat x'g nfu]sf] 5 . b]zdf p7]sf kl/jt{gsf nflu /fhgLlts cfFwL a]x/Ldf /fHosf] cl:tTjnfO{ oyfl:yltdf hf]ufpg ;Sg' g} /fhgLlt xf] . k[YjL gf/fo0f zfxn] v; dlxdf ufP/ /fHonfO{ v;sf] xftdf ;'Dk]sf] Oltxf; ;fIfL 5 . /fHonfO{ oyfl:yltdf /fVg' pgsf] afWotf xf] . /fVg] k|of; klg hf/L 5 . pgsf] gh/df b]zdf kl/jt{g ePs} 5, /fhtGq x6of], k|hftGqsf] ;f cem kl/dflh{t nf]stGq cfof], u0ftGq klg cfof], ca slt kl/jt{g rflxof] hgtfnfO{ < klxnf olt kl/jt{g ;Dxfn]/ b]vfp, To;kl5 ;+3Lotfsf] s'/f ug'{ . h:tf] dfgl;stf To:t} cfr/0f .

h] xf];, tLg /fhgLlts bnsf] lqmofsnfkaf6 b]z c;xh kl/l:yltlt/ cu|;/ x'g nfu]sf] l:ylt 5 . ;+ljwfg agfpg hl6n k|lqmof 5 . ;+j}wflgs ;ldtLsf] k|:t't cjwf/0ffdfly leq / aflx/ Jofks 5nkmnsf] cfjZostf lyof] . 5nkmnaf6 k|fKt lgrf]8 j}wflgstf kfpg ;+ljwfg ;efdf hfg' kb{Yof] . o;sf] nflu kof{Kt ;do rflxof] hf] ca 5}g . /fhg}lts bnx? d~rdf clxn] klg e6e6fpF 5g;xdtL eP, h]7 !$ d} ;+ljwfg aG5 . oL ;a ldYof s'/f x'g . ;xdtL eP klg ;dofjefjdf cfpg] ;+ljwfg q'l6k"0f{ x'g]5 hf] hgtfnfO{ dfGo x'g] 5}g .

@)^& a}zfv !&

cGttf]uTjf, tLg /fhgLlts bnsf] x7wld{tfn] ;xdtL agfpg g ;s]/ ;+ljwfg ;ef, zflGt :yfkgf h:tf hgtfsf cxd ;jfnnfO{ /2Lsf] 6f]s/Ldf kmfn]/ GnfO{ lgDTofof] . b]z PskN6 km]l/ u[xo'4sf] rk]6fdf kmF:g] ;Defjgf a9]/ uPsf] 5 . ;xdtLsf] l:ylt nueu ;dfKt ePsf] 5 . k|d'v /fhgLlts tLg bnsf] >]i7tfsf] pGdfbn] l:yltnfO{ rsf{P/ /Qmlkkf;' agfO{ ;s]sf] 5 . lg/Lx g]kfnL hgtf cfkmgf] hLjg :t/ ;'lw|Pnf eGg] cfzdf hLjg u'dfpg] l:yltdf k'Ug cfF6]sf] 5 .

;xdtL aGg g;Sg'sf lgDglnlvt k|d'v sf/0fx? x'g M != nf]stGqsf] cf8df k/jQL{ /fHosf k/Dk/fut lrGtg xfjL x'g', @= nf]stGqsf] lsQfdf b'O{ bn afx]s c?nfO{ :k]; glbg', #= tLg /fhgLlts bndf >]i7tfsf] bDe x'g', $= dfcf]jfbLnfO{ x]g]{ ;f]rdf kl/jt{g gx'g', %=cfGbf]ng/t kIf;+u ;Demf}tf u/L sfof{Gjog gug'{, ^= ljZjf;sf] jftfj/0f agfpg g;Sg', &= ;xcl:tTjsf] nf]stflGqs dfGotfnfO{ :jLsf/ gug'{ *= ljutsf] ;8]un]sf] /fhgLltnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ cuf8L a9g' / (= hgtfnfO{ ;fj{ef}d eg]/ ;Qf s]Gb|Ls[t ug'{ .

pk/f]Qm sf/0fx?n] ;xdtL aGg glbP/ b]zdf eofjx l:yltsf] ;[hgf ug{ nfu]sf] xf] . ;xdtLsf] ;/sf/ agfpg] ;a}sf] cf]7] gf/f eP klg To; k|lt sf]xL uDeL/ b]lvPg . zfob Tofu / Odfgbf/Lsf] sdLn] xf]nf . ;xdtL lagf b]z Ps kfOnf cuf8L a9g g;Sg] oyfy{tfnfO{ ;a} /fhgLlts bn a'em]s} x'g' kb{5 . clxn] ;xdtLsf] ljsNk G dfq} x'g ;S5 . cfkmgf] b]zsf] ;d:of, kl/l:yltnfO{ a'em]/ ;a} /fhgLlts bn ldn]/ 5nkmnf/f ;dfwfg vf]Hg' g} a'l4dfgL xf] / /fhgLlts s'zntf klg . b]z lgdf{0fsf] o; ;+qmd0fsfndf ;xdtL lagf s]xL s'/f ;Dej gx'g] cj:yfdf Ps csf{dfly bf]if y'kf/]/ cfkmgf] c;IfdtfnfO{ n'sfpg] k|of;n] hgtfdfem nf]slk|o aGg ;S5 < Oltxf;n] /fd|f] 7fpF lbg ;S5 < hgtfsf] jf]6 lnP/ :j]R5frfl/tf a9fP/ hg k|ltlgwL sxlng] xf]Og, hgtfn] lbPsf] cleef/f k"/f u/]/ dfq hgg]tf sxlng] xf] . clxn] klg cfkmgf] a'l4, ljj]s k|of]u u/L b]znfO{ Gaf6 arfpgsf nflu e/ dUb"/ k|of; ug{ cfjZos 5 . hgfb]znfO{ OHht ug'{ hgk|ltlgwLsf] wd{ xf] / Gofo klg . !% jif{ b]lv Gsf] kL8f ef]uL /x]sf] g]kfnL hgtfn] ;+;f/ s} ;eGbf 7"nf] ;+Vofdf ;+ljwfg ;efdf hg k|ltlgwL k7fP/ klg ;dod} ;+ljwfg gaGg' slt nHhf:kb s'/f xf] . s] g/fd|} s[To u/]/ /fhg]tfx? gfd sdfpg] xfd|f] rng eO ;s]sf] 5 . gsf/fTds ;f]rsf lzsf/ /fhg]tfx?sf] nflu gofF g]kfn lgdf{0fsf] of] kl/j]zdf cfkmgf] ;f]rdf kl/jQ{g NofP/ ;sf/fTds ;f]rsf] cfwf/df cuf8L a9of] eg] ;don] klg p;sf] dxfgtfsf] d"Nof+sg ub}{ Oltxf;df pRr :yfgdf kbf;Lg u5{ . xf]Og eg], ljutdf ;jf]{Rr lzv/ k'?ifx? em}+ u6/df kmofFSg ;do kl5 kb}{g .

dfcf]jfbLsf] zflGtk"0f{ elgg] bjfjd"ns cfGbf]ngsf] z'?jft x'g nfu]sf] 5 . olt Hofb} hg k|bz{gdf clk|o 36gf 36b}g eGg] lhDd]jf/L Ps csf{n] bf]iff/f]k0f afx]s s;}n] lng ;Sb}g . l:ylt e8sfjsf] lbzfdf cuf8L a95 . b'a}lt/sf] x7jfbL k|bz{g zflGtk"0f{ cfGbf]ngnfO{ e8sfjsf] lbzfdf hfgsf nflu afWo ul/ lbG5 . To;kl5 hLtxf/sf] n8fO{ z'? x'g] ;xh} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . h]7 !$ ut] ;+ljwfg ;ef / ;/sf/sf] j}wflgstf ;dfKt x'g]5 . ;xdtL eof] eg] G /xFb}g, ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb ylkg], ;/sf/n] j}wflgstf kfpg] / lj:tf/} ;a} ;d:of ;a}sf] ;xof]un] xn x'Fb} hfg] s'/f :ki6 5 .

/fhgLltdf /L; /fusf] s'g} cy{ x'Fb}g, x7sf] /fhgLlt b]znfO{ aaf{b u5{ . cfGbf]ngnfO{ bdgsf] dfWod agfof] eg] l:ylt lau|b} hfG5 / o;n] cg]s ;DefjgfnfO{ hGd lbG5 . ;/sf/n] ;]gfnfO{ klg pRr ;ts{tfdf /xg lgb]{zg lbO{ ;s]sf] 5 . cfGbf]ngdf hgkb, ;z:q tyf ;]gf ;d]t k|of]u ePsf] cj:yf s:tf] xf]nf < s] o; cj:yfnfO{ o'4 eGg ldNb}g < hLtxf/sf] of] clGtd n8fO{ eGg ldNb}g . s] hghflt, blnt, dw]zL nufot pk]lIft ;d'bfo cfGbf]lnt x'Fb}g < b]ze/sf cfkmgf clwsf/sf nflu n8L /x]sf hgtf ;/sf/af6 ;+lawfg gkfP/, cfkmgf xs clwsf/ ;'lglZrt x'g] s'g} pkfo gkfP/ cfGbf]lnt x'Fb}g < ;/sf/sf] csd{0otfn] hgtf ;/sf/sf] k|z+;s xf]Og, cfnf]rs ag]sf 5g, cfqmf]lzt ePsf 5g . b]zsf] l:ylt w]/} ;+j]bgzLn cj:yfdf k'u]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] x7 Tofu]/ dfcf]jfbLnfO{ ljZjf;df lnP/ ;xdtLf/f b]zsf] /fhgLlts lgsfz vf]Hg' kb{5 . To;}df ;a}sf] enfO{ ;lGglxt 5 . dfcf]jfbL klg b]zsf] 7"nf] kf6L{sf] lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug{ nlrnf] eP/ ;xdtLsf] /fhgLltdf cfpg j]z x'G5 .

@)^& a}zfv @$ ut]

/fdfo0f sfnsf /fd ;dfhdf dof{bf, ;fdflhs Gofo, ;'v j}ej, ;dfgtf :yflkt ug{ ;xh ;'ne /fhkf6 nufot cfkmgL c4f{+lugL l;tf ;d]tnfO{ Tofu u/]/ Pp6f pbfx/0f k]z u/]sf] lyof] / k[YjLdf ;w}+sf nflu, ;a}sf nflu cf/fWo b]j eujfg >L /fd eP/ hg hgsf] dgdf :yflkt 5 . p;sf] ;'sLlt{n] p;nfO{ dof{bf k'?iff]Qd /fd agfof] . /fhj+zdf hGd]/ dfgj clwsf/sf] /Iff ug{ ;j} ;'v j}ej Tofu]/ jgsf] s+6sfsL0f{ ljkQLnfO{ cfkmgf] hLjgsf] ;f/ agfof] . csf]{ pbfx/0f dxfef/t sfndf b'of]{wgsf] xf], h;n] /fhd's'6 xfl;n ug{ cIff]lx0fL g/ ;+xf/ u/]/ j+z gfz u/]sf] lyof] . kfZrftfk ug{ lhjLt w[t/fi6sf] cfQ{gfb ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5 . dxfef/tdf /f]Psf] Oltxf;sf] cfF;" clxn] ;Dd s;}n] k'5g ;s]sf] 5}g .

kl/jt{gsf nflu alnbfgL n8fO{ n8]sf g]kfnL hgtfn] hg cfGbf]ng dfkm{t b]zdf ;+ljwfg ;ef :yflkt u/]/ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds g]kfn sf] e|"0f /fVg ;kmn eof] . cfzf / ljZjf;sf ;fy g]kfnL hgtfn] gofF g]kfnsf] o; e|"0fsf] x]/ ljrf/ ug{ Jofks ;+Vofdf cleefjsTj lgjf{x ug{ hg k|ltlgwL k7fP . e|"0ffj:yfdf /x]sf] gofF g]kfnsf] cjwf/0ff ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq nfO{ /fhgLlts bnsf] :jfy{sf] n8fO{df r/d nfk/jfxLsf sf/0f ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmof cf]em]ndf k/]sf] 5 / o/sf] pQ/ kf/:kl/s bf]iff/f]k0f dfq xf] . pk/f]Qm b'O{6f pbfx/0f xfd|f] ;fd' 5 . /fdsf] h:tf] cfr/0f u/]/ slxNo} gdg]{ u/L afFRg] ls < cyjf b'of]{wg ag]/ dxfef/t dRrfP/ e:df;'/ aGg] <

cfkmgf] b]zsf] kl/l:yltsf] uDeL/tfk"j{s d"Nof+sg ug{ g;Sg', ;txL ljrf/sf] cfwf/df ;+qmd0Lo ;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ a'emg g;Sg', hg ;/f]sf/sf] laifonfO{ uf}0f u/]/ x7sf] /fhgLltnfO{ k|>o lbg', b]zdf ;+s6 lgDofpg' afx]s c? s] x'g ;Sb5 <

b]zsf] /fhgLlts cvf8fdf tLg bnsf] k|wfgtf 5 . a|Xdf, lai0f', dx]zn] ;+;f/ rnfP h:t} j}lbssfndf a|Xdf, lji0f';+u dx]zsf] o'4 ;os8f}+ jif{ ;Dd rn]sf] Oltxf; 5 . dx]z c;'/sf b]jtf lyP . c;'/ k/f:t eP . dx]z :yflkt eP/ lqb]j sxnfP . g]kfnsf] ;+be{df of] kf}/fl0fs 36gfsf] k'g/fj[lt ePsf] h:tf] nfUb5 . g]kfnL hgtfsf ljwftf oL tLg /fhgLlts bnsf] eL8Gtdf g]kfnL hgtf dfl/P/ lqb]jsf] ;'nx x'g] xf] ls <

dw]z ;+be{df ljrf/ ubf{ /fli6o /fhgLltdf lqb]jsf] pbo kZrft dw]zjfbL bn ;j{xf/fsf] ?kdf b]lvPsf] 5 . lg/Lx, k|efjxLg tyf d"s bz{s h:t} . dw]zsf] d'2fnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ x:tIf]ksf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ xf]Og, bfgkfq lnP/ ofrssf] d'b|fdf pleg a9L ?rfpF5g dw]zjfbL bnx? . of] dw]zsf] b'ef{Uo g} xf] . ;lbof}+ b]lv lje]bdf k/]sf] dw]z klxnf] kN6 cfGbf]ng dfkm{t cfkmgf] clwsf/ :yflkt u/fpg dw]zL hg clwsf/ kmf]/d, g]kfnnfO{ ljZjf; u/]/ hgfb]z lbP/ ;+ljwfg ;efdf k7fPsf] lyof] . g]tfx?df PsfPs plAhPsf] ;QflnK;f, /fhgLlts cb'b{lz{tf, kf6L{df oyfl:yltjfbL tyf cj;/jfbLsf] Jofks k|j]z / jr{:j, cfGbf]ngsf/L zlQmnfO{ lsgf/f nufpg] k|of; cflb sf/0fn] d'lQmsfdL hgtfn] hGd lbPsf] kf6L{nfO{ cglws[t ?kn] g]tfx?n] ljefhg u/]/ dw]zL hgtf;+u ljZjf;3ft u/]sf] oyfy{nfO{ :jLsf/ ug}{ kb{5 . o; 36gfaf6 dw]zdf g}/fZotf cfPsf] 5 . ;Qfdf uPsf dw]zjfbL bnx? klg dw]z d'2fnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]/ ;Daf]wg u/fPsf] eP kf6L{ ljefhgsf] 3fp eg{ ;SYof] . dw]zL hgtfdf pT;fx hfUg ;SYof] .

dw]zdf km}lnPsf] g}/fZotf, /fhgLlts z"Gotf, c;Gtf]if, dw]z cfGbf]ngaf6 k|fKt pknlAw u'Dg ;Sg] vt/faf6 cfqmf]lzt dw]zL hgtfaf6 dw]zL g]tfx? s] cfz ug{ ;S5g . dw]zL hgtfnfO{ /fxt lbnfpg g;Sg] g]tfx? ;du| dw]z Ps k|b]z, cfTd lg0f{osf] clwsf/ h:tf cxd ;jfnnfO{ s;/L lbnfpg ;Snfg < dw]z cfGbf]ngn] ;Dk"0f{ dw]znfO{ Pstfsf] ;"qdf afFw]sf] lyof] . dw]zL g]tfx?sf] :jfy{n] dw]znfO{ 6'qmf 6'qmf agfPsf] 5 . lgZro klg dw]z o;af6 b'MvL 5 . ;Qfsf nflu h] klg ug]{ dw]zL g]tfx? s] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] dd{;+u cfkm'nfO{ Psfsf/ ug{ ;S5 < ljutsf uNtLaf6 lzIff lnb} cfkm"nfO{ ;RofP/ g]tfx? dw]znfO{ clwsf/ lbnfpg Odfgbf/ eP/ dw]z cfGbf]ngdf cfpg ;S5g < @ jif{df u}/ dw]zL /fhgLlts bnx?sf] dw]zk|ltsf] lqmofsnfkaf6 :ki6 e} ;s]sf] 5 ls dw]znfO{ clwsf/ lbg sf]xL rfxb}g . lbP eg] lji0f'n] gf/bnfO{ ljZjdf]lxgL lhTg lbPsf] ljs[t cg'xf/ .

To;sf/0f dw]z cfGbf]ng cjZoDefjL 5 . @$) jif{ b]lv e]befjsf] kL8f ef]Ub} cfO{ /x]sf] dw]z klxnf] kN6 hfu]sf] xf] . cfGbf]ng lagf clwsf/ gkfOg] s'/faf6 dw]z jflskm 5 .

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g]kfnL /fhgLltdf lbgfg'lbg ljsl;t eO{ /x]sf] s6'tfn] ;xh lgsfzsf] af6f] cj?4 eO{ b]z Glt/ tLa|tfk"j{s cuf8L a9g nfu]sf] cg'e"lt /fhgLlt j[tdf x'g nfu]sf] xf] . ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f, zflGt :yfkgf, ;xdtLsf] jftfj/0f lgdf{0f h:tf cxd ;jfnnfO{ k"/f ug{ ;eGbf a9L bfloTj ;/sf/sf] g} ePsf]n] clws nrstf ckgfP/ ;/sf/n] /fhg}lts ;xhLs/0fsf] bfloTj k"/f ug'{ kb{5 .

;+ljwfg ;efsf] ;do ;Ldf ;dfKt x'g nfu]sf] a]nf t ;/sf/ emg} ;+j]bgzLn eP/ cuf8L a9g' kg]{ cj:yfdf @^ ut] pBf]ukltx?sf] e]63f6df k|wfgdGqLsf] cfqmf]lzt d'b|f b]v]/, zflGt ;efsf] cfof]hgf u/]/ ;/sf/nfO{ ;xof]u k'/ofP/ /fhg}lts k|lti7f cfh{g u/]sf pBf]ukltx? 3/sf] g 3f6sf] h:tf] l:yltdf lg/fz eP/ kmls{P . k|wfgdGqL ;xdltsf] lbzfdf ;sf/fTds gb]lvP kl5 pBf]ukltx? lg/fz eP . zflGt ;ef dfkm{t dfcf]jfbLsf] cfd x8tfn lkmQf{ u/fP/ k|z+;f a6'Ng / ;xdltsf] af6f] vf]nfpg pBf]ukltx? k|wfgdGqL sxfF k'u] . pN6} gfgfy/Lsf nfF5gf / cfnf]rgfsf] lzsf/ x'g' k/of] .

/fhwfgLjf;Lsf] hg hLjgnfO{ c:t Jo:t agfO{ /x]sf] dfcf]jfbLsf] cfd x8tfnsf] lj?4 cfqmf]lzt, cflhh eP/ zflGt ;efdf ;xeflu ePsf ckf/ hgdfg;n] dfcf]jfbLnfO{ aGb x8tfn lkmQf{ lng Jofks hg bjfa lyof] . nDaL /x]sf] x8tfnaf6 hg;dy{g u'Dg] ;+s]t kfP/ / /fli6o, cGt/f{li6o bjfasf] kl/0ffd :j?k dfcf]jfbLn] aGb x8tfn lkmQf{ lnP/ a'l4dQfk"0f{ pbfx/0f k|:t't u/]/ hg dfg;df k|z+;gLo aGof] . ca ;+3 ;+:yf, ;dfhsf x/]s If]q, /fli6o, cGt/f{li6osf] g}lts bjfa ;/sf/dfly vlgPsf] 5 . t/ ;/sf/======< ;xdltsf] jftfj/0f lgdf{0fdf d afws 5}g eg]/ bfloTjaf]wsf ;fy k|wfgdGqLn] cfkmgf cleJolQm ;fj{hlgs u/]/ k|To]s If]qaf6 k|z+;f a6'Ng' eof] . zflGt ;efsf] :j?k x]/] kl5 k"0f{ pGdflbt eP/ cfof]hs ;+:yfx?nfO{ tyfgfd nf+l5t u/]/ dfcf]jfbLnfO{ kfv} nufpg] cleJolQm lbg yfNbf ;dfhsf x/]s If]q lg?T;flxt ePsf] 5 .

;/sf/nfO{ bfloTjaf]w u/fP/ ;xdtLsf] jftfj/0f agfpgsf nflu cGt/f{li6o bjfa klg plQs} cfO{ /x]sf] 5 . ;do laTb} 5 . Ps ldg]6 l9nf] gu/L ;xdltsf] nflu h'l6 xfNg] cj;/df Ps csf{nfO{ l;Wofpg] tLvf cleJolQm lbP/ /fhgLlts jftfj/0fnfO{ ljiffQm agfpg] k|of;nfO{ hgtf s'g} xfntdf :jLsf/ ub}{g . bnut :jfy{sf /fhgLlts n8fO{ /fli6o ;jfn aGg ;Sb}g . clxn] cgluGtL /fli6o ;d:of xn ug{ afFsL 5 . lglj{sNk /fli6o ;xdtLsf] ;/sf/ ckl/xfo{ ePsf] 5 . Tjd z/0fd sf]xL ub}{g . /fli6o d'2fnfO{ ldng ljGb' agfP/ ;xdltsf] w/ftn lgdf{0f u/]/ ;a} /fhg}lts bn cfpg' kb{5 .

Dffcf]jfbLsf] aGb x8tfnsf] lg0f{o ;d;fdlos lyPg . ;+j}wflgs af6f] 5Fb} aGb x8tfnsf] af6f] /f]Hg' 7Ls lyPg . c?nfO{ ;+;bjfbL bn eg]/ cfkm' s'g lsQfdf pleg vf]h]sf] xf] < pu| cleJolQm / pu| lg0f{on] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg cfpFb}g . ;+a}wflgs pkfox? canDag u/]/ lgsfz lgsfNg] k|of;df hfg' kb{5 .

;xL / unt ;do ;fk]If x'G5 . ca ;+lawfg ;efsf] cToGt} cNk ;dodf hxfF hgtfn] ;'lawf eQf lkmQf{ lng cfjfh p7fO{ /x]sf] kl/k]Iodf ;+lawfg ;efsf clwsf+z ;b:o cfTd cfnf]rgfsf lzsf/ x'g k'u]sf 5g / bfloTjaf]wsf ;fy ;do 5Fb} s]xL u/f}+ eGg] efjgf hfu[t ePsf] cj:yfdf oL ;a} zlQmnfO{ ;d]6]/ cuf8L a9g' kb{5 . cu|udg grfxg] zlQmx? cfkm} cnlUug] 5g / b]z ultzLn eP/ cuf8L a9g]5 . cGof]nu|:t /fhgLlts kl/l:yltdf a8f] a'l4dQfsf ;fy tL zlQmx?nfO{ klxrfg u/]/ ;d]6b} cuf8L a9g' g} /fhg}lts ;'ema'em x'g]5 .

;do laTb} hfg' / /fhgLlts bnx?df b"/L a9b} hfg' clgi6sf] ;+s]t xf] . dfcf]jfbLnfO{ 3'F8f 6]sfP/ 5f8g] eGg] ;/sf/sf] c8fg / ;/sf/ g9flnsg g5f8g] dfcf]jfbLsf c8fgaLr ;+lawfg lgdf{0f, zflGt :yfkgf / ;xh cu|udg sxfF 5 < oL lv+rftfgLsf] n8fO{df cfkmgf] b'gf] ;f]emofpg] zlQmx? cs}{ xf]djs{ df nflu k/]sf] ;Defjgf klg plQms} k|an x'g ;Sb5 .

x7sf] /fhgLltn] b]z agfpF5 klg, lauf5{ klg . x7sf] /fhgLlt b]z lgdf{0fsf] cfwf/ aGg ;Sb}g . a? ljj]sk"0f{ /fhgLlts s'zntf clxn] ;xdtLsf] cfwf/ aGg ;Sb5 . k|d'v /fhg}lts bnx?dfly clxn] g}lts bjfa Jofks a9]sf] 5, a9g' klg kb{5 . ;lxi0f'tf, ;xdtL / ;xsfo{ clxn]sf] /fhg}lts ;"q xf] . o;} ;'qn] /fhg}lts ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg u5{ . km/s ;'qn] G a9fpg] / t>f] zlQmnfO{ kmfO{bf k'Ug] oyfy{tfnfO{ lhDd]jf/ /fhgLlts bnn] la;{g' x'Gg . lagfz sfn] ljk/Lt a'l4af6 klg kf7 l;s]/ cuf8L a9g' kb{5 .

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g]kfnL e"dLdf cfkmg} ls;Ldsf] e]ife"iff, efiff, ;+:s[lt, klxrfg lnP/ a;]sf dw]zaf;L ;lbof}+blv /fHof/f cf}klgj]lzs zf]if0sf lzsf/ ePsf 5g . g]kfnL gful/s ePklg ljb]zL ;/xsf] Jojxf/, e]befj, /fHoljxLg, klxrfg gePsf ckdflgt hLjg, clwsf/ljxLg /fHosf] lgufxfdf afFRg' kg]{ u'nfd, bf;sf] cj:yfaf6 d'lQm kfpg @)^# sf] P]ltxfl;s dw]z ljb|f]x ePsf] xf] . lje]bsf] lj?4 ;Dk"0f{ dw]z p7]/ /fHonfO{ 3'F8f 6]sfP/ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] :yfkgf u/fPsf] xf] . dw]zsf] of] P]ltxfl;s pknlAw xf] . dw]zdf /fHon] dw]zLnfO{ dfgl;s ?kn] kl/jt{g u/L oyfl:yltdf /fVg zf]if0fsf cg]s cjojx? km}nfPsf] lyof] . g]kfnL /fli6otfaf6 k[ys a'emg], g]kfnL gful/stf lbP/ klg ljb]zL ;/x Jojxf/ ug]{ /fHosf] ;fdGtL dfgl;stfsf lzsf/ eP/ dw]z ;lbof}+ b]lv oyfl:yltdf a:g afWo lyof] . cfkmg} b]zdf ljb]zL ;/x, z/0ffyL{ ;/x, klxrfgljxLg, e]befjsf] kL8fbfos cj:yfdf ;lbof}+b]lv afFRg' kbf{ ls clwsf/ lng], ls zxfbt lbg] eGg] cfqmf]zsf ;fy dw]z ljb|f]x ePsf] lyof] . dw]zsf] eLif0f cfGbf]ngaf6 eoeLt zf;sju{ Ps sbd k5fl8 x6]/ cfGbf]ngnfO{ ;Demf}tfdf 6'+Uofof] .

b]zsf s'gf sfKrfaf6 kl/jt{gsf] kIfdf p7]sf cfGbf]ngsf cfFwL a]x/Ln] /fhtGqsf] cGt, ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] :yfkgfsf nflu cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgdf ;dfj]z u/fP klg oxfFaf6 oyfl:yltjfbLsf] k|k+r v]n z'? eof] . g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg agfpg] gf/f lbg] t/ clwsf/ glbg] /fHosf] k/Dk/fut lrGtgsf] kl/0ffd :j?k @ jif{sf] kof{Kt cjlwdf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f x'g ;s]g . ^) jif{ b]lv k|ltIff/t g]kfnL hgtf ;+ljwfg ;efaf6 clwsf/ ;DkGg x'g] cfzaf6 a+lrt eP .

dw]z cfGbf]ng kZrft dw]znfO{ lgo+lqt ug{, oyfl:yltdf /fVg /fHon] if8oGqsf cg]s tfgfafgf a'Gg nflu k/]sf] l:ylt ljBdfg 5 . dw]zL PstfnfO{ l5Gg leGg ug]{ p2]Zon] ;d'bfo ;d'bfoaLr n8fpg], wfld{s ;lxi0f'tfnfO{ vNanfpg] u/L wfld{s ;d'bfoaLr n8fpg], hflt hfltaLr ltQmtf k}bf u/L le8Gtsf] l:ylt ;[hgf ug]{ h:tf s'lT;t dfgl;stfn] k|]l/t 3f]/ blIf0fkGyL oyfl:yltjfbL zlQm dw]zdf s]lGb|t ePsf] ;xh} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . dw]znfO{ pu| kl/jt{gsf] rfxgf /fVg] zlQm klg dw]z Pstfsf] cg's"n 5}g . oL b'O{ k|lts"n zlQmsf] aLraf6 dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ hf]ufP/ cuf8L a9fpg h?/L 5 . oL if8oGqsf :j?k x]bf{, ;'Gbf cfkmg} cg's"n nfUg] nfUg] ePsf]n] kmF:g] ;Defjgf w]/} 5 . km]l/ dw]z cfGbf]ngn] ;lbof}+ lyrf]ldrf]df k/]sf] sf/0fn] dw]zdf dxTjfsfFIff tLj|t/ a9fPsf] 5, hf] :jfefljs klg xf] . pRr dxTjfsfFIff cfGbf]ngsf] wf/ ljk/Lt e8sfjsf] lbzfdf cu|;/ u/fpFb5 / o:tf] eof] klg . cfGbf]ngk|lt ;dlk{t pRr dxTjfsfFIff hgd'lQmsf] dfWod xf] eg] uGtJosf] k|flKt klg . t/ o;f] ePg, dxTjfsfFIff cfGbf]nglt/ eGbf :jfy{lt/ a9L d'vl/t eP/ cuf8L a9of] . oxL sdhf]/Lsf] kmfO{bf oyfl:yltjfbL s/ blIf0fkGyL zlQmx?n] lnP/ dw]zsf] zlQmnfO{ tx; gx; ug{ dw]zdf k|j]z u/of] . clxn] xfdL To;}sf] lzsf/ eP/ uGtJo la;]{/ cndndf nfu]sf 5f}+ . ;du| ?kdf dw]zdf b]lvPsf] g}/fZotf, ljZjf;sf] ;+s6 o;}sf] kl/0ffd xf] .

dw]zdf k|j]z u/]sf oL 5bde]ifL zlQmx? a8f] rfnfsLk"j{s dfly g]t[Tjju{nfO{ kmF;fP/ sdhf]/ kf/of] eg] g]tfx?sf] lqmofsnfkn] lg/fz ePsf dw]zL hgtfnfO{ klg ldqtfk"j{s cfkmgf] k|efjdf lnP/ cfkmgf] :jfy{ cg's"nsf] ultljwLdf tNnLg 5g . oL zlQmx? cg]s 5bde]ifdf ;lqmo 5g . dw]z s]lGbo ;QfnfO{ ;aeGbf a9L k|efj kfg]{ ePsf]n] b]zsf ;Dk"0f{ zlQm Psh'6 eP/ dw]znfO{ lgo+q0fdf lng vf]Hg' :jfefljs klg xf] . o; laifodf dw]zk|]dL hgtfn] cfkmgf] PstfnfO{ cIf'00f /fvL rgfvf] eP/ zq'zlQmnfO{ klxrfg u/L s;/L lj:yflkt ug]{ eGg] laifo w]/} dxTjk"0f{ ePsf] 5 .

dw]zjfbL bnx? klg ljleGg zlQm s]Gb|sf] k|efjdf k/]sf 5g . ;a} Ps csf{sf] bf]iff/f]k0fdf cfkmgf] df}lnstfnfO{ la;]{/ uGtJoxLg ePsf 5g . dw]zjfbL zlQmx?sf] w|'jLs/0fn] g} dw]zdf gofF phf{ lbP/ k'gZr pRr dgf]ansf ;fy cu|ufdL lbzfdf cuf8L a9fpg ;S5 . dw]zn] klg g}/fZotfsf] cj:yf x6fP/ zq'' / ldqzlQmsf] klxrfg u/]/ Psh"6 eO{ cuf8L a9g] a]nf cfO{ ;s]sf] 5 . ;+ljwfg grfxg] zlQmx? cfkmgf] of]hgfdf ;kmn ePsf 5g . sy+ sbflrt ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb ylkP klg dw]zn] rfx]sf] h:tf] ;+ljwfg lsdfy{ lbg g;Sg] oL zlQmx?sf] dfgl;stf ljut @ jif{sf] ;+ljwfg ;efsf] cEof;df 5n{+u eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . kmn:j?k, dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg ug{ klg cfGbf]ngsf] s'g} ljsNk g/x]sf] s'/f klg plQs} :ki6 5 .

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dw]z cfGbf]ng kZrft dw]zLnfO{ x]g]{ b[li6sf]0f cln km/s eP tfklg /fHon] dw]zLnfO{ gLlt lgdf{0f x'g] txdf k|ToIf ;xeflutf x'g glbO{ ofrssf] ?kdf /fv]/ e]befjsf] pxL k/Dk/fut z}nLsf] lg/Gt/tf lbPsf] s'/f :ki6 5 . /fHosf] x/]s tx / lgsfodf ;dfj]zLsf] wf/0ff /fv]klg Jojxf/df dw]zLnfO{ ;dfj]zL x'g lbO{ /x]sf] 5}g . dw]zLnfO{ ;dfj]zLaf6 j+lrt ug{ ck|ToIf aGb]h nufO{Psf] 5 . sf]O{ ;dfj]z ePsf] 5 eg] p clwsf/ eP/ klg lg:t]h 5 . p klg ofrssf] ?kdf hflu/ vfg] afx]s s'g} e"ldsfdf 5}g . cyf{t ;du|df dw]zLk|ltsf e]befj /fHon] clxn] klg sfod /fv]sf] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g . d"ne"t clwsf/df aGb]h nufP/ dw]znfO{ tkl;nsf hlt;'s} s'/f lbPklg To;sf] s'g} cy{ 5}g .

b]zdf dw]zsf] d]?bl08o e"ldsfnfO{ s;}n] gsfg{ ;Sb}g . b]z lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofdf dw]zsf] cxd e"ldsf x'g' kb{5 eGg] ;TonfO{ s;}n] :jLsfg{ tof/ 5}g . oxL ljjflbt laifo Gsf] sf/0f xf] . b]znfO{ hg cfsfFIff cg'?k ?kfGtl/t ug{ /fHo ;+oGqdf xfjL ju{ljz]ifsf] dfgl;stfdf kl/jt{g x'g h?/L 5 . hg cfGbf]ngn] NofPsf] ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqnfO{ ;+:yfut ug{ k/Dk/fut ;fdGtL lrGtgn] xf]Og, laNs'n Jofjxfl/s nf]stflGqs cfr/0faf6 ;Dej 5, hf] lsl~rt klg b]lvb}g . xfn} k|wfgdGqLn] d ;+ljwfg ;efsf] kIfdf lyOg lbPsf] cleJolQm / @ jif{df ;+ljwfg gn]lvg''af6 ;/sf/n] hg ck]IffnfO{ slt sb/ u/]sf] eGg] s'/f :ki6 5 . cyf{t hg rfxgf adf]lhdsf] ;+ljwfg s'g} klg xfntdf gcfpg] k|i6 5 . u}/ dw]zL /fhg}lts bnx? km/s ;}4flGts ljrf/wf/f /fv]klg dw]zsf] ;jfndf Psdt 5g . of] k"jf{u|xL dfgl;stfn] nf]stGqsf] hlt hfk u/]klg g nf]stGqnfO{ ;xL ?kdf :yfkgf ug{ ;Sb5, g dw]znfO{ d"nwf/df ;d]6g ;Sb5 . dw]zk|ltsf] dfgl;stfdf kl/jt{g x'g h?/L 5 .

;/sf/n] ljut @ jif{sf] G Joj:yfkg ;DalGw hlt k|of; u/]klg G hxfFsf] txL+ 5 . k|of; k|:yfg ljGb'd} ;Lldt /Xof] . cfGbf]ng/t kIf;+u ul/Psf] ;Demf}tf sfuh d} ;Lldt /Xof] . ;Demf}tf ub}{ hfg] / yGsfpFb} hfg] ;/sf/sf] /j}ofnfO{ k"jf{u|xL dfgl;stf geg]/ c? s] eGg] < dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] tLg jif{ kZrft zxLb 3f]if0ff u/]/ ;/sf/n] dw]znfO{ clnslt v'zL kfg]{ k|of; t u/of] t/ d'2f lkmQf{sf s'/f, 3fO{t] ckf+usf s'/f, ;DklQ Ifltsf s'/fnfO{ uf}0f /flvof] eg] ;/sf/ h:t} dw]z klg ;/sf/k|ltsf] ;sf/fTds wf/0ff /fVg ;Sb}g . :jR5 dfgl;stfn] dw]znfO{ lbg' kg]{ s'/f clanDa lbFbf dw]znfO{ ;sf/fTds agfpg ;lsG5 . cGoyf ;/sf/n] ;w}+ dw]znfO{ rfnfsLsf] df]x/f agfP/ 7Ug] s'/f afx]s dw]zn] c? s'/f ;f]Rb}g .

clxn] /fli6o /fhgLlts j[tdf ;lqmo e"ldsfdf /x]sf tLg /fhgLlts bnsf] t5f8 d5f8n] b]zsf] /fhg}lts lgsfz g} cj?4 5 . tLg} bnsf xfnL d'xfnLdf c? ;fgf bnx? qmL8f:ynsf] tdfz] eP/ a:g] l:ylt 5 . cfnf]rgfaf6 aRg slxn] sfFxL dw]zjfbL bn / ;fgf bnx?;+u ljrf/ ljdz{ ug'{ ckjfbsf] laifo afx]s gLlt lgdf{0f txdf s'g} e"ldsf b]lvb}g . ;/sf/df klg dw]zjfbL bnx?sf] pNn]vgLo ;+Vof /x] tfklg ck]lIft pknlAw k|fKt ug{ g;Sg'n] lg/Lx cj:yfdf /x]sf] s'/f k|i6 x'G5 .

b]z lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofdf dw]znfO{ cnu /fv]/, cfkm' zf;s xf] eGg] dfgl;stf lnP/ klg dw]zk|lt zf;sLo Jojxf/ b]vfpg' G Joj:yfkg xf] ls Gsf] cfdGq0f dw]zsf] d"n d'2fk|lt klg zf;sLo kIf pbf;Lg /x]sfn] dw]znfO{ cfGbf]ngsf] ljsNk g/x]sf] s'/f klg :ki6 x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf] 5 . ;DejtM ;/sf/n] dw]z klxn] h:tf] cfGbf]ng ug}{ ;Sb}g eGg] ljZjf; nfu]/ xf]nf, dw]zk|ltsf] lje]bnfO{ sfod /fv]sf] 5 . oL ;Dk"0f{ /j}ofn] s] b]vfpF5 eg] ;/sf/ dw]znfO{ oyfl:yltdf /fVg vf]lh /x]sf] 5 . oL dfgl;stfn] dw]z k'gZr p7g afWo x'G5 / casf] cfGbf]ng cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] lbzfdf hfg] lglZrt 5 .

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b]zdf g]kfnL sfFu|];, g]= s= kf= Pdfn] / g]= s= kf= dfcf]jfbL kf6L{sf] x7jfbL k|j[ltsf] cfk;L 6s/fjn] pTkGg /fhgLlts ;+s6n] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmof dfq cj? ePg, ;+ljwfg ;efsf] lgwf{l/t @ jif]{ Dofb @)^& Ho]i7 !$ ut] ;d]t ljTg nfUbf Jofks hg bjfan] cGttM !$ ut]sf] dWo /ftsf] clGtd 38Ldf afWofTds kl/l:yltdf gf6sLo ;xdtLsf] cfwf/df ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb yk]/ Psl5gsf] nflu ePklg tLgj6} /fhgLlts bn lhDd]jf/Laf]wsf] pbfx/0f k|:t't u/]/ k|z+;fsf ag] ./fhgLlts bnsf] hgfb]z ljk/Ltsf] ultljwLaf6 cflhh, lg/fz ePsf] g]kfnL hgtf cfkmgf] nflu s]xL g kfP klg b]z u[xo'af6 hf]luPsf]df lsl~rt ePklg ;Gtf]ifsf] ;fF; lnPsf 5g . b]zdf a9b} uO{ /x]sf] u[xo'sf] k|jn ;Defjgf Psjif{sf nflu 6fl/Psf] 5 .

c;dembf/Lsf] 3gLe"t jfbnnfO{ ;xdtLsf] lsl~rt dg;"gn] b]zdf /fxtsf] jiff{ u/fpg ;S5 < lemgf] cfzfdf afFlr /x]sf g]kfnL hgtf cGttM o;} tLg bnnfO{ ljZjf; u/]/ cfzfjfbL x'g' kb{5 . c;dembf/Ldf ;dembf/L ug]{ ;+qmd0fsfnLg ;"qsf] cfwf/df lag afwfnfO{ x6fpb} hfg] k|rng cg';f/ k6Ss} lg/fz x'g] cj:yf eg] 5}g . tTsfn tLg a"Gb] ;xdtLnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ /fli6o ;xdtLsf] ;/sf/ v8f ug]{ eGg] ;xdtLsf a"GbfnfO{ ltnsf tf8 / afnsf vfn lgsfNg] k|f1x?sf] JofVof clxn] Jofks rrf{sf] ljifo ePsf] 5 . Pdfn] cWoIf emngfy vgfnn] oL k|f1x?sf] JofVofsf] d"Fxtf]8 hjfkm lb+b} eGof] aflx/ h];'s} cy{ nufPklg xfdLn] u/]sf] tLg a'Fb] ;xdlt /fli6o ;xdtLsf] ;/sf/ agfpgsf nflu xf], o;df xfdL k|lta 5f}+ .

;+ljwfgsf] kIfw/ zlQmx?aLr hg ck]lIft ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{ w|'jLs/0fsf] cfjZostf 5 . ;+ljwfg ;efdf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] kIfdf jsfnt ug]{ t/ hgtfn] rfx]sf] h:tf] ;+ljwfg gagfpg] zlQmx?sf] ljujLuL a9]sf] b]lvG5 . ;+3Lo ;+ljwfg grfxg], hgdt ;+u|xsf] dfWodn] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug]{, ;+j}wflgs /fhtGq /x]sf] ;+ljwfg agfpg], ;a} hfthfltsf] k|ltlgwL /x]sf] ;+ljwfg d:of}bf cfof]uf/f ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug]{, hfltsf] cfwf/df ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f gug]{, dw]znfO{ ;du|tf k|bfg gug]{, oL ldl>t wf/0ffsf] Pp6} dfgl;stf xf] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f g xf]; . ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ePg eg] dfq oL clei6 k"/f x'g ;S5 . hg ck]lIft ;+ljwfg rfxg] zlQmx? ;+ljwfg ;efdf lg:t]h x'g nfu]sf], ljvl08t /x]sf], ljk/Lt lsQfdf k/]sf] b]lvG5 . oL zlQmx? Pp6} lsQfdf pleP/ cu|udgsf] lbzfdf a9g cfjZos 5 .

Dffcf]jfbLn] tft} vfpF, hNb} d?F h:tf] xtf/sf] lg0f{o lnP/ zlQmsf] b'?kof]u ug'{eGbf ;+oldt eP/ k|:t't x'g' kb{5 / /fli6o ;xdtLsf] /fhgLltnfO{ d"Q{?k lbg cuf8L a9g' kb{5 . ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] dd{ ljk/Lt ;Qfsf] s]Gb|df ;a} /fhgLlts bnx? s]lGb|t x'g' / ;Qfsf nflu t5f8 d5f8 ug'{ lgZro klg hgtfsf] nflu /fd|f] ;Gb]z xf]Og .

hlt;'s} g}lts cg}lts n8fO{ emu8f u/]klg oxL /fhgLlts bnn] ;ayf]s ug]{ x'gfn] ;Gt'ng / lhDd]jf/ x'g' g} hgtfnfO{ cfZj:t ug]{ Psdfq af6f] xf] .

k|hftflGqs cEof;df oltsf lbg latfPsf /fhg}lts bnx?df ljsl;t eO{ g;s]sf] nf]stflGqs ;+:sf/, :t/Lo lrGtgsf] cefjs} sf/0f ylkPsf] hl6ntfaf6 d'lQm kfpg ;+oldt ?kn] kl/jt{gsf/L zlQmx? Psl9Ssf eP/ cuf8L a9g cfjZos b]lvG5 . wldnf] kfgLdf df5f dfg{ pt k|ltufdL zlQmx? b]znfO{ oyfl:yltdf lv+r]/ n} hfg] ;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ gsf/]/ /fhgLlt ug'{ a'ldfgL xf]Og . b]zn] kl/jt{g rfx]sf] 5 . kl/jt{g ug{ hgfb]z kfPsf] gfddf hg rfxgf ljk/Lt cfkmg} ls;Ldn] kl/efiff ug]{nfO{ kl/jt{gsf/L zlQm elgb}g, cfGbf]ngsf] dd{ cg';f/sf] kl/jt{g Nofpg' g} ;Rrf kl/jt{gsf/L zlQm 7xl/g]5 .

/fhfnfO{ k'g:yf{lkt u/fpg klg 7"nf] hdft tof/ x'g ;Sb5 . s] Tof] cu|ufdL zlQm sxlnG5 < kl/jt{gsf] ult cu|udg xf] kZrudg xf]Og . t/ ljleGg dg;fo af]s]sf] /fhgLlts bnx?sf] cfk;L 6s/fx6df cj? cu|udg lgZro klg b]zsf] nflu 3fts ;flat x'g]5 . ljk/Lt lbzfdf /fhgLlt ultzLntf a9g] ;Defjgf k|an x'G5 . b]zdf ljBdfg oyfl:yltjfbL tyf k|ltufdL zlQm w]/} s'/fdf glhs tyf ldqzlQm x'g . k|ltufdL zlQm / kl/jt{gsf/L zlQmsf] aLrdf /x]sf] oyfl:yltjfbL zlQm pQ/L / blIf0fL w|'jsf] aLrdf ePsf]n] ;DaGw b'a};+u ePklg cl:tTj arfpg k|ltufdL zlQm;+u ;DaGw /xg] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g . of] ;Da]bgzLntfnfO{ a'em]/ kl/jt{gsf/L zlQmx? ;+oldt / s"6g}lts tj/n] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg vf]Hg' kb{5 .

@)^& h]i7 @* ut]

;+qmd0f sfnsf] sdhf]/ sfg"g Joj:yf, /fhgLlts bnsf] ;QflnK;fn] b]zdf a9b} uO{ /x]sf] >[+vnfa ck/fw x/]s If]qnfO{ k|efljt ub}{ lbgfg'lbg cg]sf}+ yk ;d:ofsf] cDaf/ nfUb} uO{ /x]sf] cj:yfdf /fhgLlts bnx?n] cfkmgf] Doflhs l:6s k|of]u u/]/ ;xh} ;d:ofsf] lgsfz lgsfNg] s'/fdf cfZj:t x'g ;lsb}g . /fhgLlts bnLo :jfy{sf] le8Gtdf cndlnPsf] sf/0fn] klg cfk/flws k|j[ltn] cg's"ntf kfOsf] 5 . ljleGg ls;Ldsf ck/fwx? hlGdg yfn]sf] 5M /fhg}lts, ;fdflhs, sfg"gL cflb .

;don] kfvf nufO{Psf zlQmx? klg clxn] wldnf] kfgLdf df5f dfg{ tlD;Psf] b]lvG5g . k|ToIf ck|ToIf ;a} cfkmg} cfkmg} 9+un] cfkmgf] :jfy{nfO{ cuf8L a9fpg ck/fwnfO{ k|f]T;fxg u/L /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . bf]if hlt ;'/Iff lgsfodfly yf]kl/G5 . o;/L ;dfh ck/fwLs/0f x'Fb}5 . ;+ul7t / ;an ePsf] ck/fw hut cfufdL lbgdf b]znfO{ ;xh ?kdf cfpg b]nf < g]kfnL hgtf !@ jif]{ o'sf] laeLlifsfaf6 lglisg ;s]sf] 5}g, xTof, lx+;f, ckx/0fsf] cft+ssf] cj:yf km]l/ z'? ePsf] 5 . ck/fwsf] lzsf/ lgwf{, lgd'vf g]kfnL hgtf ePsf]n] klg 7"nf a8fsf nflu lrGtgsf] laifo g} xf]Og . /fhgLlts ult/f]w, ;+qmd0fsf] sf/0fn] lhDd]jf/ /fhgLlts bnnfO{ cf}+nf 78ofpg klg ;ls+b}g . ;kf6 hjfkm cfpF5 /fhg}lts ult/f]w x6b} ;a}s'/f 7Ls e} xfN5 . ;+qmd0f sfndf g]kfnL hgtfn] s]xL kL8f t ef]Ug} k5{ . d/]sf]nfO{ t hLjg lbg ;lsb}g, /fHoaf6 /xt lbG5f}+, hf] afFR5 To;}sf] nflu t xfdL n8b}5f}+, /fd/fHo NofO{ 5f85f}+ .

dw]z clxn] /fhgLlts bnx?;+usf] cljZjf;, dw]zjfbL bnx?af6 lg/fzf, c;Gtf]if, s'07f ef]uL /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . ul/aL, a]/f]huf/L, dxFuL, /fhgLlts c;Gt'i6L, cflb sf/0fn] ck/fwsf] ynf] ePsf] 5 dw]z . xTof, lx+;f, ckx/0f, rGbf c;'nL cflb sf/0fn] cfqmfGt 5 dw]z . cfk/flws lu/f]xx? /fhgLlts kf6L{sf] gfd lbP klg dw]zsf] hg hLjgnfO{ g} c:t Jo:t agfPsf] 5 . oL lu/f]xx?sf] lzsf/ dw]zLx? g} ePsf 5g . dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg agfpg] lbzfdf ;+ul7t cfjfh p7fpg] xf]Og, dw]znfO{ n'6g], xTof ug]{, ckx/0f ug]{ h:tf lqmofsnfkn] dw]znfO{ clwsf/ljlxg cj:yfdf /fVg rfxg] /fHozlQmnfO{ kmfobf k'/ofpg] ePsf]n] o:tf ultljwLsf] cGTo x'g' kb{5 . o; lbzfdf /fhgLlts bn, gful/s ;dfh, ;+3, ;+:yfn] kxn ug{ cfjZos b]lvG5 . dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx?sf] ;fd'lxs k|of; x'g' g}lts bfloTj xf] . dw]zL ;dfhsf] ck/fwLs/0f x'g' s;}sf] lxt ub}{g .

dw]z cfGbf]ng kZrft ;a} /fhgLlts bnsf] lrGtfsf] laifo ePsf] 5 dw]z . o;nfO{ s;/L ;Gt'lnt /fVg] eGg] laifodf ;a} /fhgLlts bnsf] cfcfkmg} xf]djs{ ePsf] 5 . s]xL dtleGgtf /x] klg ;f/df ;dfgtf 5 . ;f/ eg]sf] ;du| dw]z Ps k|b]z glbg' g} xf] . dGqhfksf] ljwL km/s /x]klg b]ptf eg] Pp6} xf] . o;sf] Pp6} eo JofKt 5 dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg agfpg' eg]sf] k'vf{n] cHof{sf] d'n'snfO{ aaf{b ug'{ xf] . dw]zn] :jfoQQfsf] cfjfh p7fPsf] 5 . p;nfO{ clwsf/ lbg' kb{5, :jtGqtf lbg' kb{5, #@ bfFtsf] aLrdf lhe|f]n] kfPsf] :jtGqtf h:t} . dw]z eg]sf] lj/u+h b]lv ;Kt/L ;Dd t xf] . k"j{df dw]z xf]O{g, sf]lrnf xf] . klZrddf y?x6 xf], pgL dw]zL xf]Ogg . klZrd dw]zsf] of] dw]z;+u s'g} s'/f gldNg] ePsf]n] klZrd dw]z agfOPsf] xf] . dWo dw]zsf] yf?nfO{ dw]zL agfOPsf] 5 . ;+j}wflgs ;ldltn] NofOPsf] kl/efiff xf] of] . dw]z / dw]zLsf] kl/efiff /fHon] ug{ afFsL 5 . o:tf dfgl;stfsf] afx"Notf 5 ;+ljwfg ;efdf . dw]zjfbL bnx? sdhf]/ OR5fzlQm lnP/ cNkdtdf 5g . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] o:tf] l;gfl/of]df dw]zsf] nflu s:tf] ;+ljwfg aGg] xf], :ki6 eO{ ;s]sf] 5 .

/fHon] dw]znfO{ x]g]{ b[li6sf]0fdf kl/jt{g gcfP;Dd dw]zsf] o:t} kl/efiff x'g]5 . dw]znfO{ km/s /fli6otfsf] ?kdf x]?~h]n dw]zsf] dfq xf]Og b]z}sf] sNof0f gx'g] s'/f :ki6 5 . /fHosf] dw]zk|ltsf] e]befjsf] lg/Gt/tf pu| /fhgLltnfO{ hGd glbg] xf] eGg ;ls+b}g . nf]stGqsf] zflAbs cy{ g} nf]ssf] ljrf/nfO{ :yflkt ug'{ xf], g]kfnL /fhgLltdf h;sf] ;j{yf cefj v8lsPsf] b]lvG5 .

e]befjdf ;lbof}+ b]lv afFlr /x]sf] dw]z klxnf] kN6 Pstfa eP/ clwsf/sf nflu cfjfh p7fPsf] lyof] . of] cfjfh n'Kt ePsf] 5}g . dw]z ca p7g s7Lg 5 eGg] e|ddf dw]z;+u Gofo ePg eg] ca p7g] cfGbf]ngsf] cfFwL a]x]/Ln] b]zdf cfd"n kl/jt{g g Nofpnf / Psfb]zsf /fHosf] Oltxf; gn]Vnf eGg ;lsGg .

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dw]zdf JofKt /fhgLlts lbzfxLgtfn] hgdfg;df vf;u/L o'jfju{df hGdfPsf] lg/fzf, cfqmf]z, s'07fs} kmn:j?k xTof, lx+;f, ckx/0f h:tf c;fdflhs k|j[ltn] k|>o kfPsf] 5 . dw]zdf lbgfg'lbg a9b} uO{ /x]sf] ck/fwsf] cGtxLg >[+vnf cGttM dw]znfO{ /0fe"dL gagfpnf eGg ;lsb}g . ck/fwn] lbgx'F dw]zdf dRrfPsf] xTof, lx+;f, ckx/0fsf] tf08j nLnfn] /fHoljxLg cj:yfdf dw]zLnfO{ cft+lst, dfgl;s oftgf ef]Ug afWo agfPsf] 5 . ;'/Iff lgsfosf alb{wf/L hjfgx? 5ofk 5ofKtL b]lvP klg xTof, ckx/0fsf 36gfx? lgjf{w ?kdf eO{ /x]sf] l:yltdf dw]znfO{ /fHosf] pkl:yltsf] cg'e"lt eO{ /x]sf] 5}g . dw]zsf] o:tf] eofjx l:yltnfO{ /fHon] ;+qmd0fsfnLg cj:yf eg]/ kG5fpg] sfd ul/ /x]sf] cj:yf 5 .

hgsk'/df oxL Ho]i7 @$ ut] b]lv #! ut] ;Dd xTofsf] >[+vnfa 36gfn] ;Dk"0f{ hgsk'/jf;L cft+lst eP/ dfgl;s kL8f ef]lu /xFbf k|zf;g tyf ;'/Iff lgsfon] em"7f] cfZjf;g eP klg hgsk'/jf;LnfO{ ;fj{hlgs ?kdf cfZj:t kfg{ ;s]sf] 5}g . Ho]i7 @$ ut] /fd]Zj/ ;fxsf] xTof, @^ ut] wg'iff lh= lj= ;= sf] lkog lzj gf/fo0f e08f/Lsf] xTof, @* ut] $ jifL{o afns cldt s'df/ sfk/sf] xTof, @( ut] /fhs'df/sf] xTof k|of;, #) ut] k|x/L / ;z:q ;d"xaLr em8k, Pssf] d[To', #! ut] k"j{ klZrd /fhdfu{ cGtu{t xl/x/k'/ hnfb vf]nf ghLs df]6/ ;fOsndf ;jf/ df]xg uf]n]dfly uf]nL k|xf/, uf]nL df]6/;fOsndf nfu]/ dfgjLo Iflt ePg .

;/sf/n] czfGt dw]zdf ck/fw lgoGq0f ug{ ljz]if ;'/Iff gLlt cGtu{t kl/rflnt u/]sf] ;'/Iff lgsfo ck/fwLx?sf] cuf8L lgtfGt sdhf]/, k+u"sf] cj:yfdf 5 . ck/fwLx?n] lbglbg} ;'/Iff lgsfonfO{ lbO{ /x]sf] r'gf}tLn] k|x/L k|zf;gaf6 s'g} lsl;dsf] k|ltlqmof / ;lqmotf gb]lvP kl5 hgsk'/jf;L a9L eoeLt ePsf 5g . @)^^ r}q & ut] hgsk'/df k|x/Lf/f Pp6L dlxnf anfTs[t x'Fbf k|x/L / gful/saLr % lbg ;Dd le8Gt eO{ /Xof] . bh{gf} gful/s / kqsf/ 3fOt] eP . k|x/L k|zf;gsf] cg}lts lqmofsnfksf] lj?df % lbg;Dd hgsk'/ aGb /Xof] . @ dlxgf glaTb} km]l/hgsk'/ >[+vnfa xTofsf] 36gfn] eofqmfGt 5 . ;/sf/nfO{ lhDd]jf/Laf]w u/fpg ck/fw hutn] dw]zdf lbgfg'lbg r'gf}lt lbO{ /xFbf klg ;/sf/sf] ;f]r / ultdf s'g} kl/jt{g 5}g . ;/sf/n] hgsk'/jf;LnfO{ cljnDa ;'/Iffsf] cg'e"lt u/fPg eg] dw]znfO{ rDan agfpg] ;xfos zlQmsf] ?kdf ;/sf/ klg /x]sf] s'/f dfGg dw]zL afWo x'G5g .

b]zdf ljBdfg ;+qmd0fsfnLg cj:yf, lkmtnf] sfg"g Joj:yf, :jfy{lnK;fdf lnKt /fhg}lts kf6L{x?sf] kf/:kl/s Gaf6 ;[lht /fhg}lts ult/f]w, G lk8Lt hgtf !% jif{b]lv zflGt / clwsf/sf nflu k|ltIff/t /xFbf klg s]xL kfpg] ;Defjgf lIf0f x'Fb} hfFbf hgtfdf pTkGg cfqmf]z, s'07f, g}/fZotf, g]kfnsf] ;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ lub[li6n] x]l/ /x]sf / cfkmgf] cg's"n dfg]sf ;Ldf kf/Lsf xltof/ Joj;foLx?sf] Joj;fo oL ;a} sf/s tTj x'g, g]kfndf vf;u/L dw]zdf ck/fw a9fpgsf nflu . xltof/ Joj;foLn] klxnf] k6s lgMz'Ns xltof/ pknAw u/fpFbf hf] sf]xL klg o;df tflgg] ePsf]n] ck/fw a9g' c:jfefljs xf]Og . vf;u/L ul/a, a]/f]huf/, o'jfx? ;xh} wg cfh{g x'g] nfnrdf o; If]qdf k|j]z ub{5g .

/fHosf] dw]zk|ltsf] k/Dk/fut s/jfbL ;f]r / ;f]xL adf]lhdsf] Jojxf/, dw]zjfbL bnx?df cu|ufdL /fhgLlts dxTjsf] lrGtgsf] cefjn] dw]zdf /fhgLlts l/QmQf dx;"; x'g' :jfefljs} xf] . dw]zsf] oxL cj:yf ck/fw hutnfO{ ;f+u7lgs ;antf k|bfg u/]sf] xf] . ljwLn] hgdfg;nfO{ s'g} k|sf/sf] ;xof]u lbg g;s]sf] cj:yfdf c/fhs l:yltsf] ;[hgf eO{ ck/fwn] k|>o kfpg] lglj{jfb 5 . of] l:ylt clxn] dw]zdf ljBdfg 5 . cfk/flws 36gfx? lgjf{w ?kn] dw]zdf nfdf] ;do ;Dd cEof;/t /Xof] eg] dw]z ;z:q Gdf hfg] lglZrt 5 .

dw]z /fli6o hLjgsf] k|f0f ePsf]n] o;sf] cg'kl:yltdf g /fli6o lrGtg k"0f{ x'G5 g /fli6o /fhgLlt g} ;kmn x'G5 . g b]zdf ;xhLs/0f x'G5, g ;d[l g} cfpF5 . b'O{ /fli6otfsf] dfgl;stfn] /fli6o efjgf slxn] alnof] gx'g] s'/f k|i6 5 . s/jfbL k/Dk/fdf afFlr /x]sf oL /fhgLlts bnx? gofF g]kfn agfpg] a]nfdf ljrf/df kl/jt{g gb]lvg'n] klg b]znfO{ c;xhtflt/ ws]Ng ;xof]uL ag]sf] b]lvG5 . /fli6o :t/df dw]zsf] cxd e"ldsfnfO{ uf}0f kf/]/ o; oyfy{af6 cGhfg eP/ /fhgLlts bnx?sf] s/jfbL lrGtgsf] lg/Gt/tfn] nf]stGqsf] laN6Ldfq cfPsf], nf]stGq cfpg clxn] afFsL g} /x]sf] efg x'G5 . dw]znfO{ clxn] klg gLlt lgdf{0fb]lv ;/sf/sf] cGo lgsfodf ;dfj]zL gu/fpg ck|ToIf aGb]h /x'~h]n b]znfO sNof0f x'Fb}g . nf]stGqsf] JolQmut, kf6L{ut kl/efiff gu/]/ /fli6o kl/efiff g} b]znfO{ ;xhtflt/ cu|;/ u/fpg ;Sb5 . cf]7] ;xfg'e"lt eGbf Jojxf/df lgikIftf NofP/ hg clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug'{df g} ;a}sf] sNof0f x'g]5 .

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dw]z g]kfnsf] cfly{s d]?b08Lo e"ldsfdf ;w}+ pkl:yt /x]sf] s'/f ;j{ljlbt 5 . /fli6o of]ubfgdf cJjn bhf{df /x]sf] dw]z ztflAbof}+ b]lv c;dfgtf, e]befjdf k/]sf] s'/f /fHon] cg'e"t ug{ ;s]g . kmn:j?k Hjfnfd'vLs} ?kdf dw]z /fHo ;dIf pkl:yt eof] . ;+3Lo ;+/rgfdf ;du| dw]z Ps k|b]z sf] dw]zsf] kl/jlt{t ?k b]v]/ /fHo eoeLt eof] . sft/, 8/kf]s, hL xh'l/of dw]zLn] ljb|f]x ug]{ s'/f /fHon] slxn] lrtfPsf] lyPg .

hxfF zf]if0f r/dljGb'df x'G5, ljb|f]xsf] cfFwL ToxL+af6 z'? x'G5 eGg] hu hflx/ oyfy{nfO{ klg ;fdGtL ;+/rgfsf] /fHon] a'g ;s]g . dw]zsf] cuf8L /fHon] 3'F8f 6]sg' k/of] . clxn] dw]z ;j{q rrf{sf] laifo ag]sf] 5 . dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg ug]{ s'/fsf] ax;, 5nkmn xf]Og, dw]zsf] zlQmnfO{ s;/L Go"g ug]{ eGg] lrGtf, rf;f]sf] ax;, 5nkmn Jofks 5 . dw]z km]l/ lz/ p7fpg g;sf]; eGg] 7f]; /0fgLlt th'{df ul/b}5 . ;+j}wflgs ;ldltn] !$ k|b]zsf] NofPsf] cjwf/0ff o;sf :ki6 pbfx/0f x'g, h;df dw]znfO{ rf/ k|b]zdf ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 . /fHosf lje]bsf k|f?k oxfF qmlds ?kdf /fVg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 .

dw]zdf z}lIfs :t/ pQL0f{ hg;+Vof @))! cg';f/ P;) Pn) ;L) jf ;f] ;/x pQL0f{ ;+Vof $%*)^@ cyf{t s"n ;fIf/ ;+Vofsf] (=)^ k|ltzt, cfO{) P) jf ;f] ;/x pQL0f{ ;+Vof @&^!%% cyf{t %=)* k|ltzt, aL) P) jf ;f] ;/x pQL0f{ ;+Vof !#!()( cyf{t @=)* k|ltzt, Pd) P) jf ;f] ;/x pQL0f{ ;+Vof #)%)( cyf{t )=)^ k|ltzt dfq /x]sf] 5 . dw]zsf] z}lIfs cj:yf hlt sdhf]/ 5 To;sf] slt u'0ff a9L lzIffsf] u'0f:t/ sdhf]/ 5 . oxL cj:yf /lx /Xof] eg] cfufdL %) jif{df klg dw]zL /fHosf] x/]s c+u / txdf k"0f{ ;dfj]zL x'g ;Sb}g .

nf]stflGqs ;/sf/sf] bDe lnPsf] jQ{dfg ;/sf/sf ;+:s[lt dGqLn] nlntsnf k|lti7fgdf dw]zL ;dfj]z ePsf] ;ldltnfO{ anhkmtL lj36g u/]/ dw]zL afx]ssf cfkmgf ;dy{sx?nfO{ lnP/ ;ldlt u7g u/]sf] 5 . Pp6f klg dw]zL ;dfj]z gul/Psf] k'gu{l7t ;ldlt lj? nlntsnf k|lti7fgsf lgjQ{dfg pkfWoIf pdf z+s/ ;fxn] ;+:s[lt dGqL, k|wfgdGqLnfO{ ljkIfL agfP/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ u/]/ Pp6f ;/fxgLo pbfx/0f lbg' ePsf] 5 . ;dfj]zL cjwf/0ffnfO{ nTofP/ gLlt lgdf{0f ug{ clt dof{lbt :yfgdf a;]sf oL dGqLx? lj?df jf kIfdf s] lg0f{o cfpF5, x]g{ afFsL 5 .

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pk/f]Qm tYofFsn] s[lif / cf}Bf}lus If]qdf /fHon] u/]sf] lje]bnfO{ phfu/ u5{ eg] lzIffsf] If]qdf klg dw]z slt lk5l8Psf] eGg] s'/f tnsf] tflnsfn] b]vfPsf] 5 .

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dw]zdf JofKt ul/aL, u'0f:t/ lzIffsf] cefj / ;/sf/sf] k|:t'ltk|lt pbf;Lg lzIffgLltsf sf/0f lzIffsf] :t/ cuf8L a9g ;s]sf] 5}g . ;a}sf nflu lzIff ;/sf/sf] cfsif{s gf/f afFl8P klg tT;DalGw sfo{of]hgf, cg'udg tyf dw]zdf u'0f :t/Lo lzIffsf] u|fkm s;/L cuf8L a9fpg] eGg] af/] 7f]; of]hgfsf] cefjdf ck]lIft a[lb/ xfl;n ug{ c;Dej 5 . ut c+sdf dw]zdf ;/sf/L tYofFsn] b]vfPsf] lzIffsf] :t/af/] pNn]v u/]sf] lyPF . /fli6o :t/df ;fIf/tf b/ %^=)^, kxf8df ;fIf/tf b/ ^%=)^ / dw]zdf ;fIf/tf b/ #*=)$ 5 . kxf8;+u dw]zsf] t'ngf ubf{ s] sf/0fn] b'u{ddf lzIffb/ a9of] / ;'u{ddf lzIffb/ tn /Xof] . oL c;dfgtfaf/] lautsf s'g} klg ;/sf/n] uDeL/tfk"j{s lrGtg u/]sf] kfOb}g . ;/sf/ uDeL/ ePsf] eP lzIffsf] a[lb/ p7fpg cljnDa To;vfnsf lzIff gLlt Nofpg' kb{Yof] . cyf{t dw]zk|lt zf;sju{sf] lje]bk"0f{ lrGtgdf e"t, jt{dfg / eljiodf s'g} kl/jt{g gx'g] cj:yf b]lvG5 . elgG5 b]zsf gful/s lzlIft eP b]z ;an / ;DkGg x'G5 . t/ hlt;'s} kl/jt{g cfP klg zf;sdf aa{/ ;fdGtL lrGtgdf km/s eg] b]lvPg .

utfFsdf @))! sf] tYofFs cg';f/ dw]zdf x/]s txdf 5fqx?sf] pQL0f{ ;+Vof / k|ltzt pNn]v u/]sf] lyPF h; cg';f/ P;)Pn);L) sf] (=)^ k|ltzt, cfO{)P)sf] %=)* k|ltzt, jL)P) sf] @=)* k|ltzt / Pd)P) sf] )=)^ k|ltzt pQL0f{ ePsf] tYofFs 5 . of] tYofFsn] P;)Pn);L) sf] Go"g pQL0f{b/ / pRr lzIfflt/ 36b} uPsf] pQL0f{ b/n] dw]zdf lzIffsf] bogLo cj:yf b]vfpF5 . dw]zsf 5fq 5fqfnfO{ P;)Pn);L) jf cfO{)P) ;Dd dfq k9g kfpg] c3f]lift k|ltaGw nufPsf] h:tf] efg x'G5 . cyf{t dw]zdf lzIff k|of]hgsf nflu xf]Og lgof]hgsf nflu xf] h:tf] nfU5 . ca dw]zL dlxnfsf] ;fIf/tf b/ x]/f}+

/fli6o dlxnf ;fIf/tf b/ $@=)* /x]sf] 5 . dw]zL afx'No /x]sf] !) j6f lhNnfsf] z}lIfs b/ / kxf8L afx'Notf ePsf] dw]zsf c? lhNnfsf] dlxnf ;fIf/tf b/nfO{ ljrf/ ubf{ dw]zL dlxnfsf] lzIffdf clxn] klg kx'Fr x'g g;s]sf] :ki6 x'G5 .

lzIff ljsf;sf] d"n f/ xf] . lzIff ljgf s'g} k|ult ck]Iffs[t cuf8L a9g ;Sb}g . lzIffsf] If]qdf Psgf;n] kl/df0ffTds / u'0ffTds ljsf; Nofpg' ;/sf/sf] bfloTjsf] laifo xf] . las6 kxf8L If]qsf] z}lIfs u|fkm ^%=)^ k|ltztn] p7]sf] 5 eg] dw]zdf lzIffsf] u|fkm #*=)$ k|ltzt tn 5 . ;/sf/ cyjf lzIff dGqfnon] o; cGt/sf] sf/0f af/] lzIffljb, ;/f]sf/sf ;+3 ;+:yf / bft[ /fi6x? aLr 5nkmn, cGtlqm{off/f lgrf]8 lgsfn]/ s'g} 7f]; /0fgLlt agfPsf] b]lvb}g . ;a}sf] nflu lzIff sfNklgs cfsif{s gf/fn] dw]zsf] z}lIfs :t/ dfly p7b}g .

ufpFdf :s'n 5, k|fylds txdf lgz'Ns lzIff Joj:yf 5 . lgDg dfWolds ljBfno / dfWolds ljBfno lgDg z'Nsdf lzIff pknAw u/fO{ /x]sf] cj:yfdf klg ck]lIft ;kmntf gldNg'sf] sf/0f s] xf] < oxL+ lzIffsf] ult cj? ePsf] 5 . ultxLgtfsf] sf/0f o;} 7fpFdf vf]Hg cfjZos 5 . a''Fbfut ?kdf sf/0fx? oL x'gM

-!_ hgd'vL, kmnbfoL / ;j{;'ne 7f]; lzIff gLltsf] cefj . -@_ u|fdL0f hghLjgsf] cWoog, d'NofFsg / lzIff ;xhLs/0fsf] cefj . -#_ sfof{Gjog tyf cg'udgsf] cefj . -$_ ljkGg ju{df lzIffsf] kx'Fr a9fpg lzIff lgsfosf] gLltut tyf Jojxfl/s k|of; gx'g' . -%_ lzIff lgsfodf Odfgbf/, bIf / phf{jfg hgzlQmsf] cefj . -^_ Jofj;flos lzIff gLlt NofP/ pRr lzIffaf6 al~rt ul/g' . -&_ :t/Lo lzIffsf] cefj . -*_ e|i6frf/ / cg}ltstfsf] a9bf] k|efj / -(_ ul/aLsf] Jofks k|efj .

ufFpsf ljkGg ju{sf] cfkmg} lsl;dsf] lbgrof{ ePsf]n] pgLx? cfo cfh{g ug{ ;kl/jf/ sfd afF8]/ nfu]sf x'G5g . :s'ndf lbOg] ;/sf/L ;'ljwfn] pgLx?sf] jfnjflnsfnfO{ b'O{ rf/ lbgsf] nflu cfslif{t u/] klg ;w}+sf nflu cfslif{t ug{ ;Sb}g . sfd afF8]/ kl/jf/sf ;b:ox? xnf] hf]Tg], uf]?, ufO{, e}+;L r/fpg], afv|f r/fpg], 3fF; sf6g], dlxnfx? 3/sf] sfd ug]{, oxL lbgrof{df nfu]sf x'G5g . o;af6 pgLx? cfo cfh{g u/]/ hLljsf rnfPsf x'G5g . :s'nn] pgLx?nfO{ cfo cfh{gaf6 al~rt ul/ lbg] ePsf]n] :s'nsf] lzIffk|lt s'g} cfsif{0f /xb}g . ufpF ;dfhdf !% jif{;Dd lzIff cfh{g u/]/ klg a]/f]huf/ a;]sfx?nfO{ x]/]/ pgLx? lzIffk|lt s'g} rf;f] /fVb}g . lzIffn] cfoaf6 al~rt ug]{, !% jif{;Dd vr{ u/fpg] / To;kl5 3/kl/jf/sf] klg sfd ug{ g;Sg], aflx/ sfd gkfpg], o;sf] sfd 5}g .

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;g !(() df o'g]:sf]n] yfONof08sf] hf]d]l6g zx/df ;a}sf] nflu lzIff laifos ljZj ;Dd]ng cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] . ;a} ;b:o /fi6x?n] ;g @))) ;Dddf cfkmgf] b]zaf6 clzIffsf] b/ cfwL 36fpg] k|lt1f kqdf x:tfIf/ u/]sf lyP . @)!% ;Dddf clzIff lgd"{n ug]{ c7f]6sf ;fy ;Dd]ng ;dfKt ePsf] lyof] . g]kfnsf] clzIff b/ $%=( k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . clzIff b/ 36fpg jf lgd"{n kfg{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] 7f]; kxnsf ;fy cuf8L a9]sf] b]lvb}g . ;a}sf nflu lzIff eGg] gf/f cl3 ;fl/Psf] 5 .

dw]zdf ax'n?kdf /x]sf o:tf ;d'bfox? 5g h;sf] hghLjgdf lzIffsf] s'g} dxTj 5}g . k/Dk/fut ?kn] k|of]u ePsf] lbgrof{df ;fd]n pgLx?sf] cfkmg} lsl;dsf] lzIff 5 . To;}sf] cfwf/df pgLx?sf] hLjg cuf8L al9 /x]sf] x'G5 . b}lgs sdfpg], vfg] ;d:ofaf6 h]lnPsf oL ;d'bfosf] lzIffk|lt s'g} cfsif{0f g /x]sf] cj:yfdf lzIffdf logLx?sf] kx'Fr a9fpg 7"nf] r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . cfkmg} lsl;dn] afFlr /x]sf o:tf ;d'bfonfO{ dfq ;xfg'e"lt cyjf ;a}sf nflu lzIff eGg] sf]/f gf/f lbP/ pgsf] ;d'bfodf lzIffnfO{ k|j]z u/fpg s7Lg 5 . clxn]sf] lzIffgLltnfO{ j}1flgs, ;j{;'nesf] ;+1f lbPklg lzIffaf6 a+lrt oL ;d'bfonfO{ clzIffsf] c+GWof/f]af6 aflx/ lgsfNg ;lsPg eg] lzIffsf] o:tf] j}1flgstfdfly ;w}+ k|Zg lrGx nflu /fVg] lglZrt 5 .

dw]zdf ;fdfGotM u'0f:t/xLg lzIffn] lzIffu|fxLdf Ifdtf clej[l x'g g;Sg', lr6 rf]/]/ kf; x'g] k|j[ltsf] ljsf; x'g' nufot cg]sf}+ s'k|j[ltsf] hGd lbPsf] 5 . o:t} z}lIfs jftfj/0fdf :gfts, l8u|Lsf] lzIff xfl;n u/L dw]zsf o'jfx? /fli6o k|lt:kwf{df c;kmntf k|fKt u/]kl5 xhf/f}+sf] ;+Vofdf a]/f]huf/ / lbzfxLg ePsf] ;d:ofn] o'jfx?nfO{ ck/fwf]Gd'v agfPsf] 5, ef/tlt/ knfog u/]sf] 5 . lzIffsf] u'0f:t/xLgtfsf] o:tf] jLeT; pbfx/0f st} kfOb}g . dw]zsf] ;dfj]zL cjwf/0ff s;/L Jojxf/tM k'/f x'g] <

lzIffgLlt cfkmgf] w/ftnLo oyfy{tfsf] cfwf/df Jofjxfl/s, ;j{;'ne / k"0f{ j}1flgs x'g' kb{5, ljb]zL cfoftLt k|0ffnL xfd|f] oyfy{tf;+u d]n gx'Fbf ck]lIft kl/0ffd lbg ;Sb}g . s'g} vf; clt ljsl;t ;d'bfo;+u To; k|0fnLsf] ;jf{ d]n x'g ;Sb5 t/ g]kfnsf] u|fdL0f If]q nfeflGjt x'g ;Sb}g . dw]z t laNs'n} xf]Og . z}lIfs If]qdf g]kfnsf] Pp6f ;d'bfo clt ljsl;t cj:yfdf 5 eg] dw]z k|:yfg ljGb'df . ljsl;t ;d'bfosf cfwf/df gLlt th'{df ug'{ cJofjxfl/s / kmnxLg g} x'g] s'/f ;/sf/L tYofFsn] b]vfO{ ;s]sf] 5 .

ljkGg ju{nfO{ lzlIft t'Nofpg', cfTdlge{/ agfpg' g} lzIffIf]qsf] cfzftLt ;kmntf dfGg ;lsG5 / b]znfO{ ;d[ agfpg] lbzfdf lzIffIf]qsf] 7f]; of]ubfg klg . ;e|fGt kl/jf/n] b]zsf dxuf :s'n, ef/t, cd]l/sf, n08g cflb b]zdf uP/ lzIff u|x0f u5{g . lzIffIf]qn] ufpFdf :s'n eP/ klg gk9g] ;d'bfosf nflu /0fgLlt tof/ u/]/ cuf8L a9g' kb{5 . ljsl;t ;dfhsf] bfFhf]df lzIffaf6 a+lrt ;d'bfonfO{ NofO{ k'/ofpg'nfO{ lzIffIf]qdf ljsf; ePsf] dflgg] 5 .

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dw]zsf rf/ /fhgLlts bnsf] df]rf{ clxn] lg0ff{os e"ldsfdf /x]sf]n] ;dy{g h'6fpg g]kfnL sfFu|];, dfcf]jfbLsf] efubf}8 z' 5 . b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dtsf] cfwf/df pDd]bjf/L lbPsf] Pdfn] dt g kfPkl5 lgjf{rgaf6 aflxl/Psf] 5 . dw]zL df]rf{n] cfkmgf] d"ne"t dfFunfO{ cufl8 ;f/]sf] 5 . cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ ;lxt :jfoQ dw]z k|b]zn] v'a} rrf{ kfPsf] 5 . cfTdlg0f{osf] :jfoQ dw]z k|b]zn] ljv08g Nofpg] ;dfg lrGtg af]s]sf ;a} /fhgLlts bnx clxn] ;dy{g lng nlrnf] b]lvPklg lg0f{o ug]{ a]nfdf nlrnf] eg] x'g] 5}gg .

sflGtk'/, @)^& >fj0f !* ut], kf7s d~rdf Xo'dfg /fO6; ljbfp6 k|mlG6o;{ g]kfnsf] /fh' yfkfn] cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/sf s'/f af/] n]Vg' ePsf] n]v ;fGble{s /x]sf]n] p[t ug{ plrt 7fGb5' .

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cGt/f{li6o k|fjwfgdWo]sf] Ps dfgjclwsf/sf] leofgf 3f]if0ffkq !((# sf] wf/f # n] cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/nfO{ cfwf/e"t dfgjclwsf/ dfg]sf] 5 . To:t} ;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3Lo clwsf/ kq ( sf] wf/f ! -@_ n] ;+o'Qm /fi6;+3sf] p2]Zo ;dfg clwsf/sf] l;fGt tyf cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/nfO{ ;Ddfg ug'{ xf] eg]/ :ki6 kfl/ lbPsf] 5 . To:t} oxL clwsf/kqsf] wf/f %% nufotdf zflGt :yfkgf / bf}To ;DaGwdf cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/sf] dxTjaf/]df k|:6ofOPsf] 5 . oL k|fjwfgnfO{ 6f9f /fv]/ g]kfndf cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/sf] j}wflgs dfGotfsf af/]df ax; ug]{ xf] eg] klg g]kfn kIf/fi6 ePsf] gful/s tyf /fhgLlts clwsf/sf] cGt/f{li6o cg'aGw tyf cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;fF:s[lts clwsf/sf] cGt/f{li6o cg'aGw b'a}sf] klxnf] wf/fdf g} ;a}nfO{ cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrttf u/fOPsf] 5 . !((! Dff oL b'O{ cg'aGwsf] kIf/fi6 ePkZrft g]kfn ;/sf/n] cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ glbg] eGg' ;/f;/ cj}wflgs sfo{ u/]sf] dfq g7xl/O{ cGt/f{li6o cg'aGwsf] lvNnL p8fPsf] 7xl/g]5 .

o; laifodf ax; eO/xbf g]kfndf s]xL a'lhLjLxn] s;}af6 lgb]{lzt eO{ cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ pklgj]zxdf dfq k|of]u x'g] laifo eg]/ hgtfnfO{ lbUe|ldt u/fO{ /x]sf 5g . xfdLn] cGt/f{li6o kIf;+u u/]sf ;lGw ;Demf}tf sfof{Gjog u5f}{+ egL xfd|} hgk|ltlgwLsf] ax'dtn] kfl/t u/]sf xf}+ . Tof] ;lGw ;Demf}tf ljk/Lt hfg vf]Hof}+ eg] xfdLnfO{ cGt/f{li6o hutn] 5f]8g] 5}g . /fhgLlts bnxn] tL ;lGw ;Demf}tfsf] efjgf / cfzo a'em]/ cfd ;xdltdf hfg l9nfO gug .

cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ cfwf/e"t dfgjclwsf/ xf] eGg] ;j{dfGo l;fGt ljk/Lt g]kfnsf /fhgLlt1xn] cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/leq ljv08g n's]sf] eg]/ JofVof ug'{ lgtfGt ;fdGtL ;+:sf/sf] 9LjfbL lrGtg dfq xf] . dw]znfO{ cfTd;ft ug{ grfxg] k|j[ltsf] JofVof xf] . ;fdGtL 9LjfbL lrGtg af]s]sf] zf;sLo k|j[lt clxn] klg /fHodf xfjL /x]sf]n,] cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ ;DalGw ;+o'Qm /fi6;+3sf] j8fkqdf x:tfIf/ u/] klg cfkmgf] b]zdf cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ eg]sf] ljv08gsf] eo b]vfP/ JofVof ug{ ;jf{lwsf/ k|fKt /x]sf]n] cfTdlg0f{osf] ;j{dfGo l;fGtsf] o;/L JofVof x'g' :jfefljs klg xf] .

cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ lb+bf ljv08g x'g] xf]Og, a ;fdGtL 9LjfbL lrGtg ljv08gsf] sf/0f aGg ;S5 . o:t} lrGtgn] b]zdf dfcf]jfbLnfO{ hGd lbPsf]5, dw]zsf] ljb|f]xnfO{ hGdfPsf]5 . o:t} lrGtgsf] lg/Gt/tf /lx/Xof] eg] b]z ljv08gdf hfb}g eGg ;lsGg .

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/fHodf ePsf] l9jfbL ;+:sf/ / kl/jl{t{t ;/sf/df OR5fzlQmsf] clt sdhf]/ cj:yfsf sf/0fn] klg oL laifoxdf ck]lIft kl/jt{g x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . blnt s} ;+be{df s'/f ubf{ b]zleq} klg kxf8sf] blnteGbf dw]zsf] blnt Hofb} kLl8t 5 . @!cf}+ ztfAbLsf] ;Eo ;dfhdf hflte]bsf] sfnf] wAaf lgZro klg ;Eotfdfly k|Zg lrXg v8f u5{ . lje]bsf k|fkx cfTd;ft u/]sf ;dfh ;Eo ;dfh sxnfpg ;Sb}g . dfgj dfgjaLrsf] cdfgjLo lje]b sfod /fVg] ;dfh aa{/o'uLg ;dfheGbf km/s k/]sf ;d'bfon] klg ;dfh / b]znfO{ 7'nf] of]ubfg ug{ ;S5 . /fd|f] k|ltefsf] hGd lbg ;S5 . ljZj Oltxf;n] xfdLnfO{ ToxL b]vfPsf] 5 . 9LjfbL lrGtg / kl/jt{gsf] j]udf ;w}+ 6s/fj /xg] ePsf]n] ;dfh ljsf;eGbf 6fl9g] u5{ . o;n] ;dfhdf cg]s ljs[ltsf] hGd lnG5 .

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b]zdf !@ jif]{ dfcf]jfbL hgo', )^@^# sf] hg cfGbf]ng / dw]z cfGbf]ngn] cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgdf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds g]kfn ;}flGts cjwf/0ff ;dfj]z ul/ ;s]sf] kl/j]zdf klg k'/fgf] /fHo;Qfsf] ;fdGtL ljlw / Jojxf/ clxn]sf] ;/sf/L ;+oGqdf xfjL /x]sf]n] nf]stGqsf] :yfkgf / ;+:yfut ljsf; xf:of:kb s'/f ePsf] 5 . JolQmnfO{ y'g]/ zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s oftgfsf] andf ck/fwL ;flat ug]{ ;fdGtL ;Qfsf] sfg"g xf] eg] JolQmsf] lj ;Dk"0f{ k|df0fx k|fKt u/] kl5 dfgjflwsf/ xgg gx'g] ul/ lu/tf/ ug]{ nf]stflGqs klt xf] . klxn] y'Gg], To;kl5 ;'Gg] h:tf] 9LjfbL aa{/ Jojxf/n] nf]stGqsf] hu alnof] agfpg ;Snf <

/fHosf] rf}yf] c+usf] kdf /x]sf] kqsf/ hutsf] dfg ;Ddfg, dof{bf, k|lti7fnfO{ /fHon]g} ;+/If0f lbg] xf] . dw]zjf0fLsf ;Dkfbs tyf k|sfzs /fh]z clx/fhnfO{ h'g lsl;dn] ;'/IffsdL{x dw]zjf0fLsf] sfof{noaf6 lu/tf/ u/]/ nUof], nfUbYof], dlxgf} cys txlssft k|of;kl5 w]/} 7"nf] ck/fwLnfO{ ;dfltPsf] xf] . c;f]h ! ut] ;dft]/ & ut] 5f]8g', xfQL cfof] xfQL cfof], km':;f g} xf] t < olb oxL xf] eg] o; 36gfaf6 ;d:t kqsf/ hutsf] k|lti7fnfO{ wlHh p8fPsf] a'lemb}g < b'a} xft afFw]/ Hofgdf/f h:t} Dofb ydfpg nluPsf] 6L=eL=af6 b]vfOPsf] b[io /fHooGqsf] aa{/ Jojxf/ eT;{gfof]Uo 5}g < s] o;nfO{ dfgjflwsf/ pNn+3g elgb}g < Psflt/ ;/sf/n] Gdf zf/Ll/s tyf dfgl;s oftgf kfPsfnfO{ Ifltk"lt{ lbg] sfg"g agfP/ ljZj dfgjflwsf/ d~rdf rf]vf] ag]sf] 5, eg] b]zleq Pp6f lgbf]{if kqsf/ /fh]z clx/fhdfly /fHooGqsf] aa{/ Jojxf/n] nf]stflGqs ;/sf/sf] rf]vf]kgfsf] lvNnL p8fpFb}g <

b]zsf] kl/jlt{t kl/j]zdf, nf]stflGqs zf;g k|0ffnLsf] s'/f ul/ /x]sf] a]nf l9jfbL ;fdGtL ;+:sf/o'Qm /fHo ;+oGqn] hgtfsf] nf]stflGqs zf;g k|0ffnLsf] ;kgfnfO{ ;fsf/ x'g b]nf < jf b]znfO{ k'gM oyfl:yltjfblt/ kmsf{pnf < ;/sf/n] /fHo ;+oGqsf] Jojxf/nfO{ a]n}df ;Rofpg' kb{5 . /fHo ;+oGqn] klg l9nf] gul/ l9jfbL Jojxf/nfO{ nf]stflGqs cfr/0fdf kfGtl/t ug'{ kb{5 . /fHo ;+oGqn] dw]zLnfO{ dfG5] g} guGg] kf}/fl0fs ;fdGtL ;f]rsf] Hjn+t pbfx/0f Clif wdnf / lj/]Gb| s]= Pd= sf] d'2f xf] . Clif wdnfdfly cGofo ePsf] s'/f ;/sf/ / /fHo ;+oGq ;a}n] cg'ej u/of] . pgnfO{ tTsfn l/xf ul/of], t/ lj/]Gb| s]=Pd= nufotxn] dlxgf}+ y'gfdf a:g' k/of] . Pp6} d'2fdf /fHosf] km/s km/s Jojxf/ dw]zLsf] sf/0f geO{ ;/sf/n] c s] sf/0f lbg ;S5 .

kqsf/ /fh]z clx/fh klg dw]zL ePs} sf/0f /fHo ;+oGqn] n"6kf6sf] z}nLdf pxfFnfO{ lu/kmtf/ u/]sf] xf] . hgtfnfO{ x/]s s'/faf6 cjut u/fpg' kqsf/sf] g};lu{s wd{ xf], df}lns clwsf/ klg . hgtflGqs t/fO{ d'lQm df]rf{sf] lj1fkg 5fKb}df ck/fwL aGg] s'g ;f]r xf], JofVof x'g h/L 5 . dfcf]jfbL hgo'sf] a]nfdf p;sf w]/} uf]Ko s'/fx klqsfsf] dfWodaf6 aflx/ cfpFYof], v} ltgLxdfly d'2f rn]sf] < oxL s'/fnfO{ dof{lbt 9+un] af]nfP/ ;f]wk'5 ubf{ n'/] ;+oGq sxlnGyPg xf]nf . h] xf];, /fHo ;+oGqsf] Pp6f lgbf]{if kqsf/dfly cdof{lbt / cdfgljo Jojxf/n] ;d:t kqsf/ hutsf] ;Ddfg / :jfledfgdfly rf]6 k'u]sf] s'/f :ki6 5 . nf]stflGqs ;/sf/n] kqsf/dfly o; lsl;dsf] cdof{lbt Jojxf/ cljnDa aGb ug'{ kb{5 / cdfgjLo 9+un] lbPsf] dfgl;s oftgfsf] Ifltk"lt{ lbP/ g}lts bfloTj klg lgjf{x ug'{ kb{5 .

@)^& c;f]h !% ut]

b]zdf /fhgLlt ult/f]w k/fsfi7fdf k'u]sf] 5 . /fhgLlts bnxdf /fhg}lts b'/blz{tfsf] Jofks cefj b]lvPsf] 5 . blno :jfy{df r'n'{Dd 8'a]sf /fhgLlts bnx h'jf8] h:t} nfesf nflu 5Ssf k~hf xfGg Jo:t 5g . lhTg] clek|fon] v]nsf] z'jft u/] klg ;a} xf/]sf 5g . g]t[TjbfoL zlQmdf g} b]zsf] ultzLntf lglxt /x]sf]n] b]z xfg'{ :jfefljs xf] . b]zdf cf7f}+ k6s ;Dd k|wfgdGqL rog x'g g;Sg' xf:of:kb dfq xf]Og, nHhf:kb klg xf] . /fli6o, cGt/fli6o :t/df bnxsf] /fhgLlts k|lti7f cjd'Nog ePsf] 5 . klxnf] b]lv cf7f}+ k6s ;Dd s;}n] s;}nfO{ ef]6 lbPg . gjf}+ k6s cyf{t @)^& c;f]h !$ ut] Psdfq pDd]bjf/ /fdrGb| kf}8]nnfO{ klg s;}n] ef]6 xfNb}g . oxL c;f]h !@ ut] k|wfgdGqL rogsf] o:tf] nHhf:kb v]nsf] lj ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf l/6 bfo/ ePsf] 5 . /fhgLlts bnxaLr ljutsf] v]ndf a9b} uPsf] cljZjf;n] g} r'gfjL k|lqmofnfO{ c;kmn t'NofPsf] xf] . k6s k6s kl/0ffd glgl:sbf kl/l:yltn] /fli6o ;xdtLlt/ hfg ;+s]t u/]sf] 5 . t/ blno :jfy{df cGwf] ePsf] /fhgLlts bnx clxn] ;Dd klg /fhgLlts oyfy{nfO{ a'emg ;s]sf] 5}g, jf a'em krfP/ km]l/ cfgf] b'gf] ;f]emofpg] sfddf lnKt 5g .

/fhgLlts bnx 5 dlxgf b]lv ;xdtLsf nflu ;of}+ k6s a}7s a:bf klg lgisif{ lgsfNg ;s]g . bnxn] ;xdtLsf] zflAbs cy{ eGbf aflx/ uP/ ;xdtL vf]Hg] k|of;df c;kmn ePsf 5g . bnLo k|wfgtfnfO{ sfod /fv]/ ;a}n] ;xdtL ug]{ k|of;n] g} b]zdf c;xh kl/l:ylt lgdf{0f ePsf] xf] . bnLo :jfy{eGbf dfly p7]/ ;xcl:tTjsf] cfwf/df b]zsf] :jfy{nfO{ s]Gb|df /fv]/ 5nkmnsf] dfWodaf6 ;xdtL vf]lhof] eg] lgZro klg lgisif{ lgl:sG5 .

b]z lbgfg'lbg c;xh kl/l:yltlt/ a9b} uO{ /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . d"Noa[l, e|i6frf/, xTof, lx+;f, c;'/Iff, ckx/0f, cg}lts 36gfx, n'6kf6 cflb lgjf{w kn] a[l eO{ /x]sf] 5 . oxL c;f]h !@ ut] o'/f]lkog o'lgogn] g]kfndf dfgjflwsf/ pNn+3gsf] 36gfdf w]/} j[l ePsf] k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5 . /fd|f] hLjg :t/sf] cfzdf g]kfnL hgtf 3f]/ lg/fzf, s'07f ef]Ug afWo ePsf 5g . /fhgLlts bnxdf cljZjf; olt w]/} dfqfdf a9]sf] 5 ls glhs eljiodf /fhgLlts ult/f]w cGt x'g] s'g} ;Defjgf b]lvb}g .

;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfnsf] e|"0fnfO{ ;+/If0f ug]{ t s] s'/f, t'xfpg] lgotn] v]lnPsf] /fhgLlts v]nsf] cGt ;a}sf] cl:tTjsf] cGt;+u} x'g] xf] ls < b]znfO{ nfdf] ;do ;Dd clg0f{osf] aGbL agfP/ /fVbf s:tf] kl/l:ylt cfpg] eGg] s'/flt/ klg /fhgLlts bnxn] Wofg k'/ofpg h/L 5 .

Ps t /fhgLlts ;xdtL aGg s7Lg 5, alg klg xfNof] eg] olt sd ;dodf ;+ljwfg agfpg d'lZsn 5 . hgkIfLo ;+ljwfg agfpg kof{Kt ;do rflxg] ePsf]n] Tof] s'/f ca eg] ;Dej b]lvPsf] 5}g . olt sd ;dodf aGg] ;+ljwfg hgtfdfly nfbg] ;+ljwfg g} x'g]5 . hgtfaf6 Jofks 5nkmn u/fP/ NofOPsf] ;'emfjsf] cfwf/df aGg] ;+ljwfg hgkIfLo x'g ;S5 . ;+ljwfg ;efn] dfu]sf] ;do ca 5}g . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Ps jif]{ Dofb ylkPsf]df rf/ dlxgf laTg nfu]sf] 5 . /fhgLlts ult/f]w cGt ePsf] 5}g . ;+ljwfg aGb}g eGg] s'/f hgtfnfO{ a'emg ca sl7g 5}g .

;Qf ;dLs/0f eGbf km/s ;f]r dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxsf] klg 5}g . /fli6o /fhgLlts j[tdf ult/f]w x6fpg] ;DaGwdf, /fHo k'g;+{/rgf ;DaGwdf, ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ;DaGwdf dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxsf] e"ldsf laNs'n uf}0f ePsf] 5 . dw]zdf JofKt c/fhs l:yltaf/] klg df}g 5 . dtbftf gfdfjnL ;+sng ug]{ ;/sf/L cleofgdf gful/stfsf] k|fjwfgnfO{ x6fpg' kg]{ eGg] PsLs[t lj/f]w eg] k|z+;gLo xf] . dw]zsf] cleef/f af]Sg] dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxn] cfgf] sQ{JonfO{ a'em]/ df}gtf e+u u/]/ dw]zsf oL cxd ;jfndf cfjfh p7fpFb} cfgf] e"ldsf k|bz{g ug'{ kb{5 .

;QfkIfsf] g]kfnL sfFu|];, Pdfn]n] hgodf dfl/Psf cfgf sfo{sQf{xnfO{ zxLb 3f]if0ff u/]sf] xf] . ToxL cj;/ kf/]/ ;Qfdf ePsf dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v ePsf] / $ jif{b]lv k]l8 /flvPsf] em'7f d'2f vf/]hL, 3fOt] ckfnfO{ /fxt lbg], zxLb 3f]if0ff cflb d'2fxnfO{ ;Daf]wg u/fpg' kb{Yof] . t/ afFsL ar]sf @* hgf dWo] !^ hgfnfO{ dfq zxLb 3f]if0ff u/fpg ;Sof] . !@ hgf zxLb 3f]if0ff x'gaf6 al~rt /x] . g]kfnL sfFu|];, Pdfn]n] cfgf] sfo{sQf{nfO{ zxLb 3f]i0ff u/fpg' lyof], u/fof] . dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxnfO{ rLrL kfkf lbP/ dw]zsf tL d'2fxnfO{ km]l/ k]l8 /fVg g]kfnL sfFu|]; /Pdfn] ;kmn eof] .

dw]zdf uP/ cfgf] axfb'/Lsf] cfVofg lbg gyfSg] dw]zsf oL bnx ;Qfdf /x]/ klg dw]zsf oL d'2fxnfO{ ;Daf]wg u/fpg g;Sbf dw]znfO[{ cfkmgf] csd{0otf, sdhf]/L b]vfP/ OdfGbf/L k|bz{g ug]{ cfF6 b]vfpg ;S5 < ljutsf] r"saf6 ;r]t eP/ k'gZr d'2f ;Daf]wg u/fpg] cfF6 b]vfpg ;S5 oL bnx < s] ;fFRr} dw]zk|lt uDeL/ 5g dw]zsf bnx eg] lgZro g} dw]zsf pk/f]Qm d'2fx ;Daf]wg u/fpg] 5g . xf]Og eg] ;Lhgn /fhgLltsf] cljnDa k6fIf]k x'g]5 .

@)^& c;f]h @@ ut]

@)!@ ;fn b]lv of]hgfd'vL ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] z'jft ePsf] xf] . e"ld s[lif eGbf klg s'nLgju{sf] ;DklQsf] kdf, ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf zlQmsf] kdf k|of]u x'Fb} cfPsf]n] e"ld ;d:of oyfjt /Xof] . ;ftf}+, cf7f}+, gjf}+,bzf}+ of]hgf cGtu{t ;/sf/n] s[lif pTkfbg a9fpg s[lif ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf, dnvfb, lapljhg, s[lif C0fsf] Joj:yf Dff5f k|hgg s]Gb|, j[Iff/f]k0f cflbdf gLlt th'{df ul/ lgs} nufgL u/]sf] b]lvG5 . b'w k|zf]wg, kmnkm'n, t/sf/L cflb vfB kbfy{ pTkfbgdflgs} nufgLul/Psf]ePklg ;du|df g t s[lifsf] pTkfbgdf j[l eof] g e"ld ;d:ofg} xn eof] .

kl5Nnf bzj6f of]hgfxnfO{ x]bf{ s[lifsf] /fli6o :t/sf];"rsfFsdfs'g} k|ult ePsf] b]lvb}g . e"ld Joj:yfkg, e"pkof]u, e"ld ljt/0f, s[lif pTkfbsTj j[l ug{ ;xsf/L s[lif,j}1flgs s[lif k|0ffnLsf] gLlt th'{dfgul/ s[lifdfhlt;'s}ljsf; ah]6ljlgof]hg u/] klg cy{xLg x'g] s'/f kl5Nnf of]hgfsf tYofFsn] b]vfpF5 .

g]kfnsf] s[life"ldsf] %@=^ k|ltztefu dw]zdf/x]sf]n]s[lif pkhsf d'Vo cfwf/ dw]z g} xf] . dw]zsf] s[lifsf] ljzfn kmfF6 l;+rfO{, s[lif ;8s, pGgt lapljhg, s[lif cf}hf/ cflbaf6 al~rt eO{ kf}/fl0fs z}nLdf afFrL /x]sf] ePklg ;/sf/sf] Wofgfs[i6 ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . cfkm';+usf] s[life"ldsf] ;b'kof]u / pTkfbg a9fpg k|of; ul/of] eg] cfTdlge{/ x'g] Ifdtf x'Fbfx'Fb} klg csd{0otfsf sf/0f tyf nufgLsf] b'kof]un] xfdL k/fl>t x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf 5f}+ .

hg;+Vof a[l, ;fdflhs kl/jt{gsf :jkx s[lifdf cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] rfxgf /fVg' :jfefljs klg xf] . kf}/fl0fs ;fdGtL pTkfbg ;DaGwsf] :jknfO{ ca eg] :jLsf/ ug]{ cj:yf 5}g . G p7g] sf/0f klg oxL xf] . ;do ;fk]If kl/jt{gnfO{ :jLsf/ ul/ cuf8L a9g' g} a'ldfgL xf] . e"ld ;d:of lg/fs/0f ug{ / qmflGtsf/L e"ld;'wf/sf] cfjfh cfGbf]ng dfkm{t cleJoQm ePs} xf] . s[lifnfO{ oyfl:yltdf /fv]/ kl/jt{gnfO{ ank'j{s k5fl8 ws]Ng' ljgfz s} sf/0f aGg ;S5 . g]kfnn] ljleGg vfB kbfy{ utjif{ ef/taf6 cfoft u/]sf] tflnsf;+u} k/lge{/tfsf] tflnsf kl5Nnf c+sdf p[t u/]sf] lyPF . xfd|f] k/lge{/tf lbgfg'lbg a9b} hfFbf b]z u'nfd x'g], pklgj]zsf] lzsf/ x'g] k|an ;Defjgf aGb} hfg]5 . k/f]If kdf o;sf nIf0fx xfdL cg'ej klg ul/ /x]sf 5f}+ . ;/sf/n]cfGbf]ngaf6 p7]sf e"ld cfjfhnfO{ ;Daf]wg u/L 7f]; kdf s[lifgLlt tyf nufgLsf] j}1flgs gLlt cg';/0f u/]df dfq oL ;d:of xn x'Fb} hfg] s'/f :ki6 5 .

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s]xL cfw'lgstf af]s]sf] k'/fg} s[lif k|0ffnLn] s[lif ;'ljwfsf] cefjdf klg cfkmg} lsl;dn] s[lif pTkfbgaf6 b]znfO{ of]ubfg ul/ /x]sf] 5 . g]kfndf pAhgL lbg] s[life"ld %! Nffv #$ xhf/ %)) ;o aL3f /x]sf] /fli6o s[lif tYofFsn] b]vfPsf] 5 . ;/b/ %) lSjG6n k|lt aL3fsf b/n] @%,^&,@%,))) lSjG6n vfBfGg cfDbfgL x'G5 . g]kfnsf] s"n hg;+VofnfO{ afF8bf k|lt JolQm !)=& lSjG6n efudf kg{ cfpF5 . ;/b/ g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ ;fnel/nfO{ k'Ug] vfBfGg bl/b|tfnfO{ k/ /fVg] cj:yfdf g]kfnL hgtf cfkm} bl/b|tfsf] rk]6fdf k/]sf] 5 . s] sf/0fn] g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ bl/b|tfdf afFRg afWo kf/]sf] 5 <

k'/fg} s[lif k|0ffnLsf] cfwf/df g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ y]Ug ;Sg] Ifdtf /fVg] s[lifIf]qnfO{ pk/f]Qm s[lifgLlt ckgfP g]kfn cfTdlge{/ x'g] lglZrt 5 . t/ oxfF t ;fnel/ y]Ug] s[lifIf]qnfO{ sdLzgvf]/, t:s/, sfnfafhfl/ofxn] sAhf u/L g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ @ dlxgf klg vfg lbb}g . oL tTjx ;a}sf] ldnf]dtf]df cfkmgf] kmfobfsf nflu b]znfO{ cfly{s kn] sdhf]/ agfpg tNnLg 5 . hgtf cfly{s kn] ;an eof] eg] b]z ;an x'G5 . of] pkb]z jf0fLdf l;ldt /fvL ;a}n] ;a}nfO{ eGgsf nflu k|of]u u5{g . b]vfj6Ldf s]xL u/]sf] cf}krfl/stf lgjf{x u5{g, lgot eg] JolQmut nfesf] g} x'G5 . s[lifIf]qsf] h/f] ;d:ofnfO{ of] nf]stflGqs ;/sf/n] ;Daf]wg u/]/ s[lifnfO{ pTyfgsf] af6f]df cu|;/ u/fP/ b]znfO{ ;d[lzfnL agfpg] cleofgdf cfkmgf] bfloTj lgjf{x unf{ <

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cfly{s ;d[l lbg ;Sg] g]kfnsf] s[lifIf]qdf j}b]lzs ;xfotf, ljZj a}+sn] !(&%df cl3 ;f/]sf] e"lda}+ssf] nufgL ;d]t /x]sf]n] klg s[lif ;'wf/d'vL x'g ;s]g . e"ld ;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf]wg x'g] lsl;dn] slxn] klg gLlt th'{df ePg . d"n ;d:ofnfO{ /fli6o :t/df ;Daf]wg gu/L 6fn6'n] gLltn] e"ld ;d:of slxn] klg xn gx'g] ljutsf] k|of;n] :ki6 b]vfPsf] 5 .

;fdGtL e":jfldTjdf ;DklQsf] kdf /x]sf] e"ld pTkfbgd'vL x'g ;s]g . ;fdGtL pTkfbg k|0ffnLn] ;w}+ s[ifsnfO{ s[lifbf;sf] kdf k|of]u u/]sf] 5 . b]zdf s[lifof]Uo e"ld em08} $) nfv aL3f 5 h;sf] lgoldt pAhgLnfO{ ;Dk"0f{ hg;+VofnfO{ y]Ug ;Sg] Ifdtf ePklg b]znfO{ ul/aL /]vfd'lg /fv]/ ablgot k"j{s c/af}+ j}b]lzs ;xof]u k|fKt ug]{ zf;sLo k|j[lt g} s[lif ljsf;sf] If]qdf 7"nf] cj/f]w /x]sf] b]lvG5 . b]zsf] ax'd'vL ljsf;n] cfTdlge{/tf, cfTd;DdfgnfO{ a9fpF5 . ul/a b]z g]kfnsf] gfddf j}b]lzs ;xotfsf] nfe lng] ;Qfdf /x]sf pkNnf] ju{ o:tf] ;'v ;'ljwfnfO{ TofUg g;s]/ kl/jt{gnfO{ klg ank"j{s ws]n]/ b]znfO{ oyfl:yltdf /fVg e/ dUb"/ k|of; ub}{ cfPsf 5g .

b]zdf p7]sf] Gsf] clwstd efu e"ld ;d:of cyf{t ul/aLn] cf]u6]sf] lyof] . @)^# d+;L/ @@ ut] g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]skf dfcf]jfbL aLrsf] lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf eof] . ;f] ;Demf}tfsf] bkmf #=^df ;fdGtjfbsf ;a} kxsf] cGTo ug]{ cfly{s ;fdflhs kfGt/0fsf] Go"gtd ;femf sfo{qmd cfk;L ;xdtLn] to u/]/ nfu" ub}{ hfg] . / bkmf #=&df ;fdGtL e":jfldTjsf] cGt ub}{ j}1flgs e"ld;'wf/ sfo{qmd nfu" ug]{ gLlt cjnDag ug]{ pNn]v 5 . b]zdf oL cjwf/0ffnfO{ Odfgbf/Lk"j{s nfu" u/]df lgZro klg s[lif ;'wf/df gf}nf] cfofd ylkg] 5 .

g]kfnL cy{tGqsf] d'Vo ;|f]t s[lif xf] . s[lif /fli6o cy{tGqsf] #*=% k|ltzt efu cf]u6]sf] 5 -Pdcf]P;L, @))^_ . s/La ^%=% k|ltzt hgtf s[lifdf lge{/ 5g / o;n] g]kfnsf] *! k|ltzt hgtfnfO{ /f]huf/L klg k|bfg u/]sf] 5 -l;aLP;, @))@_ . ;fdGtL e":jfldTjsf] pTkfbg ;DaGw cg'ksf] kf}/fl0fs ;fdflhs ;+/rgf / To;sf zf]if0fsf cjoj lj p7]sf cfjfhxnfO{ kl/jt{gsf] o; kl/j]zdf k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;Daf]wg x'g' kg]{ cfjZostf 5 .cfGbf]ng dfkm{t e"ld ;d:of 68sf/f] kdf cleJoQm ePsf]n] o;nfO{ gh/cGbfh ug'{ 7"nf] Gsf] sf/0f aGg ;S5 . s]xL lbgsf] nflu ljb|f]xnfO{ k/ ws]Ng ;lsPnf, t/ ljb|f]xnfO{ ;dfKt kfg{ ;lsb}g .

@)@! ;fndf /fhf dx]Gb|sf] e"ld ;'wf/ of]hgf cu|sbd eP klg ;fdGtL e":jfldTjsf] hsl8Psf] ;+/rgfnfO{ vf;} pknlAwd"ns kl/jt{g ug{ ;s]g . e"ld ljt/0f k|0ffnLnfO{ ;fy{s lgisif{df k'/ofpg ;s]g . k|of; eg] cu|udg s} lyof] . e" :jfldTjsf] kf}/fl0fs ;fdflhs ;+/rgfnfO{ e"ld ;'wf/sf] Tof] cleofgn] eTsfpg t ;s]g, t/ vNanL eg] v"a} drfPsf] lyof] . :yfgLo hdLGbf/ lj df]xLx ;+ul7t eO{ cfjfh p7fPsf lyP . :yfgLo hdLGbf/ tyf wgLdfgLsf] /fHo ;+oGqdf /fd|f] ks8 /x]sfn] cg]s if8oGq, hfnem]n u/L df]xLxnfO{ hUufaf6 al~rt ug{ ;kmn ePsf lyP . @)$^ ;fn kl5sf] k|hftflGqs ;/sf/n] t df]lxofgL xsaf6 al~rt ug{ pNn]vgLo e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf 5g . dnfO{ nfU5, ;Kt/L lhNnf o;sf] k|yd pbfx/0f x'g ;S5 . Pp6} e"ld ;'wf/ P]gn] k+rfotL Joj:yfdf @) k|ltzt df]xLnfO{ hUufaf6 lgsfn]sf] 5 eg] )$^ kl5 %) k|ltztsf] xf/fxf/Ldf df]lxofgL xsaf6 al~rt u/]sf] 5 . ;Kt/L lhNnfsf] /]s8{ x]g{ ;lsG5 .

k|hftflGqs ;/sf/n] xbaGbLsf] Pp6f e"ldgLlt Nofof] . o;df klg 7"nf hUufjfnx cfkmgf Oi6 ldqsf] gfddf hUuf n'sfpg ;kmn eof] / ;/sf/n] vf;} hUuf pknAw ug{ ;s]g . o:tf cy{xLg e"ldgLltn] g e"ld ;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;Sof] g s[lifnfO{ ;'wf/d'vL g} agfof] .

hgtfsf] clwsf/jfbL j[xb cfGbf]ng kZrft b]z ;}flGts kdf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq ag]sf] 5 . e"ld ;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug'{ kg]{ ckl/xfo{ ljifoj:t' tyf r'gf}tLx ;/sf/ ;fd' 5 . cfwL bzs b]lv e"ld cfjfh p7b} cfO{ /xFbf ;do ;dodf 6fn6'n} gLltf/f eP klg s]xL kl/jt{g ePsf] 5 . of] kl/jt{g pknlAwd"ns x'g ;s]g . clxn] ;Dd ;fdGtL e":jfldTjnfO{ ljleGg kl/jt{gsf] gfddf oyfjt sfod /fVg] /fHosf] kf}/fl0fs ;f]rnfO{ kl/jt{g u/L b]z ljsf;sf] ;f]rnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg' kb{5 . s[lifdf j}1flgs qmflGt gu/L s[lifnfO{ pTkfbgd'vL agfpg ;lsb}g . s[lifnfO{ cf}Bf]lusLs/0f ug{ Gofok"0f{ e"ld ljt/0f k|0ffnL, ;xsf/L s[lif k|0ffnL h:tf cfwf/e"t cfjZostfnfO{ ;/sf/n] ;Daf]wg ug'{ kb{5 . clg dfq G/lxt ;dfh, gofF g]kfnsf] lgdf{0f k|lqmof ;kmnLe"t x'g ;Sb5 .

@)^& sflQs !@ ut]

Ol;df]8, @))) sf] ;j]{If0f cg';f/ ;fdfGotof g]kfnsf e"ld gLltn] ax';+Vos hg;+VofnfO{ gsf/fTds c;/ kf/]sf] / e"ldsf] u'0f:t/d} x|f; u/fOPsf] kfOPsf] 5 . e"lddf cfPsf] of] x|f;n] ul/aLnfO{ a9fPsf] / ul/aLn] e"ldsf] x|f;df emg} uDeL/ c;/ kf/]sf] x'gfn] logLx Kff/:kl/s kn] ;xof]u k'/ofpg] k|lqmof ag]sf 5g . e"cwLgTj tyf pkef]u clwsf/ ;dtf / sfo{bIftf b'a}sf b[li6n] k|lts"n b]lvPsf 5g .

e"ldklt / e"ldxLg aLrsf] cGtlj{/f]wnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug]{ p2]Zon] slxn] klg e"ldgLlt lgwf{/0f ePg . ;Qfdf kbf;Lg ax';+Vos hUufjfns} kIfdf e"ldgLlt aGb} cfPsf] sf/0fn] Gsf] cfj]u /f]lsPg / ;dofGt/df 7'N7"nf Gx cfpg] u/]sf] lgolt ef]Ug b]z afWo 5 . ;fdGtL e":jfldTjsf] ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf ax';+Vos hg;+Vof s[lif pTkfbgdf ;xefuL eP klg pTkfbsTjaf6 al~rt 5g . cyf{t hf] ;+u hdLg 5, p v]tL ub}{g . hf] v]tL u5{, p ;+u hdLg 5}g . s[lif pTkfbgdf v]tLx/sf] k|ToIf ;DaGw /x] klg pTkfbgsf] nfeaf6 al~rt kfg'{ cGt{Gsf] k|d'v sf/0f ag]sf] 5 . o:tf] cGt{Gdf j}b]lzs ;xfotfsf] v/af}+ nufgL ;/sf/n] s[lif ;'wf/df nufof] t/ kl/0ffd z'Go of]ukmndf /Xof] . s]xL ;'wf/ eP klg s[lif ;'wf/sf] u|fkm eg] l:y/ g} /Xof] . g]kfndf s[lifdf sfd ug]{ ;+3 ;+:yf tyf ;/sf/L tYofFs :d]tn] klg ck]lIft ljsf;sf] kl/0ffd b]vfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . pk/f]Qm Ol;df]8sf] ;j]{n] klg :ki6 kdf s[lifsf] k|ultnfO{ phfu/ u/]sf] 5 . hdLgsf] c;dfg ljt/0f, s[lifdf ljBdfg cGt{Gsf] cj:yf, s[lifdf sdLzgvf]/sf] pkl:ylt, pTkfbsTj sAhf u/L nfe vfg] ljleGg lsl;dsf Jofkf/Lxsf] pkl:yltdf >dzlQm lgZro 7luG5 g}, ;fy} pTkfbgdf klg 7"nf] k|efj kf5{ .

s[lif ljsf; k|of]hgsf nflu :yflkt ul/Psf] s[lif ljsf; a}+s s[lif ljsf;sf] zq' g} ;flat eP . of] a}+s s[lif ljsf; u/fpg] gfddf pRr b/df s[lif C0f nufgL ug]{, rqma[l Jofh ls;fgaf6 c;'n ug]{ dg;fosf ;fy :yflkt ePsf] of] a}+s b]zdf gfkmf sdfpg] cJjn bhf{sf] a}+s ;flat eof] t/ s[lifnfO{ Wj:t agfof] . o;n] lgotjz s[lifnfO{ c;kmn Joj;fodf kfGt/0f u/of] . ljutsf lbgdf hf]lvdk"0f{ nufgLdf 6f6 kN6]sf k|ltli7t a}+sxnfO{ k5fl8 kfb}{ s[lif ljsf; j}+s cfkmgf] k|lti7f hf]ufpg ;kmn eof] / gfkmfd'vL sf/f]jf/df cJjn bhf{df :yflkt klg eof] .

s[lif ljsf; a}+s h:t} s[lif pTkfbg;+u ;/f]sf/ /fvL gfkmf sdfpg] demf}nf b]lv 7"nf Jofkf/L ;Dd ls;fgaf6 ;:tf] b/df s[lif pTkfbg lnO{ pRr b/df ahf/df a]r]/ gfkmf sdfp5g . ls;fg o;/L cfkmgf] pTkfbgnfO{ b'O{ dlxgf klg pkef]u ug{ kfpb}g / pRr d"Nodf vfB ;fdu|L ahf/af6 lsGg afWo x'G5g .

pRr b/sf] a}+ssf] Aofh, pTkfbgdf sdL / pTkfb j:t'sf] plrt d"No gkfpg' cflb sf/0fn] ls;fg ktgf]Gd'v x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf] 5 . $, % jif{df C0f tLg u'0ff a9L eP/ hUuf a]r]/ C0f r'Stf ug]{ ls;fgsf] lgolt g} ag]sf] 5 . s[lif C0fn] ls;fg cfkmgf] x}l;ot u'dfpb} e"ldxLg x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf] cj:yfdf s[lifk|lt pbf;Lg x'g' :jfefljs klg xf] . afWotf afx]s ls;fgdf s[lifk|ltsf] cfsif{0f 36b} uO{ /x]sf] oyfy{ ;a}n] cg'ej u/]s} x'g . ;'wf/f]Gd'v s[lifgLltsf] cefjdf s[lif c;kmn Joj;fosf] kdf kl/0ft ePsf]n] e"ldxLgtfsf] cj:yfnfO{ a9fPsf] 5 .

ls;fgn] rsf]{ d"Nodf dnvfb, aLpaLhg, s[lif cf}iflw, 6fS6/ jf xnf], s[lif >lds, cfkmgf] >d nufot k|of]u u/]/ v]tL u5{g . ;a}sf] d"Nosf] lx;fa ubf{ jfnL leqofpFbf ;Dd Ps aL3fdf $% dg wfg vr{ ePsf] Ps ;j]{n] b]vfPsf] 5 . Ps aL3fsf] pTkfbg Ifdtf %) dg xf] . art ePsf] % dg wfg klg ls;fgn] ef]u ug{ kfpFb}g . C0fsf] Aofhn] artsf] % dg tfg]/ nu]sf] x'G5 . o;/L of]ukmn z'Gosf] Jofkf/ ls;fgn] ub}{ cfO{ /x]sf] x'G5 . kl/jf/ kfNg] ;d:of 68sf/f] kdf cufl8 /x]sf]n] cfkmgf] pAhgL ;:tf] b/df a]r]/ C0f ltg{ sf]xL tof/ x'Fb}g / pRr d"No cfpFbf ;Dd ls;fgsf] 3/df wfg ;ls ;s]sf] x'gfn] C0f ls;fgsf] yfKnf]df /lx /xG5 . km]l/ rqma[l Aofhsf] v]n z' x'G5 . h'sfnfO{ /ut r':g'afx]s csf] kL/ ;+u s] dtnj < s[lifsfo{sf] c;kmntfn] ls;fgnfO{ C0fn] hUuf lgnfd u/fpg jf hUuf laqmL u/fpg afWo kf5{ .

To;sf/0f gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f ug]{ kl/jt{gsf] gofF kl/j]zdf s[lifdf cfd"n kl/jt{g ug{ hgd'vL s[lif gLlt Nofpg ckl/xfo{ b]lvG5 . s[lifdf qmflGtsf/L kl/jt{g clgjfo{ b]lvG5 . hgcfjfhnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ of] nf]stflGqs ;/sf/sf] g}lts bfloTj xf] . b]znfO{ ;d[ agfpg s[lifsf] 7"nf] e"ldsf /x]sf]n] ;/sf/n] s[lif ;d:ofnfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;Daf]wg u5{ eGg] hgtfn] cfz u/]sf] 5 .

@)^& sflQs !( ut]

bnut :jfy{nfO{ ;jf]{k/L agfP/ pTkGg u/fPsf] cGtxLg /fhgLlts ult/f]wn] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmofnfO{ cf]emndf k'/ofPsf] 5 . Pscsf{nfO{ unfpg] dfgl;stfn] k|]l/t tLg bnsf] r/d x7wld{tfn] b]zsf] cwf]ult eO{ /x]sf] 5 . b]zdf nfdf] ;do ;Dd ;+qmd0f cj:yf sfod /x]df ;d:ofsf] cDaf/ nfuL pTkGg laifd kl/l:yltnfO{ wfGg ;Sg] cj:yf b]znfO{ klg x'Fb}g . hgfb]zsf] pk]Iff u/L b]znfO{ c;kmn /fi6 agfpg pt oL /fhgLlts bnxsf] s:tf] /fli6otf xf] < k|wfgdGqL rog ug{ yflnPsf] lgjf{rg k|lqmofn] kGb|xf}+ k6s cyf{t rf/ dlxgf ;Dddf klg k|wfgdGqL rog ug{ g;Sg' cGt/fli6o :t/df klg b]z nHhfhgs cj:yfdf k'lu ;s]sf] ;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ /fhgLlts bnxn] cg'e"t ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . gofF g]kfn lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofdf /x]sf] b]z qmlds kdf ;xhtflt/ pGd'v x'g'sf] ;f6f] cefj, dxFuL, xTof, lx+;f, c;'/Ifflt/ ws]ln+b} uO{ /x]sf] 5 . ;+qmd0fsfnsf] kmfobf p7fP/ c;fdflhs tTjxn] rGbf, ckx/0f, xTof, n"6kf6sf] >[+vnfa lbgrof{ agfO{ kmfobf p7fO{ /x]sf 5g . 8/, qf;sf] jftfj/0fn] dflg;nfO{ cfqmfGt t'NofPsf] 5 . oxL qmfl;;sf] cg'lrt nfe lng /fhgLlts bnxn] ldYof /0fgLlt clVtof/ u/]sf] xf] eg] of] sbflk /fi6lxtdf x'g ;Sb}g . of] jf Tof] ;a} /fhgLlts bnx nf]stGqsf] k|0ffnLdf kfGt/0f x'g h/L 5 . kf/:kl/s Jojxf/n] hGdfPsf] ljZjf;sf] ;+s6nfO{ oxL kltn] Go"g ub}{ kf/:kl/s ;DaGwsf] ljsf; ug{ ;S5 . Psn g]t[Tjdf /fhgLlts bn tyf ;/sf/ rNb} cfPsf] k/Dk/fnfO{ b]zsf] kl/jlt{t kl/j]zdf kfGt/0f u/L ;x cl:tTjsf] cfwf/df ;fd'lxs g]t[Tjsf] ljsf; ug'{ kb{5 . b]zsf] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg oxL+af6 z' x'G5 . ;xdltsf] nflu ljut ^ dlxgf b]lv a:b} cfPsf] a}7s lgisif{xLg x'g' ;xcl:tTjsf] dfGotfsf] cefj x'g' xf] .

Pscsf{sf] bDenfO{ rsgfr"/ kf/L cuf8L a9g] v]ndf nfu]sf tLg /fhgLlts bnxsf] k|lt:kwf{nfO{ hLjg d/0fsf] k|Zg agfP/ cl3 a9L /x]sf] cj:yfdf tTsfn} /fhgLlts ult/f]w x6nf eGg s7Lg 5 . sfFu|];sf] pDd]bjf/L vf/]h ug]{ ;DaGwdf Pdfn], dfcf]jfbLaLr 5nkmn rln /x]sf] eGg] !& ut]sf] uf]/vfkqdf 5flkPsf] Pdfn] g]tf afdb]j uf}tdsf] cleJolQm ;To xf] eg] Pp6f k|lqmofsf] cGt eO{ b]z csf]{ k|lqmofdf k|j]z ug'{ ;fsf/fTds s'/f xf] . r]tfjgLsf] efiff xf] eg] o;n] g/fd|f] c;/ kfg]{ s'/f :ki6 5 .

/fhgLlt ult/f]w / /fhgLlts z"Gotfsf] sf/0fn] dw]zdf XTof, ckx/0f, rGbf cft+s h:tf cfk/flws ultljwLsf] tLa| a[l4n] dw]zL hghLjg cft+lst ag]sf] 5 . ul/aL, a]/f]huf/L / dxufO{sf sf/0f dw]zsf o'jfxdf a9bf] c;Gt'i6tfn] o:tf ck/fw k|>o kfPsf]n] o;n] dw]z cfGbf]ngn] lglb{i6 u/]sf] d'lQmsf] af6f]nfO{ g} k|efljt ug]{ s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g . ck|Toflzt kdf dw]z cfGbf]ng b]v]/ eoeLt tyf cft+lst /fHo;Qfn] dw]zsf] zlQmnfO{ sdhf]/ / l5GgleGg ug{ kl5sf lbgdf nflu k/]sf] sf/0fn] dw]zdf c;fdflhs ultljwL a9g yfn]sf] xf] . pTsif{df k'u]sf] dw]z cfGbf]ngaf6 kmfobf lng / o;nfO{ efF8g 5bdj]zL tTjx k|j]z u/L o;sf] pknlAwnfO{ leq}af6 t'xfpg] k|fof]lht if8oGq ePsf] 5 .

sflt{s !& ut] a;]sf] pRr:t/Lo /fhgLlts ;ldltn] kl5 u7g x'g] efiff cfof]un] l;kmfl/z u/]sf] cfwf/df c efiffnfO{ klg ;/sf/L sfdsfhsf] efiff agfpg], xfn g]kfnL efiffnfO{ ;/sf/L sfdsfhsf] efiff agfpg] ;xdtL u/]sf] 5 . lqefifL gLltsf] cfwf/df lxGbL efiffnfO{ ;/sf/L sfdsfhsf] efiff agfpg] eGg] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] dfu cGttf]uTjf :jLsf/ x'g ;s]g . o; ;DaGwdf dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxsf] s'g} k|ltlqmof aflx/ gcfpFbf o;nfO{ df}g :jLs[lt gegL s] eGg] < pRr :t/Lo /fhgLlts ;ldltn] zAbhfndf nk]6]/ dw]zsf] of] dfunfO{ yGsfPsf] s'/f :ki6 ePsf] 5 .

dw]zsf] dfunfO{ h;/L klg k'/f u/fpg hGd]sf /fhgLlts bnxsf] g}lts bfloTj k'/f ug]{ c7f]6sf] clUg k/LIff lbg] a]nf cfPsf] 5 . o; lg0f{osf] k|ltlqmof lbg] ;do /x]sf]n] dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxsf] k|ltlqmof ;do d} cfpg]g} 5 eGg] dw]z k|tLIff/t /x]sf] 5 .

@)^& d+l;/ # ut]

g]kfndf ;fdGtL e":jfldTjsf] ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf ;DklQsf] kdf /x]sf] e"ld s[lif k|of]hg eGbf klg ;DklQ k|of]hgsf nflu pkof]u ePsf] b]lvG5 . 7"nfa8f, pkNnf] ju{sf] gfddf /x]sf] ljzfn e"v08 s[lifof]Uo hdLg hdLgbf/L k|yf cGt ePkl5 / e"ld ;'wf/ nfu" ePkl5 cfkmgf] cfkmGtxsf] gfpFdf hdLg n'sfPsf] / sltkon] a]r]/ ;DklQsf] ;|f]t kfGt/0f u/]sf] kfOG5 . afWofTds kdf ul/Psf] s[lif afx]ssf hUufxsf] ljutsfndf w]/} b'kof]u ePsf] b]lvG5 . a8fn cfof]usf] tflnsf !=! cg';f/ @)!* ;fndf ePsf] s[lif u0fgf cg';f/ hUufwgL v]tLsQf{sf] k|ltzt $)=#& / df]xL v]tLsQf{sf] k|ltzt @%=$* b]vfPsf] 5 . #) jif{ kl5 hUufwgL v]tLsQf{sf] ;+Vof !^=% k|ltzt / df]xL v]tLsQf{sf] ;+Vof *=& k|ltztdf em/]sf] b]vfPsf] 5 .

dw]zdf s[life"ldsf] ljzfn e"v08 /x]sf]n] df]xLsf] ;+Vof klg pRr /x]sf] 5 . a8fn cfof]usf] tflnsf !=@ n] dw]zsf] @) lhNnfsf] df]xLsf] tYofFs &!=& k|ltzt, sf7df08f} pkTosfdf df]xLsf] ;+Vof @#=(& k|ltzt / kxf8 lxdfndf df]xLsf] ;+Vof $=## k|ltzt b]vfPsf] 5 . dw]zdf df]xLsf] ;+Vof w]/} ePsf]n] df]xL ;jfn klg dw]zdf Jofks 5 . clxn] klg dw]zdf hUufwgL / df]xLsf] aLrdf kf/:kl/s ljjfb Jofks dfqfdf /x]sf] 5 .

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s[lifsf] pTkfbsTj a9fpg] 7f]; e"ldgLltsf] cefjn] Psflt/ s[lifdf Jofks ;d:of ;[hgf u/L rL/sfnLg GnfO{ lgDTofPsf] 5 eg] csf]{ tkm{ s[lifIf]qnfO{ c;kmn Joj;fodf kfGt/0f u/]sf] 5 . ;do ;dodf c;xh kl/l:ylt lgdf{0f x'Fbf ;/sf/n] NofPsf e"ld ;DalGw 6fn6'n] e"ldgLltn] kl/l:ylt ;fdfGo agfP klg bL3{sfnLg ;dfwfg x'g ;s]g . kl/0ffd :jk s[lifIf]q ;xh kn] xf]Og, 3r]6b} cufl8 al9 /x]sf] 5 . lg/Gt/ e"Ifo / e"v08Ls/0fn] klg s[lif pTkfbgnfO{ w]/} k|efljt u/]sf] 5 .

ljut #) jif{df s[lif, l;+rfO{ tyf jgdf j}b]lzs ;xof]u %# c/a $! s/f]8 &! Nffv $) g]kfnn] k|fKt u/]sf] cfk"lt{ dGqfnosf] @))^ sf] tYofFsn] b]vfPsf] 5 . -x]g'{; tflnsf !=#_ 7f]; e"ldgLltsf] cefjdf s[lifdf c/af}+sf] nufgL ul/P klg ls+lrt kl/0ffd cfpg ;s]g . s[lif ;d:of Ho"Fsf To"F oyfjt /Xof] . of] kl/jlt{t kl/j]zdf s[lif ;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf]wg x'g] u/L ;/sf/n] hgd'vL e"ld;'wf/ gLlt NofP/ Gsf] bL3{ ;dfwfgsf] pkfo vf]Hg' kb{5 .

@)^& d+l;/ !) ut]

dtbftf kl/ro kq agfpg] p2]Zon] lgjf{rg cfof]un] ;+rfng u/]sf] sfo{sf] dw]zdf s8f k|ltjfb eof] . sf/0f lyof], gful/stf k|df0fkq x'g]xsf] dfq dtbftf kl/rokq agfpg] . gful/stf ;d:ofk|lt bzsf]+ b]lv p7b} cfPsf] dw]zsf] cfjfhnfO{ clxn] ;Dd k"0f{tM ;Daf]wg ug{ g;s]sf] ;d:of xf] . lgjf{rg cfof]un] gful/stfnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ dtbftf kl/rokq agfpg] ;DalGw lnPsf] lg0f{oq'l6k"0f{ /x]s} sf/0f dw]zn] k|ltjfb u/]sf] xf] .

jf]6sf] ;+Vof a9fpg dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxn] ef/tLoxnfO{ g]kfnL gful/s agfpg vf]h]sf] xf] . eGg] ;QfkIfsf] cf/f]k pxL k/Dk/fut dgf]j[ltsf] lg/Gt/tf dfq xf] . dw]zk|lt ;z+lst /xg] /fHokIfsf] hGd}b]lvsf] afgL a]nf df}sfdf o;/L g} kl/nlIft x'G5 . gful/stf lng] hl6n k|lqmofdf :yfgLo :t/df b]lv lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no ;Dd Pp6f ef/tLon] rflxg] k|df0f a'emfpg ;Sb}g . a'emfP klg ufpFsf dflg;sf] gh/af6 pm aRg} ;Sb}g . s;}n] cfkmgf ef/tLo gft]bf/nfO{ g]kfnL gful/s agfpg vf]Hof] eg] cg]s /fhgLlts bnsf] k|ltjfbsf] lzsf/ aGg k'U5 . t}klg s'g} ef/tLo g]kfnL gful/stf lnof] eg] To;sf] lhDd]jf/ dw]zL xf]Og, ;/sf/sf] lhDd]jf/ lgsfo xf] .

krf;f}+ jif{b]lv g]kfnL e"lddf :yfO{ a;f]af; u/L hLjgofkg ub}{ cfO{ /x]sfxnfO{ dw]zn] gful/stf lbg ;s]sf] 5}g . cfkmgf] /fli6otfk|lt ;w}+ ;hu /xg] dw]zsf] of] eGbf csf]{ s] k|df0f x'g ;Sb5 < cfkmgf] k|dfl0fstf ;flat ug{ o]g t]g jf]6/ln:6df cfkmgf] gfd ;dfj]z u/fPsf] ;+Vof dw]zdf pNn]vgLo ePsf]n] pgLx w]/} lbg ;Dd /fHoljlxg cj:yfdf /x]sf]n], gful/stf kfpg' k5{ eg]/ dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxn] cfjfh p7fPsf] xf] . jf]6/ln:6df gfd ;dfj]z x'g' gful/stf k|fKt ug]{ k|lqmofsf] klxnf] k|df0f xf] . clxn] dtbftf gfdfjnL cBfjlw ug{ gful/stf k|df0fkqnfO{ cfwf/ agfPkl5 nfvf}+sf] ;+Vofdf dflg; k|df0fljxLg x'g] ePsf]n] dw]zn] s8f k|ltjfb ug'{ :jfefljs xf] . jf]6/ln:6sf] cfwf/df gful/stf lbg] ;/sf/ sf] gLlt /xFbf gful/stfsf] cfwf/df dtbftf kl/rokq lbg] ;/sf/sf] }w dfgl;stf g} dw]zn] k|ltjfb u/]sf] sf/0f aGof] . lgjf{rg cfof]un] dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxsf] pkl:yltdf ePsf] lg0f{o eg]/ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . dw]zsf k|ltlgwL ;fIfLsf] kdf /fv]/ klg hgkIfLo lg0f{o glnPkl5 k|ltjfb :jefljs xf] . nfvf}+ dw]zL hgtfnfO{ Gofo lbnfpg ePsf] k|ltjfbnfO{ dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx ef/tLoxnfO{ gful/stf lbnfpg vf]h]sf] 3[l0ft cf/f]k klg dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxn] ef]Ug' k/of] . kl5 lgjf{rg cfof]u;+u jf]6/ln:6sf] cfwf/df dtbftf kl/rokq lbg] ;xdtL eP cg';f/ sfo{ cuf8L a9]sf] 5 .

dw]zk|lt ;z+lst /xg] /fHosf] k'/fgf] /f]un] gful/stfnfO{ xfpu'hL agfPsf] 5 . k|ltjfb kl5 lgjf{rg cfof]usf] cflQPsf] cleJolQmx dw]zsf bnn] tL;nfv dflg;n] gful/stf kfPg eGYof] . gful/stf afF8]kl5 klg tL;nfv eG5 . s] xf] s'/} a'lemPg, eGg] ;fj{hlgs ePsf 5g . dw]zn] ef/taf6 a;sf a; dflg; NofP/ gful/stf lbnfP h:t} ljZjf; eP/ /fHo cflQPsf] xf] . of] lk9L b/ lk9L ;/]sf] /fHo sf] w]/} vt/gfs dfgl;s /f]u xf], h;sf] lzsf/ dw]z ;lbof}+ b]lv x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 .

cfwf ztfAbL b]lv /fHoljxLg cj:yfdf b]znfO{ cys of]ubfg k'/ofpg] dw]zLnfO{ gful/stf k|bfg ug'{ /fHosf] bfloTj xf] . /fHosf] Wofg k'Ug g;s]/ dw]zn] gful/stf ;d:of p7fpFb} cfPsf] xf] . Pslt/ gful/stf ljt/0f ug]{, csf]{lt/ gful/stf lngaf6 al~rt ug{ cg]s lsl;dsf hfnem]nsf ultljwL ;+rfng ug'{ slt Gofo;+ut 5 . jf]6/ln:6df gfd ;dfj]z ePsfx Gfful/stf lng of]Uo ePklg lgjf{rg cfof]un] gful/stfsf] cfwf/ lnP/ dtbftf kl/rokq agfpg ;+rfng u/]sf] cleofgn] tL tdfd dw]zL gful/stfaf6 al~rt x'g] s'/faf6 ls t lgjf{rg cfof]u cgle1 5, ls k|fof]lht

ca hals ;a} ult/f]w ;fDo eP/ jf]6/ln:6sf] cfwf/df dtbftf kl/rokq agfpg lgjf{rg cfof]usf] ;xdtL eof] / sfd ;+rfngdf cfPkl5 csf]{ sf]0faf6 km]l/ Jojwfg v8f ul/Psf] 5 . lgjf{rg cfof]un] jf]6/ln:6sf] cfwf/df dtbftf kl/rokq afF8g] lg0f{o lnPkl5 ;f] lg0f{o vf/]h u/L kfpF eg]/ ;jf]{Rrdf /L6 ;d]t bfo/ ePsf] 5 . lgjf{rg cfof]usf] o:tf] lg0f{onfO{ /fi63ftL sbd eg]/ hgdf]rf{ g]kfnn] d+;L/ @ ut] sf7df08f}+df h'n'; k|bz{g u/] .

lgjf{rg cfof]un] unt lg0f{o ;RofP/ cl3 a9]sf] ;/fxgLo 5 / gful/stf lng of]Uotf k'u]sf dw]zLsf] xs sfod /xg] s'/f lglZrt ePsf] 5 .

@)^& d+l;/ !& ut]

k|;+u k'gZr gful/stf s} cfof] . ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] k/dfb]zn] lgjf{rg cfof]usf] dtbftf kl/ro kq agfpg] cleofgnfO{ /f]s nufof] . lgjf{rg cfof]un] gful/stf afx]ssf] k|df0fkqsf] cfwf/df dtbftf kl/ro kq ljt/0f u/of] eg] ef/tLox /fi6klt, k|wfgdGqL h:tf dxTjk"0f{ 7fpFdf cfpg ;S5 eGg] s'/flt/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg /L6sQf{n] /L6 xfn] . ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 /f]Sg] cfb]z klg eof] . ca k|Zg p7b5 dw]zdf gful/stf gkfPsf jf]6/ln:6df ;fd]n ;a} ef/tLo gful/s x'g < /L6n] oxL s'/flt/ ;+s]t ub{5 . olb oxL s'/f xf] eg] ;+ljwfg ;efdfly klg c;+j}wflgstfsf] k|Zg p7g ;Sb5 .

;jf]{Rr cbfnt cuf8L oxL k|Zgx t]l;{Psf 5g . gful/stfnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ dtbftf kl/ro kq agfpg cfb]z lbg] cyjf dw]zsf] gful/stf ;d:ofnfO{ xn ug]{p2]Zon] s'g} csf]{ sfg"gL JofVof ug]{, ;jf]{Rr cbfnt ;dIf oIf k|Zg plePsf] 5 . gful/stf lagf dtbftf gx'g] / gful/stf k|df0f kq lng hfFbf dtbftf gfdfjnLdf gfd ;dfj]z x'g} kg]{ h:tf] rqmJo"xaf6 gful/stf lng] g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ lghft lbnfpg ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] lgZro klg cfkmgf] ljj]s k|of]u u5{ xf]nf .

Gfful/stfsf] tLg r/0f -c+uLs[t, hGdl; / j+zh_ kf/ u/]kl5 dfq /fHosf] pRr txdf k'Ug] of]Uotf k|fKt x'G5 . Tof] of]Uotf k|fKt ug{ s;}nfO{ klg t]>f] k':tf;Dd k|tLIff ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . gful/stfsf] olt hl6n k|lqmofdf s'g} klg ljb]zL /fHosf] pRr kbdf l5g{ ;S5g eGg] eo b]vfP/ 9LjfbL ;f]r cg';f/ sfg"gsf] JofVof ug'{ sltsf] cf}lrTok"0f{ x'G5 . dtbftf kl/rokq kfpg] lalQs} /fHosf] pRrtx ;Dd k'Ug ;Sg] eoaf6 cflQPsfxn] dtbftfn] gful/stf klg k|fKt ug{ h/L x'G5, lj;{g' x'Fb}g . gful/stfsf] hl6n k|lqmofn] s'g} klg ljb]zLnfO{ l5g{ lgif]w u/]sf] s'/f klg a'emg' kb{5 .

of]Uotf k'u]sf g]kfnL gful/snfO{ ljb]zL klg l5g{ ;Sg]sf] cfzo s] xf] < /fHon] gful/stfsf] cfwf/df dtbftf kl/rokq agfpFbf $), %) jif{b]lv :yfO{ a;f]af; u/L cfPsf gful/stfljxLg dw]zLx h;n] dtbftf gfdfjnLdf gfd ;dfj]z u/fP/ gful/stf kfpg klxnf] k|df0f k|fKt u/]sf 5g To:tf] gful/ssf] k|df0f vf];]/ ljb]zL agfpg] /fHosf] of] ;flhznfO{nfO{ sfg"g ljkl/tsf] ck/fw a'emg] ls ga'emg] < dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f ug{ x/]s d~rdf k|ltatf hfx]/ ug{ gyfSg] ;/sf/nfO{ dw]zdf dfgj b[li6uf]r/ eO{ /x]sf] 5}g eg] dw]zsf] gful/stf ;d:of;+u s] ;/f]sf/ <

/fHosf] ljlht If]qsf] u'nfd ;/x Jojxf/ ug]{ k/Dk/fut z}nLdf kl/jt{gsf] nIf0f b]lvb}g, To;}n] t ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] /f]Sg] cfb]zdf ;a} xlif{t eP . dw]zL dfG5] x'Fb}g eGg] dfgl;s ;f]r tTsfnLg /fhf uLjf{0f o'sf] kfnfdf ljsl;t eP/ cfPsf] xf] hf] pkTosfsf] cflbjf;Lsf] k'/fgf] lk9Ldf kfO{G5 . uLjf{0f o'sf] kfnfdf @ nfv /f]oN6L lt/]/ ef/tsf] O{i6 O{l08of sDkgLaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] dw]zsf] of] pa{/s e"ldsf afl;GbfnfO{ ;f]xLsfnb]lv sf7df08" l5g{ /fxbfgL lng' kg]{ k|rng a;flnof] . tTsfnLg ;fdGtL /fHo;Qfn] k|rngdf NofPsf] u'nfd dw]zLk|ltsf] lgif]lwt, e]befjo'Qmsf] Jojxf/ g]kfnL hghLjgdf km}lnof] . dw]zL;+u 3[0ff, ]if, e]befjnfO{ g]kfnL hghLjgdf, g]kfnL df6f], xfjfkfgLdf km}nfPkl5 lk9L b/ lk9L of] hx/ ;+qmldt x'Fb} ztflAbof}+ lalt;Sbf klg sd ePsf] 5}g .

ztflAbof}+ b]lv /fHosf] lje]bsf] lzsf/ eO{ afFRg' k/]sf] dw]zn] klxnf] kN6 ljb|f]x u/L u'nfdLsf] h+hL/nfO{ r'F8fn]sf] 5 . clwsf/sf] nflu dw]zn] u/]sf] ljb|f]x ;gftgL lrGtg af]s]sf] /fHosf nflu r]tfjgL xf] eg] cfkmgf] clwsf/ :yflkt ug{ t'd'n z+vgfb klg xf] . dw]znfO{ cem klg u'nfd agfP/ /fVg] ;gftgL s/kGyL ;f]rn] b'O{ /fli6otfsf] hGd lbPsf] oyfy{tfaf6 d'v df]8g ldNb}g . cfkmgf] k|e";Qfdf cx+sf/sf] v]tL ug{] zf;sLo k|j[lt kl/jt{gnfO{ /f]Sg ;Sb}g . kl/jt{gsf] cfFwL, a]x/L cuf8L ;gftgL 9LjfbL lrGtgsf] ;w}+ k/fho ePsf] O{ltxf; 5 .

;/sf/n] dw]zsf] gful/stf ;d:ofnfO{ ;xhkdf ;dfwfgsf] lbzfdf cu|;/ x'g' kb{5 . l;f] dw]znfO{ ef/tLo eg]/ lje]b ug]{ dfgl;stfdf kl/jt{g Nofpg' kb{5 . hflt jf ;Dk|bfo eg]/ e]befj ug'{ ck/fw xf] eGg] sfg"g x'Fbf x'Fb} klg /fHo ;d]t e]befjdf lnKt /x]sf]n] o;n] b'O{ /fli6otfsf] b"/LnfO{ 36fpg'sf] ;f a9fpg] sfd lgZro klg /fHosf] lxtdf x'g ;Sb}g .

lgjf{rg cfof]un] ;xdtLsf] cfwf/df cfkmgf] sfd cuf8L a9fO{ /xFbf Jojwfg pTkGg ug]{ ;gftgL s/kGyL ;f]rn] gful/stf kfpg' kg]{ dw]zLsf] xssf] ;+/If0f s;/L ug]{ < s] dw]zLsf] xsflwsf/ o;sf] dfgjflwsf/ leq kb}{g < k5{ eg] Jojwfg lsg < clwsf/ glbg ank"j{s v8f ul/Psf] Jojwfgn] cGttf]uTjf ;+3if{ lgDTofpF5 . /fHosf] ;gftgL s/kGyL ;f]rdf kl/jt{g NofPkl5 gful/stf ;d:of ;xh x'g hfG5 .

@)^& d+l;/ @$ ut]

cfk|jf;gaf6 dw]zdf ;d:of

ljlht If]q dw]zsf afl;GbfnfO{ efiff, ;+:s[lt, cfly{s, ;fdflhs x/]s If]qaf6 kfGtl/t u/L v; k|efjdf Nofpg cys k|of; zf;sju{n] ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . dw]zLnfO{ s;/L lgo+q0fdf /fVg] eGg] dfgl;stfaf6 k|]l/t zf;sju{ zf;sLo /0fgLlt agfP/ nfdf] ;do b]lv dw]zdf cfkmgf] ablgoltsf] hfnf] lkm+hfPsf] lyof] . cg]s k|sf/sf if8oGqsf] hfndf l;+u} dw]znfO{ kf/]/ zf]if0fsf ;fy dw]zLnfO{ dfgl;s kn] u'nfd agfpg zf;sx ;kmn klg ePsf lyP . zf;sju{n] @$) jif{ b]lv dw]zLnfO{ ljb]zL eg]/ cdfgjLo kn] zf]if0f u/]sf] olt nfdf] Oltxf;nfO{ dw]zL slxNo} lal;{g] 5}g .

dw]zLnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ cfk|jf;g zf;sju{sf] cdf]3 c:q lyof] / dw]znfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ of] k|efjsf/L ;flat klg eof] . u}/ dw]zLsf] cfGtl/s a;fO{ ;/fO{n] dw]zLx ul/a, bl/b| / s+ufn x'Fb} xhf/f}+sf] ;+Vofdf la:yflkt x'g afWo eof] . pgLxsf] 3/, hUufdf u}/ dw]zLsf] sAhf eof] . cfk|jf;g :jfefljs kn] cfPsf] xf]Og, zf;sju{ sf] zf;sLo /0fgLlt txt ablgotk"0f{ NofOPsf] sfo{qmd lyof] . dw]zsf] ufpF ufpFdf u}/ dw]zLsf] clwkTo sfod eof] . ufpF b]lv b/jf/ ;Dd pgLxsf] kx'Fr ePsf]n] pgLxn] ;xh} dw]zdfly sAhf hdfof] . /fHoljlxg dw]zLsf] s'g} kx'Fr gePsf]n] dw]zsf] k|To]s ufpFdf k|s6 ePsf] of] lhpFbf] eujfgsf] :t'lt, ozf]ufg afx]s dw]zLsf] nflu s'g} ljsNk /x]g . lj:yflkt x'g]x lj:yflkt eP, cx u'nfdLsf] hLjg lhpg afWo kfl/P .

lhNnf lhNnfdf c88f k|d'vx, xflsdx ;a} u}/ dw]zLx x'Gy] . hf] cfP klg pgLxsf] ;fOgf]df gftf kg]{ g} x'Gy] . dw]zLxsf] ;xh kdf sfd u/fO lb+bf ufpFdf gfd rn] kl5 7"nf aGg' :jefljs klg lyof] . dw]zL hlt 7"nf ePklg c88faf6 ;xh kdf sfd u/fpg ;Sb}gy] cyf{t u}/ dw]zLxsf] k|efj a9fpg xflsdx klg zf;sLo /0fgLltaf6 lgb]{lzt lyP . o;/L ufpF ufpFdf clwkTo sfod u/]sf u}/ dw]zLxsf] dfWodaf6 dw]zLxnfO{ dfgl;s kn] u'nfd agfpg] k|lqmofsf] yfngL eof] / zf;sju{n] of] k|lqmofaf6 cfzftLt ;kmntf klg xfl;n u/of] . dw]zLx zf;sLo lzs+hfdf @$) jif{ ;Dd e]befj, pTkL8gsf] kL8f ef]Ug' k/of] . @$) jif{ kl5 dfq dw]z zf;sLo rl/qnfO{ a'emg ;Sof] / cfkmgf] clwsf/sf] nflu ljb|f]x u/of] . dw]zdf hfu/0f cfof], oxL 7"nf] pknlAw xf] .

dw]zsf lhNnfxdf cf}nf]sf] k|sf]k kof{Kt dfqfdf /x]sf sf/0f cfGtl/s a;fO{ ;/fO{ sd} dfqfdf x'GYof] . ;/sf/sf] cf}nf] pGd"ng sfo{qmdn] lj:tf/} lgd"{n ub}{ hfFbf a;fO{ ;/fO{n] tLa|tf kfof] . b/af/sf pRr cf]xbfjfn, hg]{n sg]{n tyf ;]gfsf pRr kbflwsf/L, kl08t k'hf/L, s[kfkfqxn] dw]zsf ;os8f}+ aL3f hUuf aVzLzsf] gfddf latf{ kfP/ dw]zsf] k|To]s lhNnfdf klxn] b]lv hdL+Gbf/L pkl:ylt agfP/ /fv]sf lyP . cf}nf]sf] k|sf]k x6] kl5 kxf8af6 nfvf}+sf] ;+Vofdf dflg;x dw]z emg{ yfn] . ;]jf lgj[t ePsf e"=k"= ;}lgsxnfO{ -la|6Lz, ef/tLo / g]kfn_ ;Ldf ;'/Iffsf] lgx'Fdf xhf/f}+ aL3f hdLg lbP/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;Ldf ;'/Iff ug]{ p2]Zon] a;fof] .

@)@# ;fn ;Dd dw]zsf] s' If]qkmnsf] $) k|ltzt jg h+unn] cf]u6]sf] lyof] . kxf8af6 a;fO{ ;/]/ cfpg]xn] Jofks dfqfdf jg km8fgL u/] . ;/sf/f/f cg'df]lbt jg km8fgL ug]{ oL cfk|jf;Lxsf] j;f]jf; u/fpg ;/sf/n] /fKtL EofnL ljsf; of]hgf, s+rgk'/ k'gjf{; cfof]hgf, s}nfnL k'gjf{; cfof]hgf, tf/ftfn k'gjf{; cfof]hgf, gjnk/f;L k'gjf{; cfof]hgf, ;nf{xL k'gjf{; cfof]hgf, emfkf k'gjf{; cfof]hgfsf] gfdaf6 nfvf}+ aL3f hUuf jg km8fgL u/L ljt/0f u/of] . @)#^ ;fnsf] hgdt ;+u|xdf lgb{nLo k+rfotL Joj:yfnfO{ lhtfpg ;'o{ axfb'/ yfkfsf] ;/sf/n] nfvf}+ x]S6/ jg km8fgL ug{ nufof] .

dw]zsf] s'n hg;+Vofsf] !^=$ k|ltzt a;fO{ ;g]{sf] hg;+Vof !(&! sf] tYofFsn] b]vfPsf] 5 . xfn ;Dd a;fO{ ;/fO{ cfPsf] hg;+Vof #*=% k'u]sf] 5 . cfufdL hgu0fgfdf dw]zsf] hg;+Vofsf] %) k|ltzt u}/ dw]zLsf] hg;+Vof k'Ug ;Sg] ;Defjgf lglZrt 5 .

cfkmg} lsl;dsf] efiff, wd{, ;+:s[lt, j]ze"iff, /Lltl/jfh, k/Dk/f /x]sf] dw]zL ;dfhsf] hLjgz}nL leGg k|sf/sf] /x]sf]n] cfGtl/s u}/ dw]zLsf] a;fO{ ;/fO{sf sf/0f cfly{s zf]if0fsf ;fy dw]zLsf] ;fdflhs hLjgdf g/fd|f] k|efj kf/of] . jg h+unsf] Jofks ljgfzn] jftfj/0fLo c;Gt'ngsf sf/0f dw]z de"ldsf] kdf kl/0ft x'g nfu]sf] 5 . @%, #) jif{ otf dw]zdf tLa| kn] udL{ a9L /x]sf] ;a}n] cg'ej u/]sf] 5 .

@)^& kf}if @ ut]

cfGtl/s a;fO{ ;/fO{n] dw]zdf kf/]sf] k|efj

-!_ efiff If]qdfM cfGtl/s a;fO{;/fO{ u/L kxf8af6 cfpg] v; efiffefifLsf] k'j{ d]rL b]lv klZrd dxfsfnL ;Dd dw]zdf afSnf] pkl:yltsf sf/0f dw]zdf af]lng] efiff d}lynL, ef]hk'/L, cjlw, yf Effiff cflb a9L k|efljt ePsf] 5 . v; efiffn] oL efiffxnfO{ k5fl8 ws]Ng w]/} ;kmn k|of; u/of] . /fhsfhsf] d'Vo efiff v; efiff /x]sf]n] klg v; efiffsf] dxTj a9fOPsfn] c :yfgLo efiffsf] dxTj 36g' :jefljs klg xf] . v; efiffnfO{ dw]zdf hghLjgsf] af]nL agfpg ;lbof}+ b]lv ul/Psf] k|of;n] hgaf]nL agfpg t ;kmn ePg t/ dw]zsf] eflifs ;+/rgfnfO{ w]/} dfqfdf Wj:t agfPsf] oyfy{sf] cg'e"lt dw]zn] u/]sf] 5 . sf7df08f}df a;f]af; ug]{ clwsf+z dw]zL v; efiffefifL ePsf] pbfx/0f klg 5 . dw]zdf v; efiffhfnn] o:tf] kl/l:ylt lgdf{0f u/of] ls dw]zLx cfkmgf] x/]s lqmofsnfkdf v; efiff g} k|of]u u/f];, oxfF ;Dd ls dw]zL ;'Tbf v; efiffdf g} ;kgf klg b]vf]; . efiff ;fd'bflos klxrfgsf] k|tLs xf] . o;nfO{ ;+/If0f / ;+a{g ug'{ kb{5 eGg] ;/sf/sf] gLlt klg /lx cfPsf] 5, t/ klg ;lbof}+ b]lv dw]znfO{ v;do agfpg efiffhfnsf] s"6gLlts if8oGqdf kmF;fpg' dw]zk|ltsf] e]befj gLlt g eg]/ c s] eGg] <

-@_ cfly{s If]qdfM dw]zdf a;fO{ ;l/ cfpg] v; efiffefifLxnfO{c;n Joj:yfkg ug{ ;/sf/n] d]rL b]lv dxfsfnL ;Dd ljleGg k'gjf{; cfof]hgf dfkm{t h+un km8fgL u/]/ nfvf}+ x]S6/ hUuf ljt/0f u/L a;f]af; u/fP . /fHosf] x/]s If]qdf v;efifLxsf] /fd|f] kx'Fr /x]sf]n] cfly{s kn] ;DkGg x'g' :jefljs lyof] . /fHodf /fd|f] kx'Frsf sf/0f ljleGg hfnem]ndf kf/]/ dw]zLsf] hUuf hdLg x8k]/ u'nfd agfpg], ;'s'djf;L agfpg] tyf lj:yflkt ;d]t kfg]{ h:tf lqmofsnfk df}g kdf dw]z ;xb} cfPsf] 5 . o;df ;eGbf a9L kLl8t yfx ePsf] 5 . k"j{ emfkfsf xhf/f}+ ;+yfnL, /fhj+zL lj:yflkt eP/ g]kfn 5f]8g afWo agfOof] . klZrd g]kfnsf] alb{of, s}nfnL, s+rgk'/df v;efifLxsf] a;fO{ ;/fO{n] nfvf}+ yfxsf] hUuf x8k]/ hUufaf6 a]bvn u/L sd}of / ;'s'daf;L agfOof] . o;/L dw]zdf a;fO{ ;/L cfpg] v;efifLx ;DkGg x'Fb} dw]zLnfO{ s+ufn agfpb} cfkmgf] wfs, /jfkmsf] andf dw]zsf dflns sxlnP . /fHosf] k"0f{ ;dy{gdf ufpF ufpF k7fO{Psf oL l;kfxLx Cfkmgf] ;'v j}ej h'6fpg pa{/f:yn ePsf] dw]znfO{ n'6g ;Sg] hlt n"6] . dw]znfO{ lbgsf nflu s]xL lyPg, n'6gdfq tNnLg /x]sf sf/0f g} zf]if0fsf lj dw]zdf eLif0f Hjfnfd'vL km'6]sf] xf] . dw]z cfGbf]ngn] grfxbf rfxb} klg v;efifL ljsf] eLif0f cfqmf]z dw]zdf b]lvPs} xf] .

-#_ ;fdflhs If]qdfM dw]zL cfkmg} lsl;dsf] efiff, wd{, ;+:s[lt /Lltl/jfh, ljljw k/Dk/f, hLjgz}nL tyf ljlzi6 klxrfg af]s]sf] /}yfg] gful/s x'g . ;lbof}+b]lv ljljwtfo'Qm ;dfhnfO{ ;lxi0f'tf / e|ft[Tj efjgfsf] cfwf/df PsLs[t ;fdflhs k/Dk/fnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L cuf8L al9 /x]sf] dw]zsf] hLjgz}nL cfGtl/s cfk|jf;gn] ubf{ Wj:t g} eof] . dw]zdf ;DkGgtf xfl;n u/L dflnsdf kfGtl/t v;efifLxn] hft hftdf, wd{ wd{df, ;fgf] 7"nf]df cfkmgf] :jfy{l;lsf nflu kmf6f] Nofpg], Ps csf{nfO{ n8fpg], cefjdf ePsfxsf] hdft v8f u/L cfkm"nfO{ g6]/g], x'g]vfg] dw]zL lj cfqmd0f u/fpg], cfk;L km"6 u/fP/ dflns aGg] h:tf lqmofsnfkn] dw]zsf] ;fdflhs ;+/rgfnfO{ g} Wj:t agfof] .

leq}af6 sdhf]/ kfl/ lg:t]h cj:yfdf dw]znfO{ /fVg] /fHosf] dg;fonfO{ d"Q{k lbg dw]zdf pkl:yt v;efifLn] cg]s ljlw u/]/ /fHo u/] g} . dw]zsf] ;lxi0f'tf, e|ft[TjnfO{ cfxt u/L dw]zL dw]zLaLrsf] a}dgiotfsf] aLhf/f]k0f u/of] . ;a} ;/sf/L sfd logLxsf] dfWodaf6 dfq x'g] ePsf]n] dw]zLx logLxk|lt cfslif{t x'g' :jfefljs klg lyof] . cefjdf /x]sfxsf] cfly{s ;xof]u klg logLx ;xh} pknAw u/fpFy] . o;k|sf/ dw]zsf] ;dfhdfly PsflwkTo sfod u/]/ ;fdflhstfnfO{ OR5fg';f/ l5GgleGg u/of] .

dw]z cfGbf]ng o:tf zf]if0fsf] lj s]lGbt eP/ Pstfa kdf cfPkl5 dw]zsf] PstfnfO{ b[li6ut u/L /fHo km]l/ eoeLt b]lvG5 / km]l/ dw]zdf zf]if0fsf cjojx hxfFaf6 6'6]sf] lyof], To;nfO{ hf]8]/ if8oGqnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg tNnLg b]lvG5 . dw]zdf cfk|jf;g afWotf geO{ /fHooGqsf] k|fof]lht if8oGq lyof] . /fHosf] dw]zk|ltsf] b[li6sf]0f cem} klg sn'lift g} /x]sf]n] /fHonfO{ clxn] ljZjf; ug]{ 7fpF 5}g . dw]zn] PsLs[t kdf p7fPsf] cfjfhnfO{ k'gZr p7fP/ dw]zdf /fHon] clxn] klg ul/ /x]sf] if8oGqnfO{ /f]ls cfkmgf] clwsf/ sfod ug{ h/L 5 .

@)^& kf}if ( ut]

Dfw]z e'efudf cf}}]nf]sf sf/0f aflx/ dflg; :yfO{ a;f]af; ug{ rfxFb}Gy]cf}nf] pGd'ng kZrft a;fO{;/fO{ sf] e]ng} cfof] kxf8df afx'g, If]qL;Fu hghfltsf] cGt/ lj/f]wn] dw]z emg{ jfWo t'Nofof] sxL+ jfx'g, If]qLn] 7fFp 5f]8g'' kof] eg] sxL hghfltn] Jf;fO{;/fO{sf sf/0fx oL x''gM

-s_ cfo{gMd+uf]lnog aLrsf] cGtlj{/f]wM ;Qf;'v ef]uL /x]sf afx''g, If]qLx -v;_sf] zf]ifg bdgsf sf/0f kxf8sf hghftL, blntx olt kLl8t eO{ /x]sf lyP . o; pTkL8gsf] lj4 a]nf df}sfdf le8Gtsf] l:ylt klg cfpFYof] . of] qmd lg/Gt/ kdf rNg yfn]kl5 hxfF hf] ;d'bfo sdhf]/ x'GYof], 7fpF 5f]8g afWo x''GYof] . kxf8df o;/L b'O{ ;d'bfoaLr hlGdPsf] cGt/lj/f]wn] dw]zdf kxf8sf afx'g, If]qL dfq xf]O{g hghflt blnt klg pNn]Vo ;+Vofdf a;fO{ ;l/cfP .

v_ ul/aL, a]/f]huf/L M kxf8df, lakGg ju{nfO{ lhjgofkg ug{ sl7g /x]sf] sf/0fn] plgx /f]huf/sf cj;/x vf]Hg dw]zdf a;fO{;/fO{ u/] . logLx dw]zdf pNn]Vo ;+Vofdf a;fO{;l/ cfpFbf h+un km8fgL u/L k|z:t hUuf xTofpg ;kmn eof] . of] sfd cj}wflgs eP tfklg ;/sf/n] k'gjf{; of]hgf dfkm{t logLxnfO{ hUufwgL k|df0f k'hf{ lbP/ a}wflgStf k|bfg ul/of] . df]/df vf]6faf6 em/]sf O{Gb|axfb'/ ;'Aafn] h+un kmf8fgL u/L ^ xhf/ la3f hUuf xTofof] . km8fgL ePsf] h+unsf] gfd g} O{Gb|kmf]8f /xof] k+rfot ;/sf/n] ;Dk"0f{ hUuf p;sf] gfddf btf{ u/fof] . k'j{df dfq xf]O{g k'j{ klZrd dw]zdf o:tf xhf/f} pbfx/0f 5g .

u_;/n lhjg ofkg M /fhwfgLsf] ;Qf;'v / kxf8sf] b'u{djf;n] hLjg c;xh eP/ klg ;xh} ;a};'v k|Kt ug{ / wgf9otfsf] dfg;Ddfg k|fKt ug{ sltkon] a;fO{;/]sf x'g dw]zdf xhf/f}+ xhf/ la3f hUuf agfP/ 6L :6]6 h:tf pBf]ux ;~rfng u/] . kxf8 eGbf oxfFsf] hLjg w]/} ;/n eof] .

3_ dw]z cfsif{0fsf] s]Gb| M kxf8df e'ldsf] cefj, s[lifsfo{df sl7gfO{ ;a}s'/fsf] cefj, si6k'0f{ lhjgsf] sf/0f, klg a;fO{;/fO{df lta|tf cfPsf] b]lvG5 . dw]zdf ;xh} hUuf pknAw x'g] vl/b ubf{ clt ;:tf]df kfO{g] oftfoft, kfgL, r/0f nufot ljnfl;tfsf ;Dk'0f{ s'/f ;/n kd} pknAw x'g] k|rf/k|;f/ u/]/ klg a;fO{;/fO{nfO{ lta|tf k|bfg ul/Psf] xf] / dw]zdf a;fO{;l/ cffpg]x klg cfkmgf] ;'/Iffsf] b[li6sf]0fn] ;+Vof a[l4 u/fPsf x'g . dw]zLx w]/} ;]jf ug]{ hft ePsf]n] ToxfF s'g} lsl;dsf] vt/f 5}g o:tf] k|rf/ u/]/ u}/dw]zLx Jofkskdf cfkmgf] ;+Vof a9fPsf] xf] . pgLxn] k|rf/ u/] h:t} ;'v ;'ljwf dw]zdf kfP dw]z ;a}sf] nfuL cfsif{0fsf] s]Gb| /xof] .

sf] zf]if0fsf cjoaxnfO{ dw]zn] a'emg yfNof] / ljb|f]xsf k'jf{wf/x aGg yfn] . cfkm'nfO{ zf]if0f ug]{ /fHo la4sf] 3[0ff / cfs|f]z dw]z cfGbf]ngdf lta| kdf cleJoQm ePsf] lyof] . 6'qmf6'qmfdf afFl8Psf] dw]z cfGbf]ngdf Pstfa x'Fbf clehft ju{ eolet klg eof] . jiff}{sf] ljv08g ug]{ k|of; ljkmn ePsf] sf/0fn] ljIf'Aw klg eof] .

dw]zn] cfkmgf] k|d'v b'Zdgsf] kdf ;fdGtL clwgfosjfbL kxfl8of dfgl;Stfsf] /fHo Joj:yfnfO{ tf]ls;s]sf] 5 . dw]zn] cfGbf]ngsf] wf/ /fHo Joj:yf lj4 s]lGb|t ul/;s]sf] 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ng kZrft b]zdf cfPsf] kl/jt{gnfO{ oyfl:yltdf k'ofpg /fHo x/;Dej k|of;df tlNng /x]sf]n] o; k|lt dw]znfO{ ;w} ;hu /xg' kb{5 .

cfPsf] pknlAw u'Dg ;s]g vt/fsf] k[i6e"dL tof/ kfg{ /fHo tDtof/ cj:yfdf /x]sf]n] dw]z /fHosf] if8oGq la s8f k|ltjfbdf pqg'kb{5 ._ lab]zaf6 a;fO{ ;/fO{ M adf{, e'6fg, ltAat / ef/tsf] cf;fd, gufNof08, d]3fno, sflnkf], j]:6a+ufn, b]x/fb'g, lxdfrnk|b]z cfbL 7fpFaf6 Jofkf/L ;]jf lga[t ;}lgsx tyf /f]huf/ vf]Hg]x dw]zdf cfkmgf] hftsf] afx'Notf x]/]/ :yfO{a;f]jf; ug{ cfP . dw]z g]kfnsf] cGo efueGbf ;'ljwf ;DkGg cj:yfdf /x]sf]n] a;fO{;/fO{sf] lta|tf a9]sf] xf] .

dw]znfO{ /fHon] ljlht If]qsf] kdf / dw]zLnfO{ ljb]zLsf] kdf a'emb} cfO{ /x]sf]n] cgfjZos z+sfsf] l;sf/ /Hon] dw]znfO{ lgoGq0fdf lng cg]s k|kGrsf] Pp6f d'Vo s8L cfGtl/s cfk|jf;gnfO{ a9fjf lbPsf] xf] . u}/ dw]zLxsf] dw]zdf a;fO{;/fO{ u/L ToxfFsf] hg;+Vofsf] #*=% k|ltzt k'u]sf] 5 . /fHo ;Qfdf k|ToIf ck|ToIf ;DaGw /fv]sf oL ;d'bfo dw]znfO{ n'6g ;Dd n'6]t/ dw]zsf] nflu s]xL u/]g . dw]zdfyL /fHosf] ;w}+ zlbof}+ b]lv /fHo Aoj:yfn] dw]zdf s]lGb|t u/] .

@)^& kf}if !^ ut]

dw]zLnfO{ :jfledfg / klxrfg lbg g;s]sf] ;fdGtL k[i7kf]ifs /fHo;Qfsf] lj4 ;+3Lotfsf] df+u /fv]/ dw]z pT;fxj4{s tyf alnbfgL n8fO{ n8]sf] lyof] . dw]zn] bh{gf}+ jL/ ;k"txsf] s'jf{gL lbP/ cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgdf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq n]Vg /fHonfO{ afWo t'Nofof] . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] of] 7"nf] pknlAw lyof] . dw]zsf] ;zQm cfGbf]ngsf] pTsif{n] /fHonfO{ eoeLt agfof] / dw]zsf] df+unfO{ :jLsf/ u/of] . ;+3LotfnfO{ /fHo k'g;{+/rgfsf] k|:yfgljGb' agfP klg o;sf] sfof{Gjog kIfnfO{ lautsf lbgdf olt b'a{n agfOof] ls cfGbf]ngaf6 k|fKt pknlAw u'Dg ;Sg] vt/f pTkGg ePsf] 5 . b]znfO{ k'gZr oyfl:yltdf ws]Ng afWo t'NofOFb}5 . /fhgLlts ult/f]wsf] dfWodn] b]znfO{ clg0f{osf] cj:yfdf k'/ofP/c;xh kl/l:ylt lgdf{0f u/L oyfl:yltdf nfg] ablgotk"0f{ v]nsf] a8f] rfnfsLsf ;fy d~rg x'Fb}5 . cuf8L hfg'eGbf k5fl8 x6g' g} kmfobfhgs /x]sf]n] /fHo cl3 a9g 8/fPsf] xf] / /fhgLlts ult/f]w p;nfO{ gjhLjg k|bfg ug{ ;+hLjgL lbO{ /x]sf] 5 .

/fHo Joj:yff/f dw]zdf nflbPsf] zf]if0f / e]befjsf] ;a}vfn] cjojsf] cGt u/L ;dfgflwsf/sf] cfwf/df /fHo k'g;{+/rgf u/L :jfoQ dw]z k|b]z :yfkgf ug]{ eGg] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ;kgf lyof] . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ;zQtf / ;kmntfn] dw]zL g]tfxnfO{ ck|Toflzt kn] zLif{ :yfgdf k''/ofof] . PsLs[t ljzfn dw]zsf] efjgfnfO{ ;d]6g ;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; eO{ g;s]sf] g]t[Tj k+lQmdf dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntfn] dxTjfsf+Iff r/d kn] j[l4 eof] . c;Ifd g]t[Tjsf] r/d dxTjfsfFIffn] d''ldf ;dfltPsf] jfn''jf h:t} dw]z cnu eof] . dw]z cfGbf]ngn] cleJoQm u/]sf] ;jfnnfO{ :yflkt ug{ dw]zn] PsLs[t kdf lbPsf] hgfb]znfO{ j]jf:tf u/L lgtfGt JolQmut kmfobf lng dw]zL g]tfsf] Jo:ttfn] dw]z lg/fz eof] . dw]zL g]tfxdf Tofu / alnbfgsf] ;f JolQmjfbL rl/qsf] ljsf; ePs} sf/0f dw]z lg/fz eof] . oxL cj;/sf] kmfobf p7fP/ /fHon] dw]znfO{ lg:t]h kfg{ km]l/ if8oGqsf tfgfafgf a''Gg z' uof] . dw]zsf] PstfnfO{ l5GgleGg ug{ dw]znfO{ ;fDk|bflos, hftLo, wfld{s, eflifs /fhgLltsf] bnbndf ws]Ng] s'''r]i6fsf] ;''qkft klg eO{ ;s]sf] ;a}n] cg'''ej u/}s} s'''/f xf] .

dw]zL g]tfxsf] pRr dxTjfsfFIffsf sf/0f zlQms]Gb|sf] df]xkf;df kmF:g afWo x'g' k/]sf]n] dw]zsf] afu8f]/ xftaf6 5'6g' :jfefljs klg xf] . ;/sf/df pNn]Vo ;+Vofdf pRr kbf;Lg /x]sf dw]zL g]tfx dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] efjgfk|lt uDeL/ gx'g'sf sf/0f dw]zdf cljZjf;, s'07f, cfqmf]z a9]sf] xf] . dw]zdf al9 /x]sf] o:tf] c;xh kl/l:ylt clxn] /fHosf] rnv]nsf nflu pa{/f e"ld ;flat x'g nfu]sf] 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ng kl5g]t[Tjk+lQmdf b]lvPsf cj;/jfbL, hfltjfbL, /fhgLlts Jofkf/L, dgf]utjfbL h:tf k|j[ltn] dw]zsf] PstfnfO{ ljvl08t u/]sf] xf] .

dw]z cfGbf]ng d]/f] xf], d dw]zsf] d;Lxf x"F eGg] Psy/Lsf g]tf eP . d]/f] eGg] dgf]utjfbL lrGtgn] ljzfn dw]zdf Pshgfsf] cl:tTj dfq b]vfpF5 . cfkmgf] dfq cl:tTj b]Vg], b]vfpg] k|j[lt dw]z cfGbf]ngsf ldq sbflk x'g ;Sb}g . dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ uGtJodf sbflk k'/ofpg ;Sb}g . of] k|j[ltn] dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ lj;h{gdf n} hfG5 . d eGg]n] 3f]/ lg/+s"ztfnfO{ hGd lbG5 . lg/+s"z g]t[Tjn] ;xcl:tTjnfO{ :jLsfb}{g . cGttf]uTjf lg/+s"z g]t[TjnfO{ clxn]sf] kl/j]zdf hgtfn] :jLsfb}{g . o:tf] g]t[Tj cfkm} cl:tTjxLg x'G5, dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ cuf8L a9fpg] ;jfn} p7b}g .

d;+u ljZj ljVoft ljZjljBfnosf] /fhgLlt zf:qsf] l8u|L ;fy} bzsf}+ b]lv /fhgLlts If]qdf dxf/t xfl;n 5 . j:t'k/s /fhgLlts uDeL/tfnfO{ ;"Idtd cg';Gwfg, cWoog / ljZn]if0f ug{ d l;x:t 5' eg]/ dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ uGtJodf k'/ofpg d afx]s cn] ;Sb}g eg]/ dw]zsf] /fdgfdL hKg] csf]{ y/L g]tf eof] . cfkmgf] :jfy{l;l lgot af]s]sf] of] vfn] g]tfn] cfkmgf] dw]zdf qmflGtsf/L efif0fsf] za{t lknfP/ cfkmgf] cfly{s kmfobfnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]/ -klxnf eGbf pbf/ lsGt' cfkmgf] kmfobfsf nflu s/_ lgaf{w ultzLn b]lvG5 . dw]znfO{ ztf+z kmfobf lbg g;Sg] of] vfn] cj;/jfbL /fhgLlts Jofkf/L h;sf] rl/qdf dw]zd'lQmsf] ;jfn ;fd]n 5}g, dw]znfO{ d'lQm lbnfpg ;Sb}g .

cfkmgf] ana"tfdf dw]zsfnflu s]xL ug{ g;Sg], cj;/nfO{ klg g5f]8g] cj;/jfbL, eP klg 7Ls, geP klg 7Ls dfgl;stf af]s]sf] t]>f] y/Lsf] g]tf klg eP . cfkmgf] qmflGtsf/L efif0faf6 cfkm"nfO{ dw];sf d;Lxf sxnfpg], ;/sf/df klg a:g] tyf dw]zsf] d'2fk|lt r'OFSs gaf]Ng] dw]zsf o:tf oyfl:yltjfbL g]tf klg dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ cuf8L a9fpg ;Sb}g .

Tofu, tk:of, alnbfg / pRr ljrf/n] dflg;nfO{ dxfgtflt/ 8f/ofpF5 . dw]zn] eLif0f cfGbf]ng u/of], t/ b'ef{Uojz c;n g]tf hGdfpg ;s]g . clxn]sf g]tfxsf] Pp6} clei6 s] xf] eg] wg 5 eg] hgtf cfkm} ;fy lbG5g . /fhgLlt lg/Gt/ rln /xG5 . sdf]j]; of] ;f]r dw]zsf] ;a} /fhgLlts bnxdf kfOG5 . t/ dw]z d'lQmsf] ;jfndf of] lrGtg 3fts xf] . o;n] dw]znfO{ z"Go lgisif{df k'/ofpF5 . b]zdf ljBdfg /fhgLlts ult/f]w kl/0ffdtM GnfO{ lgDTofO{ /x]sf] 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ;DefJotf klg :ki6 5 . dw]zn] ljutsf] cfGbf]ngaf6 kf7 l;s]/ cem kl/dflh{t eP/ cfpg' cfjZos 5 . cfGbf]ng s;}sf] k]jf xf]Og, pm :jtGq 5, cfkmgf] clwsf/sf] nflu olt 7"nf] nufgL ul/ ;s]sf] dw]z r'k nfu]/ a:g ;Sb}g . ;a}sf] x}l;otsf] klxrfg ToxL+ x'g] kSsf 5 .

@)^& kf}if @# ut]

dw]z cfGbf]ng kZrft ljleGg /fhgLlts bnxaf6 5'lP/ leGg /fhgLlts ;+:sf/ af]s]/ t/ dw]zsf nflu dl/ d]6g] k|lt1f ub}{ dw]zL /fhgLlts bnxdf ljleGg ljrf/sf] 6s/fx6sf sf/0f kf6L{ 6'6b} km'6b} cfd gful/s ;/x x'g nfu]sf] s'/f k|i6 e} ;s]sf] 5 . dw]zL /fhgLlts bnxsf] g]t[Tj k+lQmdf -s_ pRr dxTjfsfFIff -v_ ljleGg /fhgLlts ljrf/sf] rdTsf/L ldng -u_ dw]z cfGbf]ngk|ltsf] ;dk{0f efjsf] cefj -3_ :jfy{lnK;f k|fylds p2]Zo -_ nf]stGqsf] gfddf cnf]stflGqs sfo{z}nL -r_ Psn lg0f{osf] k|j[lt tyf -5_ df; a]:8 kf6L{ agfpg' g} kf6L{ ljv08gsf d'Vo cfwf/ x'g .

dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxdf 6'6g] km'6g] qmd hf/L g} /xg] ePsf]n] sltko km'l6 ;s] eg] sltko km'6g] tof/Ldf 5g . ;Qf x]/km]/sf] qmd;+u} kf6L{ ljefhgsf] z'ef/De s'g} gf}nf] s'/f xf]Og . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf nflu kf6L{ ljefhg x'g' /fd|f] s'/f xf] t/ To;f] ePsf] b]lvb}g . hlt km'6] To;df ;QflnK;f tyf g]tf aGg] /x/ g} b]vf k/of] . kf6L{ km'6bf c kf6L{nfO{ bf]if lbg' g]t[Tj kIfsf] c;Ifdtf / lgsDdfkg afx]s c s]xL dfGg ;lsb}g . ;x cl:tTjsf] cfwf/df dtleGgtfnfO{ dt}Sodf kfGt/0f ug'{ s'zn g]t[Tjsf] klxrfg xf] . ljleGg dtfjnDaLnfO{ tfls{s ax;, 5nkmnsf] dfWodn] dw]zd'lQmsf] sfo{lbzfsf] s;f}6Ldf Psfsf/ u/L /0fgLlt agfP/ hfg] s'/fdf dt}So x'g' lglZrt 5 . t/ dw]zsf] /fhgLlts kf6L{ eg]/ :jfy{l;lsf nflu dfq ;QfnfO{ k|of]u ubf{ kf6L{df c;Gtf]if a9g' / kf6L{ ljefhgdf hfg' :jfefljs xf] .

dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg agfpg] ;jfnsf] ;}flGts cfwf/, /0fgLlt / sfo{lbzfsf] :ki6 /]vflrq g} kf6L{nfO{ ;an agfpg] cfwf/ xf] . dw]zsf] efjgf ljkl/t ;Qf;'vnfO{ kf6L{sf] l;fGt agfof] eg] ToxfF :jfy{sf] xf]8afhLsf] v]n z' x'G5, cGttf]uTjf kf6L{ u'6aGbLsf] lzsf/ eP/ ljefhgsf] kL8f ef]Ug' kb{5 . c dfly bf]iff/f]k0f u/]/ cfkm'nfO{ rf]vf] b]vfpg' g]kfnLsf] clt d"Nojfg k/Dk/f xf] . hals c eGbf cfkm'n] s] u/of}+ eGg] efjgfsf] ljsf; x'g' kb{Yof] . cfTd cfnf]rgfn] xfdLnfO{ dfu{bz{g u5{, t/ oxfF t cfTd cfnf]rgfnfO{ /fhgLlts rfnfsLsf nflu k|of]u u/]sf] kfOG5 . cnfO{ ;Gt'i6 ug{ / cfkmgf] :j]R5frfl/tfnfO{ lgaf{w cuf8L a9fpg cfTd cfnf]rgfnfO{ k|of]u u5{g . of] v]n tTsfnsf nflu ;kmn b]lvPklg kl/0ffdtM ktgsf] af6f] xf] . /fhgLlt ;fdflhs kl/jt{gsf nflu ul/g] ljifo xf] . hgclwsf/ :yflkt ug]{ cleofg xf] .

dw]z cfGbf]ng kZrft gjf]lbt g]tfxsf ;fy g]kfnsf Voflt k|fKt, lbUuh, cg'ejL g]tfx dw]zsf] d'lQmsf] ;jfndf dw]zL hgclwsf/ :yflkt ug{ ljleGg /fhgLlts bnsf] gfddf g]t[Tj ug{ k'u] . ljutsf lbgdf d[tk|fo e} ylGsPsf dw]zL g]tfxnfO{ klg dw]zL cfGbf]ngn] /Qm;+rf/ u/fP/ ;Qfsf] zLif{ :yfgdf k'/ofP . dw]z cfGbf]ng ljkl/t /fHosf] af]nL af]Ng] dw]zL g]tfnfO{ klg Ifdfbfg lbP/ /fHosf] zLiff{;g k|bfg u/of] . zxLbx, 3fOt], ckf, em"7f d'2f v]kL /x]sf cfGbf]ngsf/L s} andf /fhsLo ;'ljwf ef]uL /x]sf, ef]nL cl:tTjljxLg x'g gk/f]; eg]/ cfly{s ;DkGgtflt/ pGd'v dw]zL g]tfxsf] dw]zsf tL jL/ ;k"txnfO{ /fxt lbnfpg' kg]{ bfloTjleq k/]g . cfkmg} xfndf 5f]l8Psf 3fO{t], ckf, d'2f cf/f]kL hf] a]xfn cj:yfdf afFlr /x]sf 5g, h;nfO{ tTsfn /fxt lbg' kb{Yof], dw]zL bnx tLg aif{b]lv ;Qfdf 6fFl;Psf] eP klg /fxt ;'ljwf lbnfpg g;Sg'df sf] bf]ifL 5g < /fHo jf dw]zsf bnx <

dw]zdf qmflGtsf/L rsf{ gf/f nufP klg dlGqd08nsf] a}7sdf r'FOSs gaf]Ng] dw]zL g]tfxsf] cfly{s nfe lng] sdhf]/L t xf]Og < /fHo ;dIf cfTd;dk{0f u/]sf oL dw]zL g]tfx dw]zsf] s'/f /fVg'eGbf JolQmut kmfobf lng tNnLg /x]s} sf/0f dw]zsf] /fxt cf]em]ndf kg{ uPsf] xf] . ;/sf/df dw]zL g]tfxsf] afSnf] pkl:ylt /x] klg /fxt lbnfpg olt sdhf]/ 5g eg] ;du| dw]z :jfoQ k|b]z :yfkgf c;Dej g} nfU5 . gf/fdf dfq af]lng] efiff dw]zL hgtfnfO{ em'Sofpg] afx]s c s]xL x'g ;Sb}g .

kf6L{ ljefhg u/L hfg] dw]zL g]tfx dw]zsf ;jfnnfO{ hf]8bf/ kdf p7fpF5g . dw]znfO{ /fxt lbnfpg] afrf ub{5g . t/ km]l/ ;Qfdf k'u]kl5 dw]zsf s'/f cf]em]ndf kfg]{ dw]zL g]tfxsf] lgolt ag]sf] 5 . dw]zn] cfkmgf] clwsf/ lng s] cfGbf]ng g} ug'{ kb{5 < s] dw]zL g]tfx o;/L dw]zL ;d:ofnfO{ gf/fdf dfq l;ldt /fV5g < s] dw]zL kf6L{x lg:t]h eO{ ;s]sf 5g < bh{gf}+ kf6L{df ljeQm x'g] k|lqmof dw]zsf] nflu geP/ JolQmut :jfy{sf nflu ckgfOPsf] s'/f :ki6 5 .

@)^& kf}if #) ut]

g]kfnL /fhgLlts j[tdf bnut tyf JolQmut :jfy{sf sf/0f nfdf] ;do b]lv sfod /x]sf] /fhgLlts ult/f]wnfO{ x6fpg cyjf Go"gLs/0f ug{ g;Sg] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmofnfO{ cj u/L b]znfO{ 7"nf] ;+s6df ws]Ng] bfloTjljxLg g]tfx cfnf]Ro dfq ag]sf 5}gg, /fli6o cGt/f{li6o If]qdf xf:of:kb klg ag]sf 5g . b]z lbgfg'lbg uDeL/ ;+s6df kmF:b} uO{ /x]sf] s'/fnfO{ cg'e"t ug{ g;Sg], bfloTjaf]w gePsf g]tfx;+u g]kfnL hgtfn] s] ck]Iff ug{ ug{ ;S5g <

b]zdf ljBdfg c;xh kl/l:yltsf sf/0f hgtfdf xtfzf, lg/fzf, s'07f, cfqmf]z tLa|t/ kdf km}ln/xg] kl/l:yltdf xToflx+;f, n"6kf6, ckx/0f, ha/0f rGbf c;'nL h:tf ck/fwsf] a[ln] ;dfhdf c;'/Iffsf sf/0f cft+s a9]sf] 5 eg] csf]{ tkm{ b}lgs pkef]Uo j:t'sf] d"Nodf r/d a[l ePsf] 5 . a]/f]huf/Ln] o'jfx lbzfljxLg eP/ c;fdflhs lqmofsnfklt/ pGd'v x'g afWo ePsf 5g . nfvf}+sf] ;+Vofdf /f]huf/sf nflu o'jfxsf] ljb]lzg] qmd hf/L 5 . s'g} klg If]qdf hgtfn] ;Gtf]ifsf] ;f+; lng] 7fpF 5}g . hgtfn] cfkmgf] ufF;, jf; h:tf cfwf/e"t clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ cfGbf]ng u/]sf lyP . kl/jt{gsf] gj kl/j]zdf a]xt/ hLjg hLpg kfpg] cfzsf ;fy alnbfgL n8fO{ n8]sf lyP . kl/jt{g klg eof] . hgtfn] cfkmgf] nflu ;+ljwfg agfpg ;+ljwfg ;ef v8f u/] . ^)! sf] ef/L ;+Vofdf ;+ljwfg ;ef ;b:o klg k7fP . t/ s] eof] < a]xt/ hLagsf] cfzdf ;/sf/f/f hgtfn] abt/ hLjg kfPsf] 5 . /fhgLltsf] o:tf] /]vflrqdf hgtfn] ;Gtf]if ug]{ 7fpF sxfF 5 <

dfcf]jfbLsf] ;]gf Joj:yfkg, zfFlGt k|lqmofsf] 6'Fuf], ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f tyf hgtfsf] hghLljsfsf] ;jfn h:tf cxd ;d:ofk|lt ;+j]bgzLn geO{ ;/sf/sf] nflu c:j:y / clrs/ k|lt:kwf{df /fhgLltnfO{ s]lGb|t ug'{ lgZro klg o;nfO{ /fli6o lrGtg dfGg ;lsb}g .

af]nL / Jojxf/df tf/tDo g/x]sf], argdf l:y/tf gx]sf], Pscsf{nfO{ em'Sofpg], 5sfpg], JolQmut tyf bnut :jfy{nfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]/ /fhgLltnfO{ cuf8L a9fpFbf /fhgLlts ult/f]w cfpg' :jfefljs xf] . /fli6o bfloTj af]s]sf] bnxn] s'g} sf/0fjz /fhgLlts ult/f]w cfPklg o;nfO{ lrb}{ cufl8 a9g' /fhgLlts s'zntf xf] / /fli6o bfloTjaf]w klg . t/ ult/f]wnfO{ rL/sfn ;Dd sfod /fVg] p2]Zon] /fhgLlt ug'{ csd{0otf, k/fd'vfk]IfL g} elgG5 . o:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] hgtfsf] ljZjf; u'dfp5 . cnf]slk|o x'G5 .

@)^& kf}if d;fGt ;Dd cgldgsf] Dofb ;dfKt x'g] k'j{ ;GWofdf kf}if @! ut] % hgj/Ldf /fi6;+3sf] ;'/Iff kl/ifbdf cgldg k|d'v n]gu|]gn] g]kfn RofK6/sf] l/kf]l6{df g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts cj:yfaf/] dfcf]jfbL ljbf]x, /fi6klt zf;g jf s" x'g ;Sg] ;Defjgf :ki6 u/]sf] lyof] . /fi6 k|d'vsf lhDd]jf/L af]s]sf JolQmTjxn] To; s'/fsf] lj/f]w u/L g}lts bfloTj lgjf{x u/]klg s] of] ;Defjgf ;To xf]Og < lhDd]jf/ JolQmTjxn] hgtfnfO{ hjfkm lbg' k/of] . /fhgLlts ult/f]w sfod /fvL b]znfO{ Ps kfOnf klg cuf8L a9g glbg' lhDd]jf/ /fhgLlts bnxn] sl/g n]gu|]gn] ck]Iff u/]sf] rdTsf/L lg0f{o b]vfP/ ePklg b]znfO{ lgsfz lbg' k/of] .

sl/g n]gu|]gsf] l/kf]l6{df s;}n] g]kfnsf] clt/l~ht cj:yf b]vfP/ Dofb a9fpg vf]h]sf] s;}n] g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ cft+lst kf/]sf] eg]/ k|ltlqmof lbP . lhDd]jf/ /fhgLlts bnxsf] h];'s} ts{ /x]klg sl/g n]gu|]gn] g]kfn / g]kfnL hgtfsf] cfjfhnfO{ lrq0f u/]sf] xf] . g]kfndf ljBdfg /fhgLlts ult/f]waf6 pTkGg ljifd kl/l:yltdf cfpg] ;DefjgfnfO{ phfu/ u/L g]kfnsf lhDd]jf/ /fhgLlts bnxnfO{ ;r]t klg u/]sf] 5 . oL ;DefJotfaf6 ;hu /lx clxn] ;Dd ePsf q'l6nfO{ ;RofpFb} cuf8L rdTsfl/s sbd a9fpg] k|]/0ff klg lbPsf] xf] . cfk;L ljZjf; ;xdtL sfod u/]/ b]znfO{ ;xhtflt/ pGd'v u/fpg] /fhgLlts bnx;+u ck]Iff klg ul/g sl/g n]gu|]gn] .

;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] lbzfdf a9]sf] b]znfO{ ;qxf}+ kN6 Pp6} 3f6df y't'gf] 7f]SsfP/ nx'n'xfg kf/]/ cGttf]uTjf /fdrGb| kf}8]nn] cfkmgf] pDd]bjf/L lkmQf{ lnP/ csf]{ 3f6lt/ hfg 5fl8lbof] . lg:;fl;O{ /x]sf] b]z s]xL a]/sf] nflu ePklg r}gsf] ;fF; lnPsf] 5 . o:t} o:t} rdTsf/sf] ck]Iff u/]sL sl/g n]gu|]g v'lzofnL dgfpFb} xf]lng . cfxt eO{ csf]{ 3f6lt/ pGd'v b]z km]l/ sltkN6 7f]lSsg] 8/n] eoeLt 5 . km]l/ 7f]lSsg] eoaf6 cfqmfGt s0fefjn] ofrgf ul/ /x]sf] b]zsf] dfof nfu]/ /fhgLlts bnxn] km]l/ rdTsf/ b]vfpnfg <

@)^& df3 & ut]

dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] rf}yf] aflif{sLsf] cj;/df dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg ug{ eLif0f ljb|f]xsf] t'd'n z+vgfb ub}{ cfkmgf] Hofgsf] cfx"tL lbg] dw]]zsf jL/ ;k"txnfO{ c~hnL el/ >f ;'dg ck{0f ug{ rfxG5' . h;n] cfkmgf] Hofgsf] k/jfx gul/ dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ pTsif{df nu]/ ;+3Lotf :yflkt u/fpg zxfbt lbP / h;sf] ;kgf lyof] cfTdlg0f{osf ;fy :jfoQ Ps dw]z Ps k|b]z

zlbof}+b]lv ;fdGtL /fHo;Qfn] e]befjk"0f{ dw]znfO{ r/d zf]if0fsf] cvf8f g} agfPsf] lyof] . /fHoljlxg cj:yfdf dw]z zf]if0fsf] lzsf/ dfq eof] . x/]s If]qdf eO{ /x]sf] zf]if0f, pTkL8gsf] lj klxnf] kN6 ;Dk"0f{ dw]z Pstfa kdf ljb|f]x u/]sf] xf] . cfkmgf] :jfledfg, klxrfg sfod ug{ dw]zdf cfPsf] hfu[lt dGbultdf t/ :yfO{ kdf cfof] . of] ljb|f]xn] dw]znfO{ w]/} cuf8L NofPsf] 5, t/ dw]zsf] g]t[Tj k+lQmdf j}rfl/s ljrngsf sf/0f dw]z k5fl8 ws]lng] qmd hf/L 5 .

dw]z cfGbf]ng kl5 g]t[Tj k+lQmdf pu| afdk+yL tyf pu| blIf0fk+yL lrGtg xfjL eof] . oL b'a} lrGtgn] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ultzLntfnfO{ gi6 kf/of] . dw]z cfGbf]ng lbzfljlxg cj:yfdf hfFbf g]t[Tj d08nLsf] nf]slk|otf x/fpg' :jefljs klg xf] . s'g} klg /fhgLlts zlQmsf] pbo x'Fbf ljutdf kmflnPsf, ylGsPsf /fhgLlts ;'n;'n]x gofF 7fpFsf] vf]hLdf ;lqmo x'G5g . hf] :jfefljs klg xf] . t/ ;xh kdf lelqPsf] ljs[ltnfO{ 7fpF agfpg' eGbf k'j{ x6fpFb} hfg' kb{5 . ;d;fdlos kn] /fhgLltnfO{ z'ls/0f, kl/dfh{g ub}{ cuf8L a9g' kb{5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngn] hlt cg'kftdf g]tfxsf] dxTjfsfFIffnfO{ a9fof], Tolt g} pgLxnfO{ Jojxf/ s'zn agfpg ;s]g . pRr dxTjfsf+Iff af]s]sf g]tfx dw]zsf d;Lxf egfpg rfpg], lhpFb}df slyt dxfgtfaf6 cn+s[t x'g rfpg] dfgl;stf 3f]/ JolQmjfbL rl/q geO{ c s] xf] <

Jojxf/ s'zn, lgi7fjfg, Tofu, alnbfg / l;fGtk|lt rfgL c8fg cflb s'/fn] JolQmnfO{ dxfg agfpF5 . p;sf] rl/qn], ;+:sf/n] dxfg agfpFb5 . cfoftLt s'/fn] xf]Og . lhpFbf]df ;"nL kfP klg sd{n] O{;f d;Lxf ag] . lhpFb} d;LxfaGg]sf] s'g} Oltxf; x'Fb}g . jt{dfgdf s]xL lbg rrf{df /x] klg 3f]8fsf] l;+3 h:t} ;w}+sf nflu p lanfP/ hfG5 . cfkmgf] dxfgtf b]vfpg' cfTd/lt xf], cfTdt'li6 xf] h;sf] sxL+ pRrtf x'Fb}g .

zxLbnfO{ :d/0f ug]{, 3fO{t], ckfnfO{ ;Ddfg ug]{ dw]zsf s'g} klg /fhgLlts bnx;+u 7f]; sfo{qmd 5}g . dw]zsf] gfddf /fhsLo ;'v ;'ljwfdf r'n'{Dd 8'a]sf g]tfx gf6s s} kdf eP klg aflif{sL sfo{qmd /fv]/ kfv08tf k|bz{g ug{ rfxb}g . dw]zsf nflu ;xh 9+un] x'g] s'/f klg ug{ grfxg] g]tfx dw]zsf] d~rdf qmflGtsf/L efif0f hgtfsf] nflu slt u|fXo x'g] xf], of] ;don] b]vfpg]5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] qmddf xft v'f u'dfPsf ckf ag]sfx lhpFbf] zxLbsf] kdf kL8f ef]uL /x]sf 5g . kl/jf/sf] cfo ;|f]t g} u'dfPsf ckfx, clxn] ;Dd pkrf//t 3fOt]x cfkmgf] kL8f kf]Vg sxfF hfpg < dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ x]g]{ s'g} lgsfo g} 5}g . clxn]sf] ;/sf/sf] u7g ePsf] * dlxgf kl5 dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxsf] bafjdf cf7 a'Fb] ;Demf}tf kq adf]lhd clgR5fk"j{s pRr :t/Lo cg'udg ;ldlt zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0f dGqLsf] ;+of]hsTjdf u7g eof] .;/sf/n] clgR5fk"j{s u7g u/]sf] Tof] cg'udg ;ldlt hGdb]lv g} ckf /Xof] . ;/sf/n] !^ j6f zxLb 3f]if0ff u/] kl5 o; cg'udg ;ldltnfO{ lgliqmo agfOof] . dw]zsf ;/sf/df ;fd]n tLgj6} bnnfO{ cg'udg ;ldltsf] lgliqmotf af/] hfgsf/L u/fpFbf klg s'g} 7f]; kxn ePg .

clxn] klg !@ zxLbn] ;Ddfg kfpg afFsL 5 . em08} $)) hgf em"7f d'2f v]lk /x]sf 5g . 3fOt], ckfn] /fxt kfpg ;s]sf 5}gg . cg'udg ;ldltsf] s'g} sfof{no 5}g . df3 b]lv cfiff9 ;Dd o;nfO{ ;lqmo /fVbf tLg kN6 dfq o;sf] a}7s zflGt dGqfnodf a:of] . >fj0f b]lv a}7s a:g aGb eof] / ;b:oxsf] ;'ljwf klg aGb ul/of] . dGqL kl/ifbaf6 lg0f{o eO{ u7g ePsf] cg'udg ;ldltsf] lglZrt Dofb tf]lsPsf] 5}g . dw]z d'2f xn ug{ ;xof]u k'/ofpg agfOPsf] cg'udg ;ldltaf/] zflGt dGqL;+u lh1f;f /fVbf tkfO{xsf] ;a} d'2f k"/f eof], ca cg'udg ;ldltsf] s'g} cf}lrTo 5}g eGg] sfg"g ljk/Lt 7f9} xKsfpg' zd{gfs s'/f xf] . zflGt dGqLHo"sf] cg'udg ;ldltsf] ;b:ox uf]7fnf a;]sf] ;/x Jojxf/ ug'{ pxfFsf] kbLo dof{bfn] ldNb}g . ls t o;nfO{ lj36g ug'{ kb{Yof], sfg"gg lhljt /x]sf] cg'udg ;ldltnfO{ zflGt dGqLHo"n] s'g clwsf/ k|of]u u/]/ o;nfO{ lgliqmo agfOPsf] xf], hjfkm lbg cfjZos b]lvG5 . bfgdf lbP ;/x Jojxf/ gul/ o;nfO{ o;sf] dd{ cg';f/ sfd ug{ lbOof]; .

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kl/jt{g k|s[ltsf] zfZjt lgod xf] . cflbsfn b]lv dfgj ;dfh kl/jt{g;+u cfkmgf] cGt/;DaGw agfP/ dfgj lxtdf k|of]u ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . dfgjn] sNof0fsf/L ;dfh ljsf;sf] l;fGt /Rg] b]lv lnP/ 7"N7'nf o'ufGtsf/L n8fO{ n8]/ ;dfhnfO{ cu|ult lbnfPsf] 5 . Pp6f kl/jt{g b]lv csf]{ kl/jt{g ;Dd ;dfhnfO{ k|of]ufTds cj:yfdf /fvL To;af6 k|fof]lus 1fg xfl;n u/L ;dfhnfO{ ;'wf/f]Gd'v agfpg csf]{ kl/jt{gdf k|j]z u/fpg] klg dfgj g} xf] . dfgjsf] dfgj lxtdf k|s[lt;+usf] cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGwsf] cwf/df ul/Psf] ct'ngLo k|of]u s} kl/0ffd :jk dfgj clwsf/ j;'w}j s'6'Dasd ax'hg ;'vfo h:tf cfbz{x ljsl;t ePsf] xf] . aa{/ o'u b]lv cfw'lgs dfgj ;dfh ;Ddsf] s7f]/td ofqf o'jfzlQmn] g} k'/f u/]sf] oyfy{ ;j{dfGo s'/f xf] . To;}n] o'jfzlQmnfO{ ;dfh ljsf;sf] kl/jt{gsf] ;+jfxs elgG5 .

dfgj / ;dfh, b'O{ km/s rl/q, km/s cl:tTjsf] ulx/f] cGt/ ;DaGwaf6 ljsl;t ePsf] xf] dfgj ;dfh . dfgj ;dfh ljsf;sf] k|lqmofdf slxn] ;dfhn] dfgjsf] g]t[Tj u/]sf] 5 eg] slxn] dfgjn] ;dfhnfO{ 8f]/ofPsf] 5 . oL b'a} aLrsf] cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGwsf] u'9 /x:onfO{ dfgjn] g} k|ltkfbg u/]sf] xf] . kl/jt{gsf] lgoldt k|lqmofsf] uxgtd cWoog / dfgj ljsf;df o;sf] ;kmntd k|of]u dfgj dl:tis s} pkh xf] . k|s[lt h:t} dfgjn] k|fof]lus 1fgnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lb+b} cfw'lgs dfgjsf] kdf cfkm"nfO{ kfGt/0f ug{ ;kmn ePsf] xf] . oL ;a kl/jt{gdf o'jfzlQmsf] ;lqmo e"ldsfnfO{ Oltxf;n] :yflkt u/L ;s]sf] s'/fnfO{ gsfg'{ xf:of:kb g} x'g]5 . o'jfju{df cbDo ;fx;, ana'l, gofFkg :yflkt ug]{ Ifdtf, k'/ftgaf6 gjLgtfdf k|j]z ug]{ pTs6 clenfiff, c;DejnfO{ ;Dej agfpg hl6ntd k|lqmofdf efu lng] / gofF vf]hlt/ clek|]l/t x'g] Ifdtfsf] e08f/ ePsf]n] g} o'jfzlQmn] ;'Gb/ ;+;f/sf] lgdf{0f u/L k]z u/]sf] xf] . cem} slt ;'Gb/ agfpg ;lsG5, lg/Gt/ hl6ntd k|of]udf ;+nUg 5g .

dfgj ljsf;s} qmddf ;+;f/df ljleGg bz{gsf] hGd ePsf] xf] . o'u ;'xfpFbf] oL bz{gx cflbsfndf Dffgj ;dfhnfO{ ;sf/fTds kl/0ffd lbPklg kZrftsfndf gsf/fTds k|efjsf sf/0fn] Pp6f bz{g lj:yflkt eO{ gofF bz{g lnP/ ;dfh cufl8 a9b} cfPsf] xf] . oL ;a} bz{gsf] k|of]ufTds kn] ;Tofkg u/L :yflkt ug]{ sfd o'jfzlQmn] g} ;DkGg u/]sf] 5 . ;+3if{, cfGbf]ng / o' oxL g} o'jfzlQmsf] k|of]uzfnfsf pks/0fx x'g . x/]s bz{gnfO{ oxL pks/0fsf] dfWodn] o'jfzlQmn] :yflkt, ;+/lIft / lj:yflkt u/sf] Oltxf; 5 . cyf{t o'jfzlQm lagf kl/jt{g ;Dej gx'g] ePsf]n] kl/jt{gsf] ;Dk"0f{ cleef/f o'jfju{n] g} k'/f ub{5 .

g]kfndf Oltxf;sfn b]lv g} ;fdGtL ;Qfsf] hu a;]sf] xf] . ;Qfsf nflu kf/:kl/s ;+3if{ u/]klg tLg lsl;dsf b]lvPsf ;fdGtx -dxf;fdGt, lg/+s"z ;fdGt / pbf/jfbL ;fdGt_ oxL ;QfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lb+b} cfP . hgtfk|ltsf] bfloTj lj;]{/ hxfg kl/jf/sf] :jfy{l;ldf lnKt ePsf /f0ffxsf] qm"/tGq hgtfdf cnf]slk|o aGb} lj:yflkt eof] .

of] ef}lts hutdf s'g} s'/f zfZjt x'Fb}g . kl/jt{g cjZoDefjL x'G5 . @))& ;fnb]lv g]kfndf 7'N7"nf /fhgLlts kl/jt{gx ePsf 5g . /f0ffxsf] cGt, /fhtGqsf] ;dflKt cflb 7"nf kl/jt{g b]lvPsf 5g . oL ;a} kl/jt{gsf] ;+3if{df xhf/f}+ o'jfx zxfbt lbP, ;os8f}+ 3fOt] ckf eP, xhf/f}+ lj:yflkt eP . o'jfxsf] alnbfgL ;+3if{af6 g} kl/jt{gsf] gf}nf] laxfgLsf] 9f]sf v'n]sf] xf] . ;}flGts kdf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq sf] :yfkgf eof] . ;fdGtL ;Qfsf :jkxsf] cjz]if clxn] klg ljBdfg /x]sf]n] ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] Jojxfl/s kIf clt sdhf]/ b]lvPsf] 5 . hgtf o; kl/jt{gsf] k|ToIf cg'e"lt ug{ ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . kl/jt{gnfO{ ;+:yfut u/L hgtfnfO{ cg'e"t u/fpg sl6a kl/jt{gsf/L zlQm / ;fdGtL ;Qfsf] xlNnPsf] hunfO{ k'g:yf{lkt u/fpg tDtof/ oyfl:yltjfbL zlQmaLrsf] r/d le8Gt hf/L 5 .

kl/jt{gsf] gofF kl/j]zdf /fhgLlts bnxsf] Psdfq cleef/f hgd'vL ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f u/L hgcfGbf]ngdf cleJoQm ePsf hgtfsf ;d:ofnfO{ tTsfn ;Daf]wg ug'{ xf], t/ 7"nf /fhgLlts bnx ;/sf/ agfpg] k|k~rk"0f{ tyf lgisif{xLg v]ndf s]lGb|t eO{ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmofnfO{ cj kf/L ;+qmd0fsfnLg cj:yfnfO{ nDAofP/ b]zdf ;+s6sf] cj:yf ;[hgf u/]/ cfkmgf] :jfy{ cg's"nsf] ;+ljwfg hgtfdfly nfbg] dg;fodf lnKt 5g . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] b'O{ jif{sf] Dofbleq ;+ljwfg agfpg] hgfb]z ljk/Lt Pscsf{dfly bf]iff/f]k0f ub}{ ;dofefj bzf{pFb} Psjif{ Dofb yKbf klg /fhgLlts ult/f]w sfod /fvL kfFr dlxgf latfO{ ;s]sf] cj:yf 5 . /fhgLlts bnxnfO{ cfk;L ;xdtL lagf lgsf; kfpg ;lhnf] 5}g . kf/:kl/s ljZjf;sf] ;+s6n] /fhgLlts bnxnfO{ Ps}7fpFdf pleg lbO{ /x]sf] 5}g .

/fhgLlts ult/f]w lgs6 eljiodf cGt x'g] s'g} ;Defjgf b]lvPsf] 5}g . /fhgLlts ult/f]wsf sf/0f b]zdf e|i6frf/, d"Noj[l, c;'/Iff, xTof, lx+;f, ckx/0f, ha/g rGbf c;'nL, cfTdxTof, ck/fw, cyf{efj cflb lg/Gt/ a9b} uO{ /x]sf]n] b]zn] 7"n} ;+s6 Jof]xf]g'{ kg]{ cj:yf klg sfod 5 . b]z lbgfg'lbg ;+s6u|:t x'Fb} hfg' s'g} klg /fhgLlts bnsf] lxtdf 5}g . b]]]z, ljb]zL zlQmsf] /fhgLlts cvf8f aGg] ;Defjgf k|jn ePsf] 5 . /fhgLlts bnx kf/:kl/s ]ifdf b]zsf] :jfledfg, ;Ddfg, k|lti7fk|lt ;+j]bgzLn gx'g' 7"nf] b'ef{Uosf] s'/f xf] . b]znfO{ cem} ;+s6u|:t agfP/ cfkmgf] clei6 k"/f ug]{ cb'b{lz{tfn] :jR5 /fhgLlt / b]zsf] sNof0f x'g] s'/f ;j{dfGo x'g ;Sb}g . hg hgaf6 o:tf] k|k~rk"0f{ v]nsf] k6fIf]k ug{ / b]znfO{ ;xh lgsf; lbg bjfjd"ns sfo{qmd cfpg cfjZos b]lvPsf] 5 .

b]zdf ljBdfg ;+qmd0fsfn, /fhgLlts ult/f]wsf sf/0f b]z ultxLgtfsf] cj:yfdf hgtfsf] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg x'g g;s]sf] v08df hgtfdf g}/fZotf a9b} uO{ /x]sf] / o;sf] k|ToIf lzsf/ o'jfju{ ePsf]n] cj;/sf] vf]hLdf o'jfxsf] ljb]z knfog tLa|kdf a9]sf] 5 . b]zdf /fhgLlts ultxLgtfn] o'jfzlQmsf] e"ldsf uf}0f agfPs} sf/0fn] nfvf}+ o'jfx ljb]lzg afWo ePsf 5g . ;lbof}+ b]lv hgtfsf] ;d:ofnfO{ gh/cGbfh ug]{ tTsfnLg /fHo;Qfsf] lj b]zdf p7]sf] cfFwLn] kl/jt{gsf] 9f]sf vf]n] klg kl/jt{g ;+:yfut x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g .

xhf/f}+ o'jfxsf] zxfbtaf6 k|fKt ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq nfO{ ;+/If0f / ;Da{g ug]{ cleef/f klg o'jfju{ s} sfFwdf ePsf]n] /fhgLlts ultxLgtfsf] cGwsf/af6 b]znfO{ lgsfn]/ hgtfn] ck]Iff u/] cg'ksf] /fhgLlt k|0ffnL :yfkgf ug]{ lbzfdf cxd e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ bfloTj o'jfju{n] g} k"/f ug'{ kb{5 . zxLbn] b]znfO{ oxfF ;Dd NofO{ k'/ofpFbf oxfFaf6 b]znfO{ uGtJo ;Dd k'/ofpg] sQ{Jo o'jfju{n] k'/f ug'{ kb{5 .

@)^& df3 @! ut]

cgGtsfnb]lv zf]if0f / pTkL8g em]Nb} cfPsf] dw]zL ;dfhnfO{ kfGt/0fsf] k|lqmofdf n}hfg ;do ;dodf dw]zsf o'jfxn] h8jt ;dfhnfO{ cu|ultlt/ ws]Ng yfn]sf k|of;xnfO{ la;{g' x'Gg . af3 / qmflGtsf/L s;}sf] ;xof]usf] ck]Iff ub}{g eg] h:t} b'uf{gGb emfn] klg !( jif]{ slnnf] pd]/df gfkmf gf]Szfg s]xL g;f]rL dw]zdfly zf]if0f, pTkL8g nfbg] ;fdGtL /fHo;Qfsf gfO{s] /fhf dx]Gb|dflysf] ad k|xf/ / cfkmgf] lu/kmtf/L lbP/ lgZro klg dw]znfO{ hufpg ;fxl;s sQ{Jo lgjf{x u/]sf lyP .dw]zsf] xs, clwsf/sf nflu alnbfg ug]{ b'uf{ggb emf -@)@)_, sfd]Zj/ d08n -@)@(_, s'z]Zj/ ofbj -@)@(_, ldlyn]z b"a] -@)#^_, >Lw/ 7fs'/ -@)$@_, ;fs]trGb| ld> -@)$@_, 8f) nIdL gf/fo0f emf -@)$@_, lblnk rf}w/L -@)$@_ pboz+s/ d08n -@)$^_, /fdljnf; 7fs'/ -@)$^_ nufot w]/} o'jfx lyP . ;fdGtL clwgfosjfbL k+rfotLsf hfHjNodfg zf;g Joj:yf lj oL o'jfx alnbfgL ;+3if{sf z+vgfb u/]sf lyP . cfkmgf] /utsf] cfx"lt lbP/ :jfledfg klxrfgsf nflu dw]znfO{ p7g cfXjfg u/]sf lyP .

;do ;dodf dw]zsf jL/ ;k"txsf] zxfbtn] dw]z ljb|f]x sf] ;Dk"0f{ tof/L k"/f ug{ Oltxf; /Rb} lyof] eg] dw]zL ;dfh hfu/0fsf] kl/kSjtfdf cfP/ alnbfgL uLt u'gu'gfO{ /x]sf] lyof] . ;dfh ljsf;sf] l;fGt cg';f/ kl/jt{gsf] qmddf k"j{jQL{ ;dfhaf6 gofF ;dfhdf kfGt/0f x'g] zfZjt lgod adf]lhd dw]zL ;dfhn] klg ljb|f]xsf] dfWodn] @)^# df3 @ ut] ;fdflhs, cfly{s kfGt/0fsf] k|lqmofnfO{ cuf8L a9fPsf] xf] . s'g} klg cfGbf]ng o'jfju{n] g} k"/f ug'{ kb{5, o; P]ltxfl;s dfGotf cg'k ljutsf jL/ zxLbxsf] k|]/0ff lnP/ dw]zsf xhf/f}+ o'jfx ho dw]zsf gf/f 3GsfP/ ;Dk"0f{ dw]znfO{ ;"qa u/], cfGbf]ngsf lau'n km's] / cfGbf]ngnfO{ phf{ k|bfg ug{ bh{gf}+ o'jfx Hofgsf] alnbfg u/]/ cd/Tj klg k|fKt u/] . /d]z dxtf] klxnf jL/ zxLb x'g h;n] dw]zL o'jfxnfO{ xf};nf a9fof] / cfGbf]ngnfO{ pTsif{df k'ofof] . zxfbt lbg] bh{gf}+ jL/ zxLb tyf ;os8f}+ 3fO{t]sf] k|]/0ffn] cGttf]uTjf dw]z cfGbf]ngn] kl/jt{gsf] vfsf sf]of] ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfn

kl/jt{gsf ;+afxs o'jfzlQm ePsf]n] ;dfh kfGt/0fsf] ;a} r/0f o;}n] k"/f ug'{ kb{5 . o'jfju{sf] c;n Joj:yfkg, kl/dfh{g / sfof{Gjogdf g} c;n ;dfhsf] laDa kl/nlIft x'G5 . d'lQm cfGbf]ngb]lv lnP/ ;dfh ljsf;, ;d[l / :yfloTj ;Dd o'jfju{sf] cxd e"ldsf x'G5 .

l;/xfsf jL/ zxLbx /d]z dxtf], k|df]b ;bf, a]rg ofba, ljho ;xgL, cgL; /fO{g, df]/sf zxLbx tNn' x:bf x]d/d, ;bfgGb ofba, lgd{n /fha+zL, /fhs'df/ sfdt, lbgbofn d08n, a]rg ldofF, ;'G;/Lsf zxLbx Zofd ;'Gb/ d]xtf, xl/ d]xtf, /fd:jk d]xtf, clgn Clifb]j, eujtL d08n, lj:s'6 ldofF, ;Kt/Lsf zxLbx nvg ;fkmL, lht]Gb| d/j}tf, /fh]z ofba, eujtL d08n, /fdfgGb d]xtf, u'N6]g bf;, 5'tx d'lvof, e'NsL ofba, u+uf bf;, wg'iffsf zxLbx sf/L 7fs'/, lzjz+s/ ofba, aXdb]j 7fs'/, /fh]z 7fs'/, dxfQ/Lsf zxLb s}o"d bkmfnL, ;nf{xLsf zxLbx cflzkm cnL lds/fgL, lbg]z /fo ofba, /fdgf/fo0f ;fx, /fd Psafn /fo, ;+ho s'df/ /fo ofba, lhjwf/L ofba, af/fsf zxLbx z]if cAb'n c;/km, dlhb dxDdb d+;"/, hld/ cfnd, k;f{sf zxLbx lbk]Gb| ;fx, dxfjL/ ;fx, lj/jn d'lvof, kGb]xLsf zxLbx eujtL ofba, c;nd k7fg, rlGb|sf ofba, afFs]sf zxLbx sf]OnL sf]/L, vf]8x] uf]l/of, t'nf/fd ltjf/L, sfzL/fd xl/hg, dftf k|;fb jdf{, u'Nhf/ vfF, sdn lu/L, gjnk/f;Lsf zxLb hubLz kf;jfg tyf alb{ofsf lhn]/fd ofba, oL %% hgf zxLbdf %) hgf o'jfxn] g} zxfbt lbPsf 5g .

;os8f}+ o'jfx uf]nL nflu 3fOt] / ckf cj:yfdf s'g} /fxt ;'ljwf gkfP/ kL8f ef]uL /x]sf 5g . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] rf}yf] jif{sf] df3sf] z'e cj;/ kf/]/ 1ft c1ft cfh ;Ddsf ;Dk"0f{ zxLbxk|lt xflb{s >fF~hnL ck{0f ub}{ 3fOt], ckf dxf]Q/Lsf ljho 7fs'/b]lv afFs]sf u'88" xnjfO{ ;Ddsf] kL8fn] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ;kgfdfly eO{ /x]sf] s'7f/f3ftsf] lj o'jfju{nfO{ 7"nf] k|]/0ff ldnf]; oxL d]/f] z'esfdgf 5 .

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dw]z cfGbf]ngsf zxLbxsf] ;kgf, 3fO{t]xsf] kL8f / xfy v'f u'dfPsf lhpFbf] zxLbsf] kL8fdf dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg ug]{ ;dflxt ePsf] efjgfnfO{ ;Ddfg ug{ g;Sg] /fhgLlts cu'jfxsf] b'/fzok"0f{ Jojxf/n] 3f]/ lg/fzfsf] cGwsf/df ws]lnPsf, u'd/fx agfOPsf l;+u} o'jfk':tf ef]nL b]zsf ef/ p7fpg ;Snfg < cfkmgf] Hofgsf] cfx"lt lbO{ dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ pTsif{df k'/ofO{ dw]zsf g]tfxnfO{ zLif{:yfgdf kbf;Lg u/] afkt s] o'jfju{n] lg/fzf, s'07f, Unflg dfq kfpg] clwsf/ /fVb5 < dfcf]jfbLsf] G, )^@)^# sf] hg cfGbf]ng tyf dw]z cfGbf]ngdf o'jfju{sf] ;jf]{k/L tyf lg0ff{os e"ldsf s} sf/0f ;f7L jif{b]lv k|tLIff/t ;+ljwfg ;ef h:tf] kl/jt{g hgtfn] kfP . hgd'vL ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqnfO{ k|:yfg ljGb' agfP . oL kl/jt{gxdf o'jfju{sf] cxd eldsfnfO{ s;}n] gsfg{ ;Sb}g . k|f0ffx"lt lbP/ hg sNof0f ug]{ gofF g]kfn lbg] o'jfxnfO{ Hofnf lbP h:t} /fxt :jk s]xL wg lbP/ s] xfdLn] tL zxLbxk|lt sQ{Jo lgjf{x u/]sf] 7fGb5f}+ < zxLbxsf] C0f r'Stf u/]sf] 7fGb5f}+ <

b]zdf ljBdfg ;+qmd0fsfnLg cj:yf / /fli6o /fhgLlt d~rdf zLif{:yfgdf pbfPsf tLg km/s tyf ljkl/t w|'jsf /fhgLlts bnsf] pRr dxTjfsf+Iffsf 6s/fx6n] nfdf] ;do ;Dd ult/f]w sfod /x]sf] sf/0fn] o'jfju{sf] nflu g /fxt g s'g} 7f]; sfo{qmd g} cfpg ;Sof] . kl/0ffdtM o'jfju{df lg/fzf, If'Awtf, Unflg, cfqmf]z a9b} uof] . To;kl5 g]kfnL o'jfsf] ljb]z knfogsf] qmd z' eof] / lg/Gt/ hf/L 5 . nfvf}+sf] ;+Vofdf o'jfxsf] ljb]lzg] qmd hf/L 5 . j}slNks af6f]sf] cefjdf /fHon] /f]Sg klg ;ls /x]sf] 5}g . nfUb5, b]zn] Pp6f eflj kL9Lsf] Uofkaf6 cfpg] sl7gfO{ ef]Ug} kg]{ x'G5 . xfdL ;f]Rb5f}+ b]zsf] ljs6 cj:yf 5, xfdL clxn] o'jfju{nfO{ ;Gt'i6 klg kfg{ ;Sb}gf}+ . ljb]z hfFbf JolQmut pgnfO{ kmobf x'G5 / b]znfO{ /]ld6ofG; cfpF5 .

t/ ljb]lzg] vr{sf] hf]xf] slt kL8fbfos 5, /fHon] cg'e"t ug{ ;s]sf] 5 < To;kl5 ljb]zdf ylkg] kL8faf6 pTkGg 3[0ffn] b]znfO{ ;fsf/fTds kl/0ffd b]nf < h]xf];, ev{/ Gaf6 aflx/ lg:s]sf] /fHon] o'jfsf] 3fpdf ;xfg'e"ltsf dnxd nufpg'sf] ;f6f] j]jf:tf u/]/ ylklbPsf] kL8f 3f]/ s[tWgtf g} 7xl/G5 . o'jfzlQm b]zsf efjL s0f{wf/ x'g, ;fj{hlgs d~rdf eGg] dfq xf]O{g, Jojxf/df klg ;Ddfg u/]/ plrt Joj:yfkg ug{ xfdLn] l;Sg' kb{5 .

emngfy vgfnsf] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/ aGg nfu]sf] a]nf dw]zL hgclwsf/ kmf]/d, g]kfn klg ;/sf/df hfg] lglZrt ePsf] 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ng kLl8tnfO{ /fxt lbg, afFsL /x]sfxnfO{ zxLb 3f]if0ff u/fpg] sfd, em"7f d"2f lkmQf{ u/fpg] sfdnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]/ k"/f ug]{ sfd kmf]/d g]kfnsf] sfFwdf cfPsf] 5 . ljutsf] ;/sf/n] gfdsf] nflu dw]z cfGbf]ng kLl8tnfO{ x]g{ ablgotk"0f{ * a"Fb] ;Demf}tfdf pNn]v ePsf] pRr :t/Lo cg'udg ;ldlt zflGt dGqLsf] ;+of]hsTjdf u7g u/]sf] lyof] . hGd}b]lv ckf cg'udg ;ldlt slxn] klg cfkmgf] sfd sf/jfxL cuf8L a9fPg . u7gb]lv g} lgliqmo kfl/Psf cg'udg ;ldltaf/] ljut ;/sf/sf] dfgl;stf s:tf] lyof] eGg] af/] d}n] k6s k6s n]Vb} cfO{ /x]sf] 5' . dw]znfO{ /fxt lbnfpg] s'/fdf km]l/ klg o:t} sk6k"0f{ dfgl;stfsf] k'g/fj[lt gxf]; eGg] s'/f ;/sf/df ;fd]n x'g] dw]zsf /fhg}lts kf6L{nfO{ ;'emfj lbg rfxG5' .

dw]z cfGbf]ng kLl8tnfO{ x]g]{ clwsf/ ;DkGg s'g} lgsfo g /x]sfn] dw]z cfGbf]ng kLl8t larNnLdf k/]sf 5g . rf/ jif{ latL ;Sbf klg dw]zn] /fxt gkfpFbf /fxt lbnfpg ;/sf/df ;fd]n x'g] dw]zsf kf6L{xn] g}lts bfloTj k"/f ug'{ kb{5 . ljut h:t} gu/]/ Pp6f clwsf/ ;DkGg cfof]u v8f u/]/ tbfstfsf ;fy /fxtsf sfd ;DkGg ug'{ clgjfo{ b]lvPsf]n] of] sfd lgZro klg k"/f x'g] dw]zn] ck]Iff u/]sf] 5 . ;DejtM cfkmgf] q'l6 ;Rofpg] /fd|f] cj;/ klg x'g]5 .

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      hg clwsf/af6 al~rt zf]lift, kLl8t hgtfn] clwsf/ vf]:g] tfgfzfx ljsf] cg]sf}+ n8fO{ n8]/ k/f:t u/L cfkm\gf clwsf/ ;'lglZrt kf/]sf 5g\ . xfn} 6\o"lgl;of / OlhK6sf hgtfn] !* lbgsf] eLif0f cfGbf]ngaf6 /fi6kltnfO{ b]zaf6 wkfPsf 5g\ . nfdf] ;dob]lv e]befjdf k/]sf blIf0fL ;"8fgsf hgtfn] cfkm\gf] :jtGq b]z 5'6fPsf] 5 . nfdf] ;dob]lv /fHoljlxg cj:yfdf /x]sf] blIf0fL ;"8fgsf] ;d:of dw]zsf] ;d:of;+u ldNbf] h'Nbf] 5 . blIf0fL ;"8fg zflGtk"0f{ kn] hgdt ;+u|xsf] dfWodn] lagf /Qmkft 6'lqmPsf] Pp6f k|z+;gLo pbfx/0f xf] . dw]zdf eg] of] cj:yf 5}g . k|;+u 6'lqmg]sf] xf]Og, al~rtLs/0fsf] lj ;+3if{ / clwsf/ ;'lglZrttfsf] n8fO{ xf] . dWok"j{ Plzofdf tfgfzfx ljsf] ;+3if{ tLa|t/ a9\b} uO{ /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . odg, O{/fgdf lj/f]wsf nx/ km}lng nfu]sf] 5 . hf]8{gn] hgkIfLo ;'wf/sf sfo{qmd cuf8L ;f/]sf 5g\ . PSsfO;f}+ ztfAbLdf ljZjsf zf]lift, kLl8tju{df /fhgLlts r]tgf cfPsf sf/0f g} qmlds kn] tfgfzfxx wkfO{b} 5g\, kmflnb} 5g\ .

      g]kfnsf ;Gbe{ leGg /x]tfklg oL ;+3if{sf ;Defjgf hLljt cj:yfdf /x]sf]n] g]kfn klg c5"tf /x\g ;Sb}g . ;fdGtL ljrf/ af]s]sf nf]stflGqs tfgfzfx lj hgcfGbf]ng nlIft x'g] ;Defjgf a9\b} uO{ /x]sf] 5 . g]kfndf ePsf] kl/jt{g / To;kl5 /fli6o /fhgLltdf k|d'v e"ldsfdf pbfPsf tLg bnsf] lgisif{ljlxg / cGtxLg /fhgLlts j}rfl/s ;+3if{n] nDAofpb} uO{ /x]sf] ;+qmd0fsfnLg cj:yfaf6 g]kfnL hgtf k|ToIf k|efljt ePsf 5g\ . b]zdf a9\b} uPsf] xToflx+;f, n"6kf6, cft+s, rsf]{ d"Noj[laf6 hgtfdf JofKt lg/fzf, s'07f, cfqmf]zn] ;+3if{nfO{ glgDTofpnf eGg ;lsGg . cGtxLg ;+qmd0fsfnLg cj:yfn] cGttM b]znfO{ k'gZr Gdf ws]Ng] c8snafhL a'lhLjL j[tdf x'g yfn]sf] 5 .

      w]/} em+emfjft, /fhgLlts cf/f]x, cj/f]w ef]u]sf oL tLg k|d'v bn l56f] ;dfwfg lgsfNg eGbf clk|msL b]zsf] nfdf] ;dosf] ;+qmd0fLo cj:yfsf] k"0f{kf7 k9fpg kl5 kb}{g . dfgf}+ b]zsf] nfdf] eljiosf] kl/l:yltsf 1ftf tyf ;+rfns log} lqb]j x'g\ h;sf] OR5f ljkl/t b]zsf] kl/l:ylt Ps kfOnf klg cuf8L hfFb}g . k|wfgdGqL rogsf nflu hGd]sf] ult/f]w emngfy vgfn k|wfgdGqLdf rog x'Fbf klg sfod /x]sf] 5 . bnLo lsrnf]sf sf/0f dGqL d08n lj:tf/ x'g ;ls /x]sf] 5}g . dfcf]jfbL j}zfvL 6]s]sf] emngfy vgfnsf] ;/sf/ zlQms]Gb|xsf] sf]kefhg x'g] vt/fsf] ;Defjgf klg k|an 5 . b]zsf] cl:dtfsf] w/ftndf klg Ps gx'g] /fhgLlts bnxsf] cfk;L snx cyjf cfd+q0f eg"F zlQms]Gb|xn] g]kfnL /fhgLltdf dxTjk"0f{ 7fpF kfPsf] 5 . zlQms]Gb|xsf] dxTjk"0f{ pkl:yltdf /fhgLlts bnxsf] df}lns tyf :jtGq ljrf/ lj:yflkt x'Fb} hfFbf klg /fli6o ;d:of hl6n aGb} uO{ /xsf] 5 / lj:tf/} g]kfnsf] /fhgLlt zlQms]Gb|xsf] xftdf hfg] ;Defjgf k|jn kdf b]lvPsf] 5 . j}rfl/s tyf Jojxf/df Ps gbLsf] b'O{ lsgf/f h:tf] b"/L /fVg] log} /fhgLlts bnxnfO{ hgtfn] g]kfndf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] zf;g kltnfO{ :yfkgf ug{ hgfb]z lbP/ ;+ljwfg ;efdf k7fPsf x'g\ .

      /fli6o ;xdtLsf] s'/f ub}{ cfPsf emngfy vgfn k|wfgdGqLdf rog x'Fbf cfkm\gf] bndf klg ;xdtL sfod ug{ g;s]/ dGqL d08nsf] lj:tf/ kmnfdsf] Ro"/f ;flat ePsf] 5 . /fli6o lxtsf] ;jfndf ;j{;DdtnfO{ kG5fpFb} k|wfgdGqL emngfy vgfn PSn}n] u/]sf] dfcf]jfbL;+usf] & a"Gb] ;Demf}tf laifonfO{ lnP/ cfkm\g} kf6L{leq p7]sf ljjfbn] klg emngfy vgfnsf] ;/sf/nfO{ hl6ntf ylklbPsf] 5 . & a"Gb] ;Demf}tfdf dfcf]jfbL n8fs"sf] 5'6\6} lgsfo agfpg] zAbfjnLsf] k|of]un] t /fhgLlts j[tdf 7"nf] cfz+sf k}bf u/]sf] 5 . afdkGyL w|'jLs/0f x'g nfUof], nf]stflGqs zlQm Ps xf]pm, b]z vt/fdf uof] eGg] xNnf klg lkmhfOPsf] 5 . kfq hf] cfP klg, /fhgLlt ;xhLs/0f ug'{sf] ;f cg]s av]8f lems]/ c;xh kl/l:ylt lgdf{0fdf g} cfkm\gf] cl:tTj b]V5 .

      Dffcf]jfbLn] ;/sf/ lgdf{0fdf h'g lsl;dsf] Tofu b]vfof], Tolta]nf p;sf] dxfgtf kl/nlIft eP klg To;kl5 k'gZr efua08f tyf cfklQhgs ;Demf}tfsf] ljjfbn] dfcf]jfbL Tofu lg/y{s ;flat ePsf] ;a}n] cg'dfg ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . lgot ;fkm gePsf] / afWofTds cj:yfsf] ;dy{g /x]sf] pgsf lqmofsnfkn] b]vfPsf] 5 . @ lbgdf j}slNks ;/sf/ lbg] eg]/ dfwj g]kfnsf] ;/sf/nfO{ /fhLgfdf u/fP/ ;ft dlxgf kl5 emngfy vgfnnfO{ cfkm\gf] ;dy{gdf  agfPsf] ;/sf/nfO{ klg ljjfbf:kb agfPsf]n] ;eGbf 7"nf] kf6L{sf] 7"nf] bfloTj lgjf{x ug]{ lhDd]jf/Laf6 dfcf]jfbL v:s]sf] k|tLt x'G5 . lemgf dl;gf s'/fnfO{ cNemfP/ ;/sf/nfO{ k"0f{tf lbg g;Sg', /fli6o ;xdtLsf] s'/f ubf{ b'O{ bnaLr dt}So gx'g'nfO{ hu xF;fO{ geg]/ c s] eGg] < afWofTds cj:yfdf emngfy vgfnnfO{ ;dy{g u/L cg]s av]8fdf kmF;fP/ emngfynfO{ alnsf] af]sf agfpg' lgZro klg /fd|f] /fhgLlt xf]Og . Tofu b]vfP kl5 Tofusf] kl/efiff cg'k cfr/0f klg x'g' kb{5 . cnfO{ v/fa b]vfpFbf cfkm'n] ug]{ df}sf kfP kl5 u/]/ b]vfpg' kb{5 . cfkm\gf] ;/sf/sf] ktg kZrft\ ljut ^ dlxgfb]lv ;/sf/df plSng k|oTg/t dfcf]jfbLnfO{ cfkm\gf] k/fqmd b]vfpg /fd|f] cj;/ k|fKt ePsf]n] hgtfsf] slt k|z+;f a6'Ng ;S5, x]/f}+ .

 

@)^& kmfu'g !# ut]

U'lh|/x]sf] @ jif]{ Dofbsf] clGtd 38Ldf cw'/f] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmofnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg ;a} /fhgLlts bn ;xdtLdf cfP/ ! jif{ Dofb yk u/]/ ;xdtLo /fhgLltsf] pbfx/0fn] hgtf cfzfd'vL ag]sf lyP . kf/:kl/s ;a} vfn] snxnfO{ yftL /fv]/ ePklg /fhgLlts bnxnfO{ /fli6o lhDd]bf/Ln] ;xdtLsf] ljGb'df NofPsf] k|tLt x'GYof] . t/ ;+ljwfg ;efsf] ylkPsf] Tof] dxTjk"0f{ ! jif]{ Dofbdf ( dlxgf ljTg nfUbf klg ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmof lqmofzLn x'g ;s]g . tLg} /fhgLlts bnn] yftL /fv]sf] s]6fs]6L h:t}sf] cGtxLg emu8fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lb+b} lg/y{s ;do ljtfpg tNnLg b]lvG5g\ . nfUb5, ;+ljwfg ;efsf] ;+j]bgzLntfn] xf]O{g, ;fd"lxs :jfy{n] k|]l/t eP/ ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb ylkPsf] xf] . xf]Og eg] ( dlxgf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] s'/} gu/L s;/L laTof] < ;+ljwfg ;efsf] ;do cNktfn] klg /fhgLlts bnxnfO{ uDeL/ agfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] dxTjk"0f{ ;do ;/sf/ lgdf{0fdf vr]{ klg ;/sf/ agfpg c;kmn tLgj6} /fhgLlts bn cGtxLg ult/f]wdf kmF;]sf] 5 . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] hl6n k|lqmofnfO{ olt sd ;dodf rdTsf/L 9+un] klg k"/f ug{ ;lsb}g .

      ;dofefjn] ;+ljwfg d:of}bf ug]{ ;+j}wflgs ;ldltnfO{ clnslt eP klg uDeL/ agfPsf] 5 . d:of}bf ;ldltdf /x]sf ljjfbaf/] tLgj6} k|d'v bn ljjflbt ljifonfO{ pk;ldltaf6 l5gf] kmfgf] ug]{ eGg]df xtfl/b} ;xdt ePsf 5g\ . dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx lgZro klg lsgf/fdf ;fIfLsf] kdf a:g] df}sf kfP . ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] :jfefljs k|lqmofnfO{ cj ul/ xtf/sf] rf]/ af6f]af6 NofOg] ;+ljwfg hgd'vL ;+ljwfg x'g} ;Sb}g . hg:t/df Jofks 5nkmnsf] dfWodaf6 NofOg] ;+ljwfg h;df hgtfsf] dd{ cleJoQm ePsf] x'G5, hgd'vL ;+ljwfg dflgG5 . ljleGg ljrf/ af]s]sf /fhgLlts bnxsf] s;}sf] lgotjz, s;}sf] p6k6fFu lqmofsnfkn] ;+ljwfg ;efaf6 ;+ljwfg agfpg gk/f];\ eGg] dfgl;stf Psfsf/ ePsf] b]lvG5 . agfpg] k/] clGtd 38Ldf xtf/sf] cj:yf b]vfP/ cfFlzs ;+ljwfg eP klg aflx/ NofP/ /fi6k|ltsf] bfloTj lgjf{x ug]{ dfgl;stfdf bnx Nffu]sf 5g\ .

      dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx d~rdf hlt qmflGtsf/L gf/f lbP klg sdhf]/ O{R5f zlQm, cj;/jfbL rl/q, :jfy{jz zlQms]Gb|x;+u lg/y{s n6\kl6g] aflgn] klg dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] efjgf cg'ksf] ;+ljwfg gcfpgdf dw]z ljZj:t 5 . dw]zL g]tfxaf6 xf]Og, dw]z cfGbf]ngaf6} dw]z clwsf/ ;DkGg x'g] s'/f :ki6 x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf] 5 .

      cfGtl/s snxn] Psflt/ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmofnfO{ cj kfl/ hgtfnfO{ lg/fz agfPsf] 5 eg] csf]{ tkm{ zlQms]Gb|nfO{ g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ;lqmo kf/]sf] 5 . of] ;lqmotfn] g]kfnL /fhgLlt ;xh aGg'sf] ;f6f] lbgfg'lbg hl6n aGb} uO{ /x]sf]n] o;df /fli6otfsf] ;anLs/0f kSs} klg x'Fb}g . 3/ km'6] uFjf/ n"6] eGg] pvfg rl/tfy{ x'g] a]/ 5}g . lgw{Ss;+u cfk;L Gdf nLg /fhgLlts bnx o; ;+j]bgzLntfk|lt uDeL/ x'g' kb{5 . dfcf]jfbLn] cfkm\gf] ;dy{gdf v8f u/]sf] Pdfn] ;/sf/nfO{ k"0f{tf lbnfO{ cuf8L a9\g' kg]{df Joy{sf] ljjfbdf ;do vr]{sf]n] Jofks cGof]n ;[hgf ePsf] 5 . ls t ;dy{g lkmQf{ lnP/ csf]{ k|lqmofdf hfg' kb{5, xf]Og eg] Joy{sf] ult/f]w cGt ul/ ;/sf/nfO{ cuf8L a9\g lbg' kb{5 . o; cGof]nu|:t cj:yfsf] kmfObf p7fpg cg]s cjfFl5t zlQmxsf] cgfjZos e"ldsf a9]sfn] klg o; tkm{ dfcf]jfbLn] uDeL/tfk"j{s ;f]Rg' kb{5 . bfgdf lbPsf] s'/f dxfgtfsf] nIf0f xf] . o;df k|ltkmn rfx\g' dxfgtfsf] cjd"Nog xf] . cfkm" ;/sf/df uP/ c ;a} bnxnfO{ ;/sf/df ;dfj]z u/fpg cem} dxfgtfsf] v'8lsnf r9\g afFsL 5 . Tofu u/] kl5 Tofusf] kl/efiff cg'ksf] cfr/0f klg x'g' k/\of] . cfk;L lsrnf]sf sf/0f /fhgLlt k|lti7f 36\g], kf/:kl/s cljZjf; a9\g] / cn] cj;/sf] kmfO{bf lng] s'/faf6 hf]lug' k/\of] . /fhgLlt k]n]/ hfg] s'/f 7Ls xf] . To;sf] klg Pp6f ;Ldf x'G5 . cfkm} k]lng] eP kl5, k]Ng]sf] lh2Ln] cfkm}nfO{ 3f6f x'G5 .

      /fhgLlt ult/f]wsf sf/0f hghLjg c:t Jo:t aGb} uO{ /x]sf] s'/f ;a} /fhgLlts bnxnfO{ cjut x'Fbf x'b} lh2Lsf] /fhgLlt u/]/ b]znfO{ c;xhtflt/ ws]Ng' s'g} /fhgLlts dof{bfleq kb}{g . cfkm" eP 7Ls c eP a]7Ls eGg] lgtfGt JolQmjfbL /fhgLltaf6 b]z / hgtfnfO{ d'Qm ug'{ k/\of] . b]z / hgtfsf] si6nfO{ cg'e"t ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug'{ k/\of] . nf]stGqnfO{ cfkm\gf] cfkm\gf] :jfy{ cg';f/sf] kl/efiff ug]{ k|j[ltsf] cGt x'g' k/\of] . nf]stGqnfO{ cfkm\gf] df}lns kl/efiff cg'k rNg lbg' kof] .

@)^& kmfu'g @) ut]

;dfg'kflts ljsf; lagf k5f}6]kgdf afFRg afWo dw]zL ;dfhsf] dlxnf a9L kLl8t ePsf 5g\ . lzIffsf] cefj, ul/aL, a]/f]huf/Lsf sf/0f ;aeGbf a9L dlxnf k|tfl8t ePsf 5g\ . kbf{ k|yfeGbf aflx/ cfpg g;s]sf sf/0f klg dw]zL dlxnfsf] cj:yf bogLo x'g k'u]sf] 5 . /fHoljlxgtfsf] cj:yfdf cj;/ / ;Defjgfaf6 a+lrt dw]zL ;dfhsf] cj:yf g} bogLo ePkl5 dw]zL dlxnfsf] cj:yf s:tf] xf]nf < zlbof}b]lv /fHof/f k|bQ k5f}6]kgnfO{ cfkm\gf] lgolt dfGg] dw]zL ;dfhdf dlxnf kfl/jfl/s, ;fdflhs lx+;fsf lzsf/ x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . k'ifsf] bfFhf]df dlxnfdf ;xgzlQm a9L /x]sf]n] klg () k|ltzt lx+;fsf 36gfx ;txdf cfpFb}g . ljleGg lsl;dsf oftgf / k|tf8gfnfO{ cfkm\gf] efUo g} 7fGg] dw]zL dlxnfsf] cj:yf ;fdfGo eGbf lgs} tn /x]sf] 5 .

       s]lGb|o tYofFs ljefu cg';f/ ! s/f]8 (@ nfv %) xhf/ JolQm lg/If/ /x]sf]df To; dWo] $@ nfv @) xhf/ ((^ cyf{t\ #$=#% k|ltzt lg/If/ dlxnf 5g\ . /fli6o dlxnf cfof]un] u/]sf] cg';Gwfgdf *#=@^ k|ltzt dw]zL dlxnf lg/If/ kfO{Psf] 5 . of] tYofFs dw]zL dlxnfsf] hLjgsf] Joyf syf bzf{pg kof{Kt 5 . dw]zL dlxnfsf] ljjfx gx'Fbf ;Dd cfkm\gf lktfsf] ;xf/fdf, ljjfx kl5 kltsf] ;xf/fdf / kltsf] z]ifkl5 5f]/fsf] ;xf/fdf afFRg' kg]{ kf}/fl0fs /LltlytL clxn] klg sfod 5 . dw]zL dlxnfsf] :jtGq cl:tTj aGg ;s]sf] 5}g . o;sf k|d'v sf/0f ;dfhsf] k5f}6]kgf g} xf] . lzIffsf] ljsf;n] k5f}6]kgnfO{ x6fp5 / ;dfhnfO{ ;dfgtflt/ 8f]/\ofpFb5, ;x cl:tTjsf] af]w u/fpFb5, ;a}sf] dxTjnfO{ lrgfpFb5 / c;n ;dfh lgdf{0fdf ;xefuL u/fpFb5 . cfly{s pGglt / ;dfhsf] ;d'Gglt NofpF5 . t/ lg/If/tfsf] of] tYofFsn] dw]zL dlxnfsf nflu s]xL s'/f x'g lb+b}g . lzIffsf] cj;/af6 a+lrt /x]/ c;n hLjgsf] sfdgf ug'{ lg/y{s g} x'g]5 . cfkm'nfO{ cfkm};+u ;fIfftsf/ u/fpg] lzIff g} dfWod ePsf]n] lzIffsf] ckl/xfo{tf ;a}n] a'em\g' kb{5 .

      PSsfO;f}+ ztfAbLdf xfdL k|j]z u/]/ ha oflGqs dfgj agfP/ cfkm" rfx] adf]lhd sfd lnO{ /x]sf 5f}+ . hxfF rdTsf/L cg';Gwfg u/]/ w]/} s'/fnfO{ em"7f] ;flat u/L ;s]sf 5f}+, ToxfF e"tk|]t, af]S;L, emfFqmLsf] s'/fdf ljZjf; u/]/ ;dfhdf o:tf cf/f]k nufP/ dflg;nfO{ dfgj dnd"q v'jfpg] h:tf ck/fw ug'{ k5f}6]kgfsf] 3Lg nfUbf] pbfx/0f xf] . ljsf;sf] 7"N7"nf of]hgf b]vfP/ cfTd k|z+;s aGg] /fHosf] d'vdf yKk8 klg xf] .

      dw]zL ;dfhdf klg ;Ddfghgs :yfg agfpg g;s]sf] dw]zL dlxnf /fli6o d"nwf/df ;dfj]zL kx'Fr x'g' w]/} s7Lg b]lvPsf] 5 . k5f}6]kgdf afFrL /x]sf] ;dfhsf dlxnf / k'ifn] kl/jt{gsf] lg/Gt/ kfGt/0f;+u tfnd]n ug{ g;s]/ klg xf]nf h8tf cBfjlw sfod 5 .  ;/sf/n] lzIffdf u/]sf] k|of; dw]zsf] hghLjg;+usf] tfnd]n a;fpg g;s]/ klg lzIff k|;f/sf] ck]lIft ;kmntf k|fKt x'g g;s]sf] xf] . gf/L lzIffdf t lzIffn] k|j]z g} gkfPsf] tYofFs ljefun] b]vfPsf] xf] . dw]zL dlxnfsf] b}lgsLnfO{ a'em]/ lzIffsf sfo{qmd agfO{b}g, sfo{qmd th'{df ug]{ /fhwfgLsf clt ljsl;t kl/jf/sf cg'ejL dlxnf k'if ePsf]n] dw]zsf w/ftnLo oyfy{ a'em]sf] x'Fb}g / clt dxTjfsf+IfL z}lIfs sfo{qmd klg ;kmn x'g ;Sb}g .

      /fli6o cGt/fli6o ;+3 ;+:yfn] o; If]qdf lgs} sfd ul/ /xFbf klg gfl/ lzIffsf] u|fkm p7fpg ;s]sf] 5}g . of t w/ftnLo oyfy{nfO{ a'em\g] k|of;} ub}{g of To;df gfl/ lg/If/tf Go"g ug]{ b[9 OR5fzlQmsf] sdL 5 . lzIffnfO{ oyfl:ylts} dfWodaf6 n} hfg rfxG5 . gfl/ lzIffsf] dd{nfO{ dw]zL dlxnfsf] b}lgsLsf] cWoog gul/ lzIff If]qdf dw]zL dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf a9fpg w]/} hl6n 5 . ;fdfGo lsl;dsf] lzIff k|;f/ ug]{ sfo{qmdn] dw]zL dlxnfnfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg s7Lg 5 .

      dw]zsf] lgDgjuL{o kl/jf/df lzIffsf] s'g} dxTj g;lDemg]sf] ;+Vof ztk|ltzt 5 . pgsf] b}lgsLdf sfdsf] k|wfgtf 5 . sfd gu/] laxfg a]n'sf dfd vfg d'lZsn 5 . lzIffn] kl/jf/sf] sltko ;b:onfO{ sfd ug{ lbb}g . cfdbfgL geO{ p;sf] kl/jf/ c:t Jo:t x'G5 . lzIffnfO{ pgLx 3f6fsf] Jofkf/ a'em\b5g\ . dfgf}+ bzjif{ ;Dd afwf JojwfgnfO{ em]Nb} P;= Pn= ;L= kf; u/fP klg hflu/ x'b}g / pm kl/jfl/s sfd ug]{ nfos x'Fb}g, pN6} p;nfO{ kfNg] cj:yf cfpFb5, o:tf ts{ p;+u x'G5 . o:tf ts{ w]/} xb;Dd ;xL klg 5 . of] dw]z hghLjgsf] /]vflrq xf] . o:tf] r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug{ w/ftnLo oyfy{tf;+u tfnd]n ldnfP/ hgd'vL lzIffsf] gLlt ;/sf/n] th'{df ug{ ;Sb5 < dw]zdf lzIffsf] ck]lIft ;kmntf k|fKt ug{ Psdfq af6f] oxL xf] .

 

 

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dlxnfsf ;dfg clwsf/sf nflu * dfr{sf] lbg kf/]/ dgfOg] gfl/lbj; ljZje/sf dlxnf;+u} g]kfnL dlxnfn] klg kf]xf]/ ztfAbLof}+ lbj; dgfpFbf OG;]ssf] ;j]{ cg';f/ %*^ dlxnf lx+;fsf lzsf/ ePsf lyP . oL aflx/ cfPsf cdfgjLo 36gfx x'g . ;fj{hlgs x'g g;s]sf o:tf c;+Vo dlxnf 3/]n" tyf ;fdflhs lx+;fsf kL8f ef]Ub} cfPsf 5g . o;kfnL klg eJotfsf ;fy !)! gfl/lbj; dgfOPsf] 5 . gfl/lbj;sf] ;Gb]z kx'FreGbf aflx/ /x]sf c;+Vo u|fdL0f dlxnfnfO{ slQsf] k|efljt ug{ ;s]sf] 5 . of] d"n ljifo xf] .

l9jfbL lrGtg af]s]sf] kf}/fl0fs lkt[;QfTds ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf zlbof}+ b]lv dlxnf zf]if0fsf] lzsf/ x'Fb} cfPssf] ;j{dfGo s'/f xf] . t/ Psflt/ ;dfg clwsf/sf] vf]hLdf ztfAbLof}+ k"j{ ;+3if{ ub}{ klZrdf d'n'sdf dlxnf ;dfgtfsf] clwsf/nfO{ :yflkt u/fpg ;kmn klg ePsf 5g . t/ g]kfndf dlxnfdf hfu/0f klg cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . ;fj{hlgs x'Fb} cfPsf dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfxsf] h3Go k|s[lt cflbd aa{/ o'usf] ofb lbnfpF5 . s] xfdL h+unL cj:yfdf 5f}+ < cyjf o:tf 36gfx Xfd|f] ;Eotfdflysf] sn+s xf]Og < o; ljifodf ofjt k|Zg pkl:yt 5g . ;a} If]qdf ## k|ltzt dlxnf clwsf/ k|bfg ug]{ ;/sf/L sfg"g ag] klg kx'Frljlxg u|fdL0f dlxnfx slt nfeflGjt ePsf 5g . clwsf/ af]w ePsf ;e|fGt zx/L dlxnf dfq o:tf clwsf/af6 nfeflGjt x'G5g . of] :jfefljs klg xf] . t/ lk5l8Psf], lg/If/, ul/a, lg/Lx u|fdL0f dlxnfdf cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] vfFrf]nfO{ Pslbg] dlxnf lbj;sf] qmflGtsf/L efif0fn] k"lt{ ug{ ;Sb}g .

/fli6o dlxnf cfof]usf] tYofFs cg';f/ s"n lg/If/ dlxnfsf] ;+Vofsf] *#=@^ k|ltzt dw]zL dlxnf lg/If/ 5g . lg/If/tf, ul/aLn] dw]zL dlxnfsf] cj:yf clt bogLo /x]sf]n] o:tf] s7Lg r'gf}tLn] klg ;/sf/sf] Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg ;s]sf] 5}g . dlxnf clwsf/sf af/]df ufO{j:t', afnaRrf, 3/sf 7"nfa8fnfO{ :ofxfg]{, eft ksfpg] tyf v]tdf sfd ug]{ pgLxnfO{ oltdfq yfxf x'G5 . ul/a / clzlIft kl/jf/df ;fn;fn} k|hgg kL8f, kf}li6s ef]hgsf] cefj, /f]uxsf] c;fdlos cfqmd0f, ana"tf sd eP/ sfd ug{ g;Sg', kfl/jfl/s lbgrof{df Jojwfg cfpg'n] dxTj sd x'Fb} hfFbf cNkfo'df d[To'nfO{ a/0f ug'{ dw]zL clzlIft dlxnfsf] afWotf ag]sf] 5 . Ps ;j]{ cg';f/ ul/a kl/jf/df k|hgg b/ *) k|ltzt kfOPsf] 5 .

a9L k|hgg, sfdsf] af]emn] dlxnfdf kf7]3/ v:g] ;d:of klg plQs} 5 . dw]zL ;dfhdf kbf{k|yf /x]sf]n] klg dw]zL dlxnf hLjg ko{Gt o:tf] /f]unfO{ ;fj{hlgs ub}g, a kltnfO{ csf]{ ljjfx ug{ afWo ul5{g . ;GtfgnfO{ k9fpg c;Ifd ul/a kl/jf/n] hlt;'s} ;Gtfg hGd]klg cfkmgf] efUon] cfPsf] eGg] 7fGg] / ;a}n] sfd u/]kl5 kl/jf/sf] pGglt x'g] ljZjf; k|rlnt 5 . rkL{sf] cefjdf dw]zL dlxnfnfO{ lbzf ug{ j:tLeGbf 6f9f rf}/df hfg' kg]{ afWotf 5 .

laxfg pHofnf] x'g'eGbf klxn] of] sfd ;ls xfNg' kb{5 . p7g l9nf] eof] eg] nf]snfhsf sf/0f lbz} gul/ cfkmgf] lgoldt sfd l;WofP/ /ft k/]kl5 dfq lbzf ug{ hfG5g . o:tf] kL8fbfoL cj:yfnfO{ cfkmgf] lgolt dfGg] dw]zL dlxnfsf] :jf:Yo klg lubf]{ cj:yfsf] 5 . ljleGg lsl;dsf /f]uxsf] lzsf/ eO{ c;fdlos d[To' a/0f ug'{ lgolt ag]sf] 5 . sfdsf] af]emsf] cuf8L :jf:YonfO{ ljns'n} Wofg glbg], /f]u nfu]/ ynf k/] kl5 pkrf/ ug{ vr{sf] cefjsf sf/0f d[To'nfO{ kv]{/ a:g' dw]zL dlxnfsf] efUo xf] .

b]zdf hlt;'s} /fhgLlt kl/jt{g cfPklg oL ju{sf dlxnfnfO{ s'g} k|efj k/]sf] b]lvb}g . cfkmgf] lbgrof{df nLg /x]sf] of] ju{nfO{ g xif{ g lj:dosf] cg'e"lt x'G5 . o:tf] ju{sf] dlxnfnfO{ ljsf;sf] d"n k|jfxdf ;d]l6g slt r'gf}tLk"0f{ 5 . clt lk5l8Psf] cj:yfdf /x]sf oL dlxnfsf] hLjg :t/ p7fpg ;/sf/ nufot ;/f]sf/jfnf ;a}sf] bfloTj /x]sf]n] PSzg Knfg lnP/ hfg' kb{5 . Pp6} b]zdf ljsf;sf] lzv/df k'u]sf ;Eo dfgjnfO{ lk5l8Psf] Tof] ju{nfO{ p7fpg] bfloTjaf]w x'g' kb{5 . xf]Og eg] ;Eotfsf] ;'lsnf] j:qdf dlxnfdfly eO{ /xg] cdfgjLo 36gfsf] sfnf] wAaf ;w}+ nflu g} /xg]5 .

b]zsf] cfwL hg;+Vof dlxnfsf] /x]sf]df To;sf] b'O{ ltxfO{ dlxnf clzIff, ul/aL, cGwljZjf;, k/flht dfgl;stfdf afFrL /x]sf]n] oftgfsf] hf]lvddf pg} c;+Vo dlxnf kL8f ef]Ug afWo 5g . x/]s lsl;dn] sdhf]/ agfOPsf oL dlxnfdfly cdfgjLo tj/n] ljleGg cfzosf] 36gf 36fP/ k'ifTj sdfpg] ;dfhsf] l9jfbL lrGtgnfO{ kl/jt{g u/fpg cfjZos 5 . tL c;+Vo lg/If/ sdhf]/ dlxnfnfO{ nlIft ul/ r]tgf tyf lzIffsf] k|;f/sf nflu To; If]qdf sfd ug]{ ;+3 ;+:yf tyf ;/sf/n] dxTjk"0f{ sfo{qmd lbg h/L b]lvG5 . cfjZos tyf 7f]; u'of]hgfsf] dfWodn] dfq tL c;+Vo dlxnfsf] hLjg :t/ ;'wfg{ ;lsG5 .

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/fhgLlts bnxsf] lgDg :t/sf] /fhgLlts ;f]rsf sf/0f g]kfnL /fhgLltdf pTkGg /fhgLlts ult/f]w a9fpgdf bnx hlt ;lqmotf b]vfof], To;sf kl/0ffd :jk b]zsf] /fhgLlt ;xhtflt/ xf]Og, ljgfzlt/ pGd'v x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf] b]lvG5 . ;Qf lnK;fn] /fhgLlts bnx aLrsf] cfqmfds ;+3if{nfO{ dfq a9fPsf] 5}g, k|To]s /fhgLlts bnx cGt/ ;+3if{sf] kL8f ef]uL /x]sf] 5 . b]z x/]s If]qjf6 kLl8t / ulnt eO{ /x]sf] 5 . /fli6o ;xdltsf] gfddf b]znfO{ s+ufn agfpg] afx]s s]xL u/]sf] b]lvb}g . hgefjgf / hgfb]z ljkl/t ldYof ;+3if{df ;do latfPsf oL /fhgLlts bnxsf] ks8 aflx/ hfg nfu]sf] b]zsf] /fhgLltnfO{ lgo+q0fdf lnP/ ;xh cjt/0f u/fpg] s] pkfo x'g ;Sb5, Tof] ;DaGwsf] lrGtgdf nfUg' j]z x'g] lyof] . kf/:kl/s x7jfbL rl/qsf] c:j:y k|lt:kwf{sf sf/0f nfdf] ;dob]lv b]znfO{ aGbL agfPkl5 /fhgLlts ult/f]wn] /fhgLlts bnxnfO{ sdhf]/ agfPsf] 5 eg] cGt/fli6 zlQms]Gb|nfO{ klg v'n]cfd cfdGq0f u/]sf] 5 . /fhgLlts bnxsf] csd{0otf / pRr dxTjfsf+Iffn] b]znfO{ sdhf]/ agfpb} nu] kl5 nf]stGqaf6 k/tGqdf hfg slt a]/ nfUnf < cyjf pklgj]zdf kfGt/0f x'g slt a]/ nfUnf < zlQms]Gb|sf Kofbf ag]sf /fhgLlts bnxn] b]zsf] /fhgLltdf zlQms]Gb|sf] k|ToIf pkl:ylt cfdGq0f u/]/ cfkmgf] lgsDdfkgsf] k|bz{g ug'{sf] ;f cfkmgf] df}lns w/ftndf ;xdtLsf] /fhgLltf/f b]znfO{ lgsfz lbg'' g} a'ldfgL x'g]5 .

csf{sf] e/df cfkmgf] b]zsf] /fhgLlt ug'{ b]znfO{ aGws agfpg' l;jfo c s]xL x'Fb}g . k[YjL gf/fo0f zfxn] eg]sf] xfd|f] b]z b'O{ 9'Fuf aLrsf] tn xf] eGg] oyfy{nfO{ lal;{P/ cfkmgf] cfkmgf] :jfy{nfO{ :yflkt ug{ zlQms]Gb|nfO{ u'xfg'{ lgZro klg :j:ys/ /fhgLlt xf]Og . cgfjZos kn] zlQms]Gb|nfO{ k|efljt u/]/ cfkmgf] :jfy{ cg's"n ;lqmo kfg'{ /fhgLlts bnxsf] af}ls lbjflnofkg g} 7xl/G5 . rLg / ef/t xfd|f cGt/+u ldq x'g . s"6g}lts dof{bf / ;'dw'/ cGt;{DaGw s} ;Gt'ngsf] cfwf/df b'a} b]z;+u xfd|f] ldqtf sfod 5 . sdf]j]z ;DaGwn] c;Gt'ng NofOg] x'Fbf ldqtf ;DaGwsf] ;Gt'ngsf] ;Da]bgzLntfnfO{ agfO{ /fVgdf g} lxts/ x'g]5 . o;nfO{ c;Gt'lnt kfg]{ k|of; lgZro klg /fi6sf] lxtdf 5}g .

clxn] ldqtf ;DaGwsf] c;Gt'ng g]kfnL /fhgLltdf :ki6 kn] b]vf kl/ /x]sf] 5 . /fhgLlts bnxn] ;+oldt kn] o;af/] lrGtg yfNg cfjZos b]lvPsf] 5 . ;Gt'lnt cGt/f{li6o ;DaGw sfod ub}{ df}lns /fhgLlts w/ftndf ;xdtLf/f b]zsf] ;d:of ;dfwfg ug]{ lbzfdf /fhgLlts bnx cuf8L a9g' kb{5 . of] g} lxts/ af6f] xf] .

hgd'vL ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug]{ hgfb]z kfP/ hgtfsf nflu 7"nf 7"nf s'/f u/]/ k|ltatf hfx]/ u/]/ gyfSg] /fhgLlts bnxsf] ;do cGt x'g nfUbf klg ;+ljwfg agfpg lbzf Wofg s]lGb|t g/x]sf] sf/0fn] /fhgLlts bnx km6ofO{sf] /fhgLltdf nfu]sf] hgtfn] a'emg yfn]sf 5g . ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ ca &) lbg dfq afFsL /xFbf klg /fhgLlts bnxaLrsf] cljZjf;n] hGdfPsf] /fhgLlts ult/f]wsf sf/0f ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f k|lqmof cj 5 / ;+ljwfg aGg g;Sg] ;Defjgf k|jn b]lvPsf] 5 . b]zdf ljBdfg ;+qmd0fsfnLg ;d:ofk|lt bnx ;+j]bgzLn aGg g;s]sf] / ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] ;+ljwfg grfxg] zlQmsf] ;lqmotfn] b]zdf s:tf] kl/l:ylt cfpnf ;xh} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . k|wfgdGqLn] ;ky u|x0f u/]sf] !% lbg lalt ;Sbf klg ;/sf/n] k"0f{tf kfO{ ;s]sf] 5}g . kf6L{x cGt;{+3if{sf sf/0f dGqLxsf] gfdfjnL lbg ;ls /x]sf] 5}g . ;do laTb} uO{ /x]sf] 5 . bnx aLr ljZjf; /lQe/ 5}g . ljjfb} ljjfbdf kmF;]sf] 5 bnx . /fhgLlt c/fhsts JofKt 5 . ;+ljwfg rfxg] grfxg] aLrsf] ;+3if{ r/ddf k''u]sf] l:ylt 5 . ;+ljwfg grfxg] zlQm k|jn kdf a9b} uO{ /x]sf] cj:yf 5 . dfcf]jfbL u7aGwgsf] Pdfn] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/sf] ul0ftLo ;dLs/0fn] l:y/ ;/sf/sf] lrq b]vfP klg ;/sf/n] k"0f{tf klg kfpg g;Sg'' xf:of:kb s'/f ePsf] 5 . bnxsf] sdhf]/L :ki6 b]vfpF5 . ;+VofTds kn] ;an /x] tfklg ult/f]wsf sf/0f bnx sdhf]/ ePsf] 5n{ 5 . /fhgLlts bnxsf] bnLo :jfy{gLlt / zlQms]Gb|xsf] k|ToIf ;lqmotfn] b]zsf] /fhgLltnfO{ b'lift agfPsf] sf/0fn] b]zdf /fhgLlt z"Gotf cfPsf] 5 . cem klg /fhgLlts bndf r]t v'n]sf] 5}g . b]zdf a9b} uO{ /x]sf] x/]s If]qsf] ;d:ofnfO{ cfkmgf] ana"l ePklg ;dfwfg u/fpg zlQms]Gb|df wfpg] dgf]anxLg /fhg]tfxnfO{ l5} ;ba'l cfcf]; . hgtfn] lbPsf] P]ltxfl;s cleef/f ;do d} k'/f u/f];, d]/f] z'esfdgf 5 .

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b]z nf]stflGqs kltdf hfg] lglZrt e} ;s]sf] 5 . ;}flGts kn] cGt/Ld ;+ljwfgdf b]zsf] zf;g Joj:yf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq cg'k g} x'g] dfGotf kfO{ ;s]sf] 5 . o;df km]/abn ug]{ hf] sf]xLnfO{ hgtfn] 5f8g] 5}g . of] s'/f klg ;a}n] dflg ;s]sf 5g . o:tf] cj:yfdf dfcf]jfbLsf] ;Qf sAhf ug]{ cgu{n xNnf u/]/ s'g :jfy{ k'/f ug{ vf]lhPsf] xf] < g]kfndf @)$^ ;fnb]lv k|hftGqsf] cEof; eO{ /x]sf] cj:yfdf ;dfgtfsf] cfwf/df ;dfhjfbdf /fHo Joj:yfnfO{ kfGt/0f ug]{ jL= kL= sf] ;kgfsf] ljk/Lt dGqL x'g]x cs"t ;DklQ sdfP . gsdfpg] s[i0f k|;fb e/fO{, u0f]zdfg l;+xnfO{ lsgf/f nufP .

hgtfnfO{ ;jn agfpg]nfO{ kfvf nufP/ k|hftGqsf] gfddf ckf/ wg sdfP . s] o;}nfO{ nf]stGq elgG5 < nf]stGqsf] gfddf b]znfO{ s+ufn agfpg] dxfk'ifx g} clxn] dfcf]jfbL nf]stGqnfO{ df:g nfUof] eg]/ cgu{n k|rf/df nfu]sf 5g . afd u7aGwg / nf]stflGqs u7aGwgsf] v"a xNnf rn]sf] 5 olta]nf . of] xNnf ;'g]/ xfF;f] p75 . kmfNu'g @) ut]sf] k|wfgdGqLsf] r'gfjdf s'g} zt{df Pdfn]n] dfcf]jfbLnfO{ jf]6 glbg] lg0f{onfO{ xfdLn] lal;{g' x'Gg . cGttf]uTjf dfcf]jfbLn] Pdfn]nfO{ ;dy{g ug'{ k/of] . kl/l:yltjz b'a} Ps7fpF ePs} sf/0fn] afd u7aGwgsf] ;+1f lbg' ;j{yf cg'lrt x'G5 .

oL ;Dk"0f{ cgu{n k|rf/sf] g]kYodf h;/L klg ;/sf/sf] afu8f]/ xTofpg] s'/f k|i6 emnlsG5 . afd u7aGwg / nf]stflGqs u7aGwgsf] km]l/ gofF lsl;dsf] n8fO{sf] z'cft ePsf] 5 . ceLi6 ;/sf/ xTofpg] g} xf] . nf]stGqsf ;Rrf l;kfxLx h;n] /fHonfO{ kfGt0f ub}{ ;dfhjfbdf hfg] zky lnP/ ;/sf/ ;+rfng ug]{ cleef/f af]s]sf lyP lj:tf/} e|i6frf/sf] d'2fdf h]n ofqf ub}{ 5g . /ftf/ft cs"t ;DklQ hf]8g]x b]z / hgtfnfO{ s+ufn agfP/ ;dfhjfbsf] s'/f ug'{ xf:of:kb xf]Og < ;/sf/ wg sdfpg] / lgd'vf hgtfdfly /hfFO ug]{ ynf]sf] kdf kl/0ft ePsf] 5 .

^) jif{b]lv ;+ljwfg ;efsf] k|tLIffdf a;]sf] g]kfnL hgtf cfkmgf] ana"tfdf NofPsf] ;+ljwfg ;efdf ^)! hgf ;b:o k7fpFbf klg ;+ljwfg lgdf{0flt/ Wofg glbP/ ;/sf/sf nflu t5f8 d5f8df ;+nUg g]tfx hgk|ltlgwL s;/L sxnfpg ;S5 < ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb cf}+nfdf uGg ^# lbg afFsL 5 . tLg jif{sf] Dofbdf ;+ljwfgsf] vfsf ;d]t tof/ gePsf] cj:yfdf olt sd ;dodf ;+ljwfg cfpnf eGg] hgtfsf] ljZjf; x/fpFb} uPsf] 5 . /fhgLlts ult/f]w ;dfKt ePsf] eP clnslt cfz ug]{ 7fpF lyof] . ult/f]w 36g'sf] ;f tLa|t/ al9 /x]sf] cj:yfn] klg g}/fZotfsf] hGd x'g nfu]sf] xf] .

afd u7aGwg / nf]stflGqs u7aGwg b'O{ v]dfdf cfqmfds k|lt:kwf{df h'6]sfx cflzif lng ljleGg zlQms]Gb|df wfO{ /xFbf g]kfnL /fhgLltsf] df}lnstfsf] s] xljut xf]nf < dfcf]jfbL u7aGwgsf] Pdfn] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/ lj nf]stflGqs u7aGwg agfP/ vlgPsf /fhgLlts bnx eofqmfGt x'g'sf] s'g} sf/0f 5}g . ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g} ;+ljwfgsf] k|:yfg ljGb' xf] . of] eGbf km/s s;}n] hfg} ldNb}g . of] ;/sf/n] eofjx cj:yf Nofpnf eGg] cfTdqf; g} xf] . a of] ;/sf/nfO{ ;xdtL / ;xof]u u/]/ ;+ljwfg agfpg] d"n ;d:ofnfO{ ;dfwfgsf] af6f]df cu|;/ x'g' kb{5 . oxL ;dosf] dfFu xf] .

zlQm / ;dy{gsf] cefjdf ;qxf}+ k6s ;Dd k|wfgdGqLdf rog x'g g;Sg]n] clxn] ag]sf] ;/sf/sf] af/]df af/x av]8f lems]/ t'xfpg vf]Hg'sf] s] cy{ nfU5 < of] t afFb/ a'l eof] . afFb/n] g cfkmgf] 3/ agfpF5 g cnfO{ agfpg lbG5 . cfkmgf] b]zsf] dfldnfdf ljb]zL zlQmnfO{ u'xfg'{ cfkmgf] :jfledfgnfO{ a]Rg' xf] . cfkmgf] csd{0otf, ;QflnK;fsf nflu zlQms]Gb|;+u ;xfotf dfUg' /fli6otf ljsf] sfd xf] . cgfjZos kdf ljb]zL zlQmnfO{ cfGtl/s /fhgLltdf k|lt:kwf{ u/fpg' s;}n] /fd|f] eGb}g .

;/sf/ k"0f{tf lng] k|lqmofdf 5 . kf/:kl/s /fu, ]if la;]{/ ;xdtLsf] cfwf/df ;+ljwfg agfP/ 3f]if0ff ug]{ d"n ;d:ofk|lt Wofg lbg h/L 5 . ;/sf/df km]l/ klg cfpg ;lsG5 . ;+ljwfg ;ef km]l/ cfpg] xf]Og . h'g lsl;dsf] /fhgLlts ult/f]w b]lvG5, o;df g ;+ljwfg aG5 g ;do g} a9fpg ;lsG5 . nf]stGq eg]sf] pbf/ rl/q, ;x cl:tTjsf] dfGotf, ;bfrf/sf] af6f] af6 ;dfhafbdf k'Ug] dfGotf xf] . o;nfO{ ljutdf wg sdfpg], hgtfdfly s/sf] af]em yKg], v'f tfgftfg u/]/ ;/sf/df alg /xg], hgcfsfFIffnfO{ s'g} sb/ g ug]{ h:tf s'k|j[ltaf6 g} dfcf]jfbL G hlGdof], hgcfGbf]ng / dw]z cfGbf]ng hGd]/ /fhtGq ;d]t x6fP/ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq df kfGt/0f x'g k'/fgf] /fHo Joj:yfnfO{ afWo agfPsf] 5 . ca cg]s hfnem]n u/]/ oyfl:yltjfbLn] km]l/ klg /fHonfO{ k'/fg} cj:yfdf kmsf{pg k|fof]lht if8oGqdf nfu]/ e/dUb"/ k|of;df nfu]sf 5g . hf] ca ;Dej 5}g . clxn] ;xh kn] /fhgLltnfO{ cuf8L a9g lbg' / ;do d} ;+ljwfg 3f]if0ff ug'{ b]z / hgtf ;a}sf] nflu lxts/ x'g]5 .

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b]zdf ljBdfg ;+qmd0f cj:yf / cGof]nu|:t /fhgLlts kl/l:yltsf] kmfobf p7fpg pt cfk/flws lu/f]xx dw]zdf >[+vnfa kdf ck/fwsf 36gfx 36fpFb} cfPsf 5g . qmlds kn] 3l6 /x]sf] cdfgjLo, cft+sk"0f{ 36gfxn] dw]zdf bxztsf] eofjx l:ylt ;[hgf u/]sf] 5 . gfafnsxnfO{ ckx/0f u/L lkm/f}tL dfUg] xTof ug]{ h:tf h3Go ck/fwsf] >+[vnfn] dw]z cfqmfGt ePsf] 5 .

oL cg}lts lqmofsnfkaf6 ;dfhnfO{ /Iff ug{ vl6Psf ;'/IffsdL{xsf] klg o:tf b'isd{df ;+nUgtf b]lvg'af6 dw]znfO{ aaf{b ug]{ ;'lgof]lht if8oGqsf] efg x'G5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngn] :yflkt u/]sf] dw]zL PstfnfO{ tx; gx; ug]{ if8oGq klg dw]zdf 5n{ x]g{ kfOG5 . dw]znfO{ ck/fwsf] c88f agfpg] cfk/flws lu/f]xn] s;nfO{ kmfobf k'/ofO{ /x]sf] s'/f a'emg' kb{5 . dw]zsf] ul/aL / a]/f]huf/Laf6 ;[lht o:tf ck/fwdf o'jfzlQmn] cfkmgf] phf{ vlr{g'eGbf dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;dkGg ug{df pkof]u ug'{ a]z x'g]5 . ck/fw s'g} klg Joj:yfsf nflu ck/fw g} 7xl/G5 . of] hf]zdf xf]z u'dfPsf] s'/f xf] . cfkmg} 3/nfO{ lgzfgf agfP/ ck/fw ug'{ s'g} axfb'/L xf]Og . o:tf ck/fwnfO{ a9faf lbg ljleGg lsl;dsf zlQmx cfkmgf] :jfy{l;lsf nflu k|f]T;fxg lbg cfpF5 . dw]znfO{ rf/}lt/af6 tf]8g tL zlQmx nflu k/]sf 5g . cg]s 5Bdj]zdf tL zlQmx dw]zdf ;lqmo 5g . o'jfzlQm hf] dw]zsf] efjL s0f{wf/ xf], vf;ul/ o'jfju{nfO{ nlIft ul/ ljleGg cfk/flws k]zfdf ;+nUg u/fO{ dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ch]o zlQmnfO{ gi6 ug]{ s'lT;t dfgl;stf af]s]sf zlQmnfO{ lrGg' cfjZos 5 . dw]zsf o'jfzlQm g} u'd/fx e} ;s]kl5 dw]zsf] ;kgf s;n] k"/f ug]{ <

dw]zsf o'jfx dw]z cfkmgf] Kof/f] e"ld xf] . oxfFsf afl;Gbf dw]zL ;a} efO{ efO{ x'g . logL zlbof}+b]lv /fHof/f k5fl8 kfl/Psf kLl8t x'g . xfdL ;a} ;+ul7t eP/ /fHo;+u n8]/ cfkmgf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug'{sf] ;f cfkmg} 3/df cfuf] nufP/ cfuf] tfKg] h3Go ck/fwdf nfu]sf 5f}+ / xdLnfO{ ljufg]{ zlQmnfO{ kmfobf lbO /fv]sf 5f}+ . ck/fw slxn] klg /fd|f] dflg; agfpFb}g . hfuf}+ dw]zsf o'jfx cfkmgf] 3/ dw]znfO{ clwsf/ lbnfpg] cleofgdf h'6f}+ . o:tf h3Go ck/fwnfO{ Tofuf}+, cnfO{ klg TofUg nufcf}+ . dw]znfO{ 8/, qf;, cft+saf6 d'Qm u/f}+, u/fcf}+ . cfk;L /fu, ]ifnfO{ ;xh 9+un] ;dfwfg u/f}+ . xlyof/ p7fpg' s'g} ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg xf]Og . cfkmgf] phf{nfO{ dw]zsf] nflu ;+lrt u/f}+ . dw]znfO{ clwsf/ ;DkGg gug]{ cg]s if8oGq ul/b}5 . xfd|f] phf{ To;sf] nflu ;+lrt /fVg' kb{5 . ck/fwLsf] hLjg dg'{eGbf zxLbsf] d[To' >]o:s/ xf] .

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lbgfg'lbg dw]znfO{ ufFhL /x]sf] ck/fwsf] ljifodf dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx klg s]xL af]Ng] cfF6 ub}{g . dw]znfO{ ck/fw d'Qm ug{ ;r]tgf cleofg cyjf c s'g} sfo{qmdx dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxsf] g}lts bfloTj klg xf] . dw]z d'lQmsf tyfslyt bfloTj af]s]sf bnx o; af/] s]xL gaf]Ng' dw]zk|ltsf] k|ltatfdfly k|Zg v8f ul/ lbPsf] 5 . h'g zlQmsf] andf anjfg ag]sf bnx dw]zdf ck/fw Go"gLs/0f ug]{ lbzdf s]xL sfo{qmd ug'{ g}lts bfloTj aGb}g . dw]zdf ck/fw ;dfhLs/0f eO{ /x]sf] a]nf ;a}zlQm ldn]/ ck/fw Go"gLs/0f ug'{ kb{5 .

/fHoaf6 al~rt dw]z ul/aL, a]/f]huf/L tyf ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/af6 al~rt eP/ dw]z cfGbf]ng kZrft *# ;+Vofdf klg hgk|ltlgwL k7fP klg s]xL /fxt g kfpFbf dw]zdf ck/fw hlGdg yfn]sf] xf] / o;df c/fli6o tTjx o;nfO{ dnhn ug{ yfn]sf] xf] . a]/f]huf/ o'jfxsf] o;df cfsif{g a9g' :jfefljs xf] . ck/fw klg kl5 ljs[t k lng yflnof] . gfafns ckx/0f, ;fj{hlgs a;df ad lj:kmf]6, aRrfnfO{ ckx/0f ul/ xTof ug]{ cflb h3Go ck/fw a9g yflnof] . o:tf] cdfgjLo 36gfaf/] ;a} ldn]/ k|ltsf/ ug'{ kb{5 . dfgjdf dfgjLo d"No / dfGotfsf] Go"gLs/0f e} /x]sf] o; eofjx cj:yfk|lt /fhgLlts bnx slQsf] ;+j]bgzLn 5g .

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;d'lrt cj;/sf] pkof]u g} /fhgLlts ultzLntf k|bfg ug]{ x'Fbf g]kfnL /fhgLltdf ch]o dfGg] b'O{ dxfg zlQm -Pdfn] / dfcf]jfbL_ clxn] cj;/sf] cg's"ntfnfO{ arsfgf lg/y{s v]ndf ;do ljtfO{ /x]sf] b[io s;}af6 n's]sf] 5}g . xfdLn] rfx]/ klg ca ;+ljwfg aGg ;Sb}g eGg] zd{gfs cleJolQm lbg yfn]sf 5g . a}7s a:bf ;fy{s kl/0ffd lgsfNb} clxn] klg ;+ljwfg agfpg k|of{Kt ;do ePsf]n] >]i7 /fhgLlt1xn] hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg n]Vgdf g} >]i7tfsf] klxrfg x'G5 . kndf k|no x'g] ;DefjgfnfO{ cg'e"t gul/ a]df};dsf] /fu cnfkg] /fhgLlts bnxsf] d'Vof{O{ clt g} ef] . ca klg r]tf}+ / cg]s hfnem]nsf] kl/lwaf6 gofF k|wfgdGqL alg ;s]kl5 w]/} km'lQ{nf /fhgLlt1xn] ;/sf/sf] k"0f{tf lbg /fhgLlts /0fsf}zn klg b]vfP/ hgtfnfO{ cfzfd'vL agfpg' k/of] . b'O{ ltxfO{sf] d'vdf /x]sf] ;/sf/nfO{ k"0f{tf lbg g ;Sg] kf6L{xn] hgd'vL zf;g Joj:yfsf] ;+ljwfg s;/L Nofpg ;Snf / hgtfdf cfkmgf] al/i7tf s;/L ;flat ug{ ;Snf < o:tf hfnem]n u/]/ ;+ljwfg agfpg gk/f]; eGg] hfnem]nsf] aGg] Oltxf;df g]kfnsf oL tLg ;j{;QfjfbL /fhgLlts bnxsf] gfd sfnf] cIf/df n]lvb}g / <

g]kfndf k|hftflGqs cEof;sf] bzsf}+ lalt;Sbf klg /fhgLlts bnxdf k|hftGq cyjf nf]stGqsf] cfr/0fsf] cfg'kflts kdf ljsf; ePsf] kfOb}g . x/]s /fhgLlts bnxn] cfkm"nfO{ g} nf]stflGqs 7fGb5g . ljut s} Oltxf; x]bf{ s'g} klg nf]stflGqs ;/sf/ cfkmgf] sfo{sfn k"/f u/]sf] b]lvb}g . cfk;L Gsf lgs[i6 pbfx/0fx k|:t't ePsf lyP . olt r9fj ptf/;+u u'h|]sf] nf]stGq zf;g Joj:yfdf /fhgLlts bnxdf nf]stflGqs rl/qsf] k"0f{tM geP cf+lzs ljsf; x'g' kb{Yof] . t/ clxn] b]zdf /fhgLlts bnxsf] lqmofsnfkn] nf]stflGqs lrGtgsf] k6Ss} ljsf; x'g g;s]sf] efg x'G5 . /fhgLlts bnxsf] lrGtg lgtfGt lgDg:t/sf] b]lvG5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf zflGt :yfkgf, ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f h:tf] d"ne"t ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg s;/L ;Dej x'G5 <

hg cfGbf]ng tyf dw]z ljb|f]xn] NofPsf] ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqnfO{ clgR5fk"j{s s]xL /fhgLlts bnxn] :jLsf/ u/]/ To;nfO{ s;/L t'xfpg] s;/tdf s]lGb|t /fli6o /fhgLlt cg]s :jk wf/0f u/]/ cgu{n v]ndf tNnLg 5g . sfd s'/f] Pslt/ s'Dnf] af]sL l7dLlt/ eGg] pvfg rl/tfy{ x'g nfu]sf] 5 . /fhgLlts kf6L{xsf] kf/:kl/s km/s ljrf/sf] le8Gtdf b]zdf :yflkt d"nd'2f ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq nfO{ s;/L t'xfpg] ljrf/df ;a} Psdt b]lvG5g . kl/l:yltn] lbPsf] cj;/nfO{ jt{dfg ;/sf/n] b'O{ ltxfO{n] ;+ljwfg g 3f]if0ff u/f]; eGg] z+sf nfu]/ ;DdfggLo /fi6kltHo"n] klg c;Da}wflgs cleJolQm lbP/ ;+ljwfg gagfpg] s'/fsf] k'li6 ul/ lbg' ePsf] 5 . dfcf]jfbL kf6L{leq klg ;/sf/ lgdf{0f, zflGt :yfkgfsf] p2]Zo uf}0f x'Fb} hgljb|f]xsf] lbzfnfO{ clws dxTj lbg yflnPsf] s'/fn] klg 7"nf] z+sf pAhfPsf] 5 . dfcf]jfbL klg ljlrq cGt{Gdf kmF;]sf] 5 . ;a}s'/f k|fKt ug]{ lbzfdf s'g} s'/f afFsL g/xg] clxn]sf] cj:yfdf dfcf]jfbLn] a'ldfgLk"j{s ;/sf/nfO{ k"0f{tf lbP/ ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] lbzfdf cu|;/ x'g' a]z xf]nf . rf/}lt/sf] r'gf}tLsf] ;dfwfgsf] pko'Qm af6f] ;+ljwfg 3f]if0ff g} xf] . o:tf] ;+j]bgzLntfaf6 dfcf]jfbL slQsf] k|efljt x'g] xf], cfufdL ;don] b]vfpF5 .

@)^* a}zfv @ ut]

;+ljwfg ;efsf] $@ lbgdfq afFsL /x]sf] cj:yfdf dfcf]jfbL kf6L{leq b]lvPsf] cgdg:s l:yltn] dfcf]jfbLsf] lljwf r/dfj:yfdf a9]sf] b]lvG5 . s] ug]{, s] gug]{sf] l:yltdf k'u]/ dfcf]jfbL cfkm} clg0f{osf] aGbL x'g k'u]sf] 5 . dfcf]jfbL ;/sf/df ghfcf]; lrtfpg] zlQmx? c;Ld cfgGbsf] cg'e"lt ul/ /x]sf 5g . afFsL $@ lbg cem} :ju{sf] cfgGb lng] k"0f{ ljZjf;sf ;fy /dfO{ /x]sf klg 5g . /dfpg'sf] :yfO{ sf/0f klg 5gdfcf]jfbLleq knfPsf] c?lrs/ lrGtg . o; lrGtgn] $@ lbg lgZro g} kf/ unf{ . tyflk k|wfgdGqL emngfy hL cfkmgf dxfg ldYofjf0fLf/f rf/ kfFr lbgd} xfdL dfcf]jfbLsf ;fy ;/sf/nfO{ k"0f{tf lbG5f}+ eGg] cleJolQm lbP/ hgtfnfO{ ljZjf; lbnfpg kl5 kg'{ x'Gg . engfy hLsf] ;/sf/sf] k"0f{tfsf] lsl~rt lrGtf 5}g, /fd] cfPg eg] Zofd] cfpF5 . emngfy hL tkfO{ lrGtf g ugf]{;, dfcf]jfbLn] ;xof]u u/]g eg] xfdL ;xof]u u/]/ ;/sf/nfO{ k"0f{tf lbg]5f}+ eGg]x?sf] cZjf;g kfO{ /xg' ePsf] xf]nf . To;sf/0f emngfy hLnfO{ lrGtf 5}g . lrGtf b]znfO{ / b]zsf hgtfnfO{ 5 . g]kfnsf] df6f]df /utsf] vf]nf] aufP/ klg s]xL pAh]g . kl/jt{gsf/L hgcfGbf]ng / dw]z ljb|f]xn] NofPsf] pknlAw klg u'Dg] eof] .

ca g]tfx?n] efif0fdf oyfy{ cleJolQm lbg yfn] olt sd ;dodf ;+ljwfg aGg ;Sb}g . ;+ljwfg gaGg] Ps csf{dfly bf]iff/f]k0f u/]/ cfkmgf lgsDdfkgnfO{ 9fs5f]k ug{ nfh} gdfgL km]/L pxL hgtf ;dIf pkl:yt x'G5g h;n] 5f]/f u'dfP/ 3/jf/ ljxLg cfkmgf] 5fs 6fg{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg . ca To:tf g]tfnfO{ hgtf slt kTofpF5g, ;don] atfpnf .

G Joj:yfkg ug{ c/af}+df lnPsf] ljb]zL ;xfotf $ jif{ lalt;Sbf klg kLl8tnfO{ k'u]sf] 5}g . hg cfGbf]ngsf] 3fO{t], h;sf] andf oqf kl/jt{g ;a}n] b]Vg ;s], p;nfO{ x]g]{ s'g} lgsfo gePsf]n] ef}+tfl/ /xg] l;jfo s'g} ljsNk 5}g . hgcfGbf]ngsf zxLbsf] t:aL/ ;a} dGqfnodf /fVg nufP/ cfkmgf] bfloTj k"/f ul/hg cfGbf]ngsf] 3fO{t]nfO{ x]g]{ s'g} lgsfo g/fv]/ c;xfo cj:yfdf 5f]l8Psf 5g .hgcfGbf]ngsf] 3fO{t]x?nfO{ j]jf:tf ul/Psf] 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngdf ePsf ;Demf}tf cg';f/ !@ zxLb 3f]if0ff x'g afFsL 5 . 3fO{t], ckf, em"7f d'2f vf/]hL h:tf hgtfsf /fxtsfo{ k"/f ug{ ;lsPg . ;z:q ;d"xx?;+u jftf{ u/]/ axfb'/L b]vfpg] dGqLn] sfof{Gjog kIflt/ Wofg} glb+bf pgLx?nfO{ cfkmg} af6f] kmsf{O{of] . dfwj g]kfnsf] ;/sf/df dw]zL bnx?nfO{ lrQ a'emfpg ;Demf}tfsf] cf7f}+ a'Gbf cg';f/ zflGt dGqLsf] ;+of]hsTjdf dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] kLl8tnfO{ x]g{ pRr:t/Lo cg'udg ;ldlt agfOof] . @)^^ df3 % ut] klxnf] a}7sdf o;sf] ;+oGq agfP/ kLl8tx?sf] nut ;+sng sfo{ljlw, sfof{no, sfof{nosf] ef}lts ;fdu|L cflb ;a} Jojl:yt u/]/ sfd l56f] yfNg' kg]{ ;b:ox?n] ;'emfj /fVbf ;+of]hs /x]sf] zflGt dGqLsf] s'g} k|ltlqmof gcfpFbf ;b:ox? cfZro{ JoQm u/] . ;a} k|sf/sf ;Demf}tfnfO{ x]g]{ of] ;ldlt eGbfdfly ^ ;b:oLo dGqLx?sf]Pp6f ;ldlt lyof] h;df ;/sf/df ;fd]n tLg dw]zjfbL bnsf z/bl;+x e08f/L, nId0fnfn s0f{, dx]Gb| /fo ofba nufot u[xdGqL, sfg"g dGqL tyf zflGt dGqL lyP . cg'udg ;ldltsf] a}7s af]nfpg zflGt dGqLnfO{ bafj lb+bf kfFr dlxgf kl5 b'a} ;ldltsf] ;+o'Qm a}7s /fv]/ @( hgf zxLb dWo] !^ hgfnfO{ dfq clxn] Soflag]6df n} hfg] lg0f{o u/]/ a}7s ;lsof] . cfiff9 kl5 zflGt dGqLn] rf/ dw]zjfbL kf6L{sf k|ltlgwL ;b:on] kfO{ /x]sf] ;'ljwf aGb u/L sfd eP kl5 ;ldltsf] s] sfd eg]/ Soflag]6af6 u7g ePsf] ;ldltnfO{ sfd} ug{ glbP/ zflGt dGqLn] df}lvs lj36g ug'{ eof] . !^ zxLbsf] 3f]if0ff afx]s dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] 3fO{t], ckf, d'2f lkmQf{ h:tf sfo{nfO{ x]g]{ k"jf{u|xLk"0f{ ?kdf agfOPsf cg'udg ;ldlt sfo{ z'?jft} gu/L lgliqmo agfP/ x's'dL cGt eof] . Soflag]6sf] lg0f{oaf6 cGt ePsf] eP ;b:ox?nfO{ ;Gtf]if klg x'GYof] .

Joj:yflksf ;+;bsf] ljsf; ;ldltn] k=;+= )^&^*, r=g+= %) ldlt@)^&!@!& r}q !$ ut] a}7ssf] !) a'Gb] /fxt ;DalGw lg0f{o u/]/ zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0f dGqfnonfO{ lgb]{zg kq k|]lift u/]sf] 5 . sfd} z'?jft gu/L !) dlxgfb]lv lgliqmo / x's'dL vf/]hLdf k/]sf] cg'udg ;ldltsf] af/]df gj lgo'Qm zflGt dGqLn] s] hjfkm lbg] < ;b:ox? !) dlxgfb]lv ;'ljwfaf6 al~rt kfl/Psf] cj:yfdf o;nfO{ k'gZr ;lqmo kfg{ kfl/>lds e'Qmfg ug'{ zflGt dGqfnosf] g}lts bfloTj aGb}g / < kqsf] 5}7f}+ a'Gbfdf dw]z cfGbf]ng cg'udg ;ldltsf] a}7s a;L To; ;dIf k|fKt ePsf ph'/Lx? 5fgaLg u/L l56f] /fxt k|bfg ug]{ eGg] pNn]v eP adf]lhd zflGt dGqfno cg'udg ;ldltnfO{ ;lqmo ug{ afWo x'g' kg]{5 . xf]Og eg] Joj:yflksf ;+;bnfO{ zflGt dGqLn] hjfkm s] lbg] < o; If]qdf Joj:yflksf ;+;bsf] ljsf;;ldltn] b]vfPsf] rf;f] k|z+;gLo 5 .

@)^* a}zfv ( ut]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

g]kfnL /fhgLltdf km/s ljrf/ lnPsf tLg bnLo -dfcf]jfbL, g]kfnL sfFu|]; / Pdfn]_ Psflwsf/n] hg rfxgf tyf kl/l:yltjz cfPsf] ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ a8f] gf6sLo 9+un] tF s'6] h:tf] u/, d /f]o] h:tf] u5'{ eg] h:tf] cflv/ Ps csf{ dfly bf]iff/f]k0f ub}{ kl/0ffd ljlxg agfO{ 5f8g s'g} s;/ afFsL /fv]g . /fhgLlts ult/f]w Go"g x''g'eGbf tLj|tf g} lnPsf] cj:yf 5 . ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ ca #% lbg afFsL 5 . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb !)(% lbgdf !)^) lbg hgtfsf nfuL ;+ljwfg agfO{ lbg] hgfb]z kfPsf vf;u/L k|d'v tLg bnn] cfk;L GnfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fv]/ oL dxTjk"0f{ ;do ljtfO{ xfn] . hgtfnfO{ ;kmfO{ lbg oltsf lbgdf oLgLxn] k|z:t sf/0fx a6'ln ;s]sf 5g . b]zn] s'g} g s'g} ;+ljwfg kfpF5 g} . b]z ;+ljwfg ljlxg cj:yfdf /Xg ;Sb}g, t/ hgrfxgf adf]lhdsf] ;+ljwfg agfpg ca eGg' kbf{ logLx c;kmn g} /x] .

hgfb]z ljkl/t ;Qf k|flKtnfO{ cfkmgf] nIo 7fg]sf /fhgLlts bnx zflGt k|lqmof, ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f h:tf cxd ;jfnnfO{ dxTj g lbPsfn] oL ;jfnx Hff] hgtfsf] ;d:ofnfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ ;SYof], ;dfwfgsf] k|lqmofdf uPg, cyjf eg"F hfg lbOPg . JolQmjfbL, bnLo :jfy{n] k|>o kfof] / ult/f]wsf] tLj|tfn] @)^^ h]7 !$ sf] ;xdtLnfO{ klg w/fkdf kf/]/ ;xdtLsf] cl:tTj g} d]6fof] h:tf] nfU5 .

;Qf k|flKtsf nflu cltzo unt k|j[ltsf] k|of]u / ultljwLn] cGt/f{li6o zlQms]Gb|xnfO{ k|efljt u/of] / g]kfnL /fhgLltdf pgsf] dxTjk"0f{ pkl:yltn] s;}nfO{ kmfobf eof] s;}nfO{ xfgL, t/ b]z / hgtfnfO{ 3f6f g} b]vf kl/ /x]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts l:ylt rs{g] ;Defjgf k|an kdf a9]sf] k|a'' ju{n] ug{ yfn]sf 5g . b]znfO{ xfFSg] oLg} /fhgLlts bnx x'g . clxn] b]zsf] lalu|b} uO{ /x]sf] cj:yfnfO{ /fli6o ;xdtL g} lgsfz lbg] Psdfq af6f] xf] . o; afx]s b]zsf] lau|]sf] cj:yfnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf s'g} kf6L{df 5}g . ljljw ljrf/ ePsf] /fhgLlts bnx b]zsf] ;d:ofsf] ;jfndf ;a}sf] PsLs[t ljrf/ aGg' g} /fli6o ;xdtL xf] . Ps csf{nfO{ unfpg] cEof;df s'k|j[lt olt dfqfdf hlGd ;s]sf 5g ls o;n] /fhgLlts kf6L{nfO{ k"jf{j:yfdf NofP/ ;xdtL x'g lbg] cj:yf b]lvb}g, / ljb]zLzlQmxnfO{ g/fd|f];+u k|efljt u/]sf sf/0fn] pgsf] pkl:yltn] /fli6o ;xdtL u/fP/ b]zsf] ;d:ofnfO{ ;xhLs/0fsf] lbzfdf n}hfg ;xof]usf] cfzf klg ug{ ;lsGg .

Dffcf]jfbL / ;/sf/aLr ePsf] @)^# d+;L/ % ut]sf] ;Demf}tfnfO{ dfcf]jfbLn] cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] lbzfdf klxnf] sbdsf] kdf lnof] eg] ;/sf/n] dfcf]jfbLnfO{ nf]stflGqs kltdf kfGt/0f ul/ ;'wf/f]Gd'v /fHo Joj:yf sfod ug]{ eGg]dfgl;stfaf6 /fhgLlt cuf8L a9of] . km/s dfgl;stfsf] w|'jLs/0fdf kl/jt{gsf] :ki6 k/]vf dw]z cfGbf]ngn] tof/ kf/of] ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfn . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ljkIfdf plePsf] dfcf]jfbLnfO{ /fhgLlts nfe g} lbnfof] dw]z cfGbf]ngn] . km/s dfgl;stfsf] w|'jLs/0f lul/hf k|;fb sf]O{/fnf lhpb} e+u eof], t/ klg ;xsfo{ eg] eO{ g} /Xof] . lul/hf k|;fb sf]O{/fnfsf] cj;fg kl5 oL b'O{ km/s ljrf/n] le8Gtsf] cg's"n jftfj/0f kfof] . b'a}n] Ps csf{nfO{ unfpg] /0fgLlt agfP . ;f]xL cg'k n8fO{ hf/L 5 .

b]zsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] kf6L{ dfcf]jfbL Pdfn]nfO{ ;dy{g lbP/ ;/sf/ agfpg ;xof]u u/]/ h'g k|z+;f sdfof], ;/sf/df ;xefuL x'g dGqLsf] gfd dlxgf}+ ljlt ;Sbf klg lbg g;Sg'n] b]znfO{ kl/jt{g u/fO{ 5f8g] k|ltatf vf]qmf] gf/f h:t} nfU5 . cj;/ kfP klg cj;/sf] ;b'kof]u ug{ g;Sg' zlQm IfL0f x'g'sf] ;+s]t t xf]Og < a}zfv & ut] kf]ln6 Ao"/f]sf] a}7sn] clxn] ljb|f]xsf] xf]Og, zflGt :yfkgf tyf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] cfjZostf 5 eGg] ;sf/fTds lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 t/ o;nfO{ s]lGb|o sldl6n] s] u5{ < ;dosf] dfFu adf]lhdsf] clxn]sf] lg0f{o ;d;fdlos /x]sf]n] ;/fxgLo 5 . hgtfn] zflGt :yfkgf, ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] hgfb]z lbPsf] 5 . Tof] cj;/ u'Dof] eg], hgtfn] klg dfkm ub}{g / cfpg] ;dodf sf] s''g cj:yfdf /xg] Tof] s'/fnfO{ lj;{g'' x'Gg .

Nf]fstflGqs kltdf cfO{ ;s]kl5 cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] dfgl;stfn] ;a} Jojxf/ / z+sfn' ultljlwnfO{ a9fjf lbg] ePsf]n] ult/f]w a9]/ hfG5 . ;Demf}tfdf ;x cl:tTj sfod /xg] x'gfn] cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] k|lqmof cufl8 a9g} ;Sb}g, cyf{t eg" c /fhgLlts bnn] cufl8 a9g} lbGg . s'g} a]nf Pdfn] klg 7"nf] qmflGtsf/L zlQmsf] kdf g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf pbfPsf] lyof] . sfnfGt/df pm /fhf, sfFu|]; / dfcf]jfbLsf] ;dfg ksf] ldq ag]sf] b]lvof] . cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] lbzfdf lx+8]sf] Pdfn] cfkm}nfO{ cfd"n kl/jt{g u/of] . dfcf]jfbLn] jt{dfg cfjZostfnfO{ dxTj lbPg eg] ;don] klg dfcf]jfbLnfO{ dxTj lbb}g, :ki6 5 .

@)^* a}zfv !^ ut]

elgG5 e'Sg] s''s'/ 6f]Sb}g, 6f]Sg] s''s'/ e'Sb}g . e'Sg] s's'/sf] t;f{pg] afgL x'G5, a'emg] tl;{Gg, ga'emg] 8/fP/ efU5g . 6f]Sg] s's'/ cfkmgf] pkl:yltsf] cfef; klg lbb}g / pm cfkmgf] nIo cg';f/ 6f]Sg] sfd l;WofpF5 . cfkmgf] nIo lnPsf dflg; bfFof afFof geO{ nIo k|flKtsf nflu lg/Gt/ cufl8 a9]sf] x'G5 eg] nIoxLg dflg; x/]s ljwfdf cy{xLg bvndf Jo:t /xG5g . nIo lgwf{/0f klg rl/q cg';f/ g} x'G5 . ufFhf vfg] afgL 5 eg] lzjs} pkf;s aGg' kb{5 Tof] p;sf] rl/q xf] . b'Jo{;gL ;}flGts kdf Psl5gsf nflu o;nfO{ g/fd|f] eg] klg ckjfb afx]s pm g}ltstfsf] lzIfs x'g ;Sb}g .

g]kfnL /fhgLlt z"Gotfsf] lbzfdf cu|;/ x'g] ;Defjgf k|jn x'b} uPsf] ;a}n] cg'dfg ug{ yfn]sf 5g . olb o;f] eof] eg] s;}n] cfkm"nfO{ bf]ifL dfGb}g . Pscsf{nfO{ bf]iff/f]k0f u/]/ hgtfsf] pknlAw u'Dof] eGg hgtfdf hfG5g . cflv/ cfwf/ t hgtf g} xf] . cfGbf]ng hgtfs} efudf kb{5 .

;+ljwfg ;efsf] r'gfj kl5 ;/sf/xdf dw]zL k|ltlgwLsf] pNn]vgLo pkl:ylt /Xof] . t/ klg dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] kLl8tsf] /fxtsf] d'2f k"/f x'g ;s]g . dfwj s'df/ g]kfnsf] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/df sfo{afxs k|wfgdGqLsf] al/i7tf kfO{ ;s]sf pkk|wfgdGqL tyf ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqL ljho s'df/ uR5bf/n] klg pk]Gb| ofban] gu/]sf] sfd d tLg dlxgfdf l;WofpF5' eGg] k|ltatf ofb /x]g cyf{t k|ltatf cfkmgf] dtnj lgsfNg] /fhgLlts rfnfsL g} ;flat eof] . dw]zs} gfddf ;eGbf a9L dGqL ;xefuL u/fpg ;kmn al/i7tf k|fKt ljho s'df/ uR5bf/ ;/sf/df ;fd]n sfFu];, Pdfn]n] dfcf]jfbL Gdf dfl/Psf cfkmgf sfo{sQf{nfO{ zxLb 3f]if0ff u/fpg nfUbf dw]zsf] /fxt Kofs]hdf c8fg lng ;Sg' ePg . !^ hgfnfO{ zxLb 3f]if0ff u/]/ dw]zL df]rf{nfO{ w]/} leIffbfg lbP/ k5fl8 kf/of] . cfkmgf ck]lIft rfxgfx k|efljt x'g] eon] klg df]rf{sf cu'jfxn] ;/sf/nfO{ al9 bafj a9fpg rfx]g xf]nf . 8]9 jif{ ;Dd ;/sf/df pkl:yt dw]zL df]rf{n] dw]zsf] /fxtsf] ;lhnf] sfd ug{ g;s]sf] cj:yfdf ;+3Lotf, :jfoQ dw]z k|b]z lbnfpg] s'/f t lbjf :jKg g} xf]nf . @$) jif{ b]lv /fHo lje]bdf k/]sf dw]zLx /fHo if8oGqnfO{ lrg]/ ljb|f]x u/]sf] lyof] eg] cfkmgf g]tfxnfO{ lrg]g xf]nf t < kSs} lrg]sf 5g . o;sf] ;Tofkg r'gfjn] u5{ . km]l/ ;Qf k|flKtsf nflu dw]zL hgtfnfO{ em'Sofpg dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx e'sfO{sf] /0fgLlt cGtu{t hg ljb|f]x gofF hgfb]z cflb gf/fx cufl8 ;f/]sf 5g . wg'iffsf] dw]z cfGbf]ngdf 3fO{t] ePsf / clxn] ;Dd pkrf/sf] qmddf /x]sf @% jif{sf c/dfgsf] bflxg] v'fsf] l6lr xl:k6ndf ck|]zg eO{ $!# g+=sf] a]8df pkrf//t 5 . 8fS6/sf] ;Nnfx cg';f/ ck|]zg ug}{ kg]{ afWotf ePsf]n] dw]zsf rf/j6f /fhgLlts bnxsf g]tfnfO{ kmf]g ubf{ cgle1tf k|s6 ub{5g . wGo, kmf]/d nf]stflGqsnfO{ afWotfk"j{s lrg]/ #))) /sd k7fP/ 3fO{t]k|ltsf] bfloTj k"/f u/]sf] 5 . olt /sdn] 3fO{t]nfO{ s]xL x'g]jfnf 5}g, t/ d dfq} t xf]Og c klg tLgj6f lkNn/ afFsL 5 ;f]r]/ xf]nf, cfkmgf] efudf kg]{ /sd k7fP/ bofjfgsf] cu|k+lQmdf cf;Lg x'g' ePsf] 5 . j]8jf6} kmf]g u/]/ cfQ{gfb ug]{ c/dfgnfO{ tLgj6f lkNn/n] ;xof]u u/]/ bofjfgsf] k+lQmdf uP/ j:g' kb{5, xf]Og eg] kmf]/d nf]stflGqs dfq bofjfgsf] kdf dw]zdf b]vf k5{ .

;+ljwfg ;ef kZrft s/f]8f]+sf] x}l;otdf :yflkt pNn]vgLo ;+Vofsf hg k|ltlgwL / ;f] eGbf a9L x}l;ot ePsf g]tfx cfGbf]ngsf/L 3fOt]nfO{ g ;/sf/af6 lbnfpg ;s], cfkm" eg] levf/L ;/x s]xL lbP/ csf]{ b/jfhf b]vfO{ lbP . dw]zL g]tfx l;+x uh{g h:t} qmflGtsf/L efif0f lbP/ sf7df08f}+ kms{G5g . s] dw]z cfGbf]ng kLl8tsf] pk]Iff u/]/ dw]zsf] ;xfg'e"lt a6f]g{ ;S5g < g]tfxn] dw]z dw]z u/]sf]nfO{ uf]xLsf] cfF;" aufPsf] a'emg' kb{5 .

dw]zdf xToflx+;f, n'6kf6, rf]/L 8s}tL, rGbf c;'nL, ckx/0f, c;'/Iff, cflbn] cft+s ;[hgf u/]sf] 5 eg] dxuL, a/f]huf/L, pkef]Uo a:t'sf] cefj, aGb x8tfnn] hg hLljsfnfO{ g} ;+s6df kf/]sf] 5 . ;os8f}+ ck/fwL lu/f]xsf] dw]z s]Gb|ljGb' ag]sf] 5 . ck/fw lgoGq0f ug{ dw]zdf NofO{Psf ljz]if ;'/Iff gLltn] u}/ Goflos xTofnfO{ k|>o kfPsf] af/]df dw]zL g]tfx df}g 5g . cfkm}n] x:tfIf/ ul/ NofPsf] sfg"gnfO{ u}/sfg"gL s;/L eGg] < ljutsf rf/ jif{df oL pk/f]Qm /f]uaf6 cfqmfGt dw]z ;/sf/df hDaf] k|ltlgwL k7fP/ klg s]xL kfPg < cfxt dw]znfO{ ;/sf/n] t u/]g, dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx klg k5fl8 g} /x] . b]zdf ljBdfg /fhgLlts cl:y/tfsf sf/0f ;+ljwfg aGg] k|lqmof w/fkdf kl/ ;s]sf] cj:yf 5 . ;+ljwfg gag] dw]zsf] ;Dk"0f{ pknlAw u'Dg] eGg] ;DaGwdf dw]zsf g]tfHo"xnfO{ lrGtf 5}g, a ;/sf/ 9n] PskN6 km]l/ vfg kfO{G5 ls eGg] k|jn rfxgf 5 .

@)^* a}zfv @# ut]

j:t'l:yltdfly sf/s tTjsf] cf+lzs jf k"0f{?ksf] k|efjn] j:t'sf] cfsf/ / :j?kdf kl/jt{g Nofpg] ub{5 . k|efj kfg]{ / k|efljt x'g] b'a}sf] cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGw x'G5 . of] kfs[lts lgod xf] . sf/s tTjaf6 k|efljt j:t' k|ltsf/fTds cj:yfdf /xFbf cf+lzs k|efjnfO{ em]nL /x]sf] x'G5 eg] k|ltsf/ ug{ c;Ifd j:t'sf] nf]k x'G5 . xfd|f] ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf klg oxL lgod nfu" x'G5 . xfd|f] g]kfnL ;dfhdf sf/s tTj -/fHo_sf] k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf k|efj cg';f/ sxL+ ;dfhsf] cfw'lgsLs/0f ePsf] 5 eg] ck|ToIf k|efjdf /x]sf] ;dfh dGb ultn] cufl8 a9]sf] b]lvG5 . cyf{t ;dfg lsl;dsf] ljsf; b]lvb}g . Gofof]lrt ljsf;sf] cefjdf k/]sf ;dfhn] o;nfO{ lje]bsf] ;+1f lbO{ cfw'lgsLs/0fdf cfkm"nfO{ ?kfGt/0f ug{sf nflu ckgfOg] k|lqmofnfO{ g} ljb|f]x elgPsf] xf] . cyf{t zf]ifs / zf]liftsf] cGof]Gofl>t ;DaGwsf] ue{df ljb|f]xsf] e|"0f ljsl;t eO{ /x]sf] x'G5 / Pslbg k|ToIf ?kdf b]vf k5{ . of] k|s[ltsf] zfZjt lgodnfO{ dflg;n] a'em]/ klg ;xh ?kn] :jLsf/ ug{ rfFxb}g . lsg rfFxb}g < ToxL zf]if0fsf sf/0f pm cl:tTjdfg ePsf]n] cfkmgf] cl:tTjnfO{ u'dfpg rfFxb}g . cyf{t cfkmgf] cl:tTjnfO{ arfpg pm zf]if0fnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg afWo 5 . ;dfh k|ltsf/fTds cj:yfdf k'uL ;s]kl5 ljb|f]xn] zf]ifssf] k'/fgf] 9fFrfnfO{ gi6 ul/ p;sf] cl:tTjnfO{ ;dfKt u5{ . of] qmdsf] gofF ?kaf6 k'g/fj[lt x'G5 . cyf{t zf]ifs / zf]liftsf] gofF :j?k k|:t't x'G5 .

Pp6f zf]ifs / zf]liftsf] cGt{Gsf] ct'ngLo pbfx/0f x]/f}+ . Pp6L dlxnfsf] ?k, ;f}Gbo{ / hjfgLnfO{ p;sf] e|"0fn] zf]if0f u/]/ aRrfsf] ?kdf aflx/ cfpF5 / zf]liftn] s'g} k|ltjfb ub}{g . aRrf cyf{t ljb|f]xsf] ;fd'Gg] cfTd ;dk{0f ub{5 . efjgfTds ;DaGwn] ToxfF zf]ifs / zf]liftsf] :j?kn] dxTj /fVb}g t/ b'a} ToxfF df}h"b /xG5 . ljsf; cGt{G s} sf/0f ;Dej x'G5 . cfdfn] aRrfsf nflu Hofg ;d]t lbP/ arfpg vf]lH5g . of] cfTd;dk{0f xf] .

g]kfnsf] ;+be{df hgljb|f]xnfO{ ;Demf}tfdf 6+'UofP/ k'gZr oyfl:yltdf k'/ofpg] h'g w[i6tf ul/b}5, lgZro klg of] ;'vbfoL 5}g . b]znfO{ k5fl8 ws]n]/ k'gM Gdf k7fpg] ultljwLnfO{ /fSg' kb{5 . hgljb|f]xnfO{ c:jfefljs xf]Og :jfefljs ?kdf u|x0f ug{' kb{5 . ank"j{s 7]Nof] eg] hgljb|f]x cem kl/dflh{t eP/ cfFwL t"kmfg eP/ cfpg]5 / To;df sf] sxfF /x|g] eGg] s'/f sf]xL eGg ;Sb}g . /fhgLlts bnx?df Pssf{sf] cl:tTj :jLsf/ gug]{ cnf]stflGqs rl/qnfO{ Tofu ug{' kb{5 .

/fHof/f lje]bdf kfl/Psf] dw]zn] k|ltsf/fTds cj:yf kl/kSj eP/ dfq ;fdflhs ?kfGt/0fsf nflu @)^# df3df dw]z ljb|f]x u/]sf] xf] . cfkmgf] clwsf/ k|flKtsf nflu ;xh ?kdf cufl8 a9]sf] o; ljb|f]xnfO{ c;xh ?kdf /fHon] :jLsf/ u/of] . dw]zL cfGbf]ngsf/L alnbfgL efjgfaf6 k|]l/t cfGbf]ngnfO{ pTsif{df k'/ofpg] k|of;df lyP . o'jfzlQmsf] hf]z / hfFu/n] ;f/f dw]znfO{ Ps ;"qdf afFw]/ cfGbf]ngnfO{ pFrfO{df NofO{ k'/ofP . ck|Toflzt dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] pFrfO{af6 eoeLt ;QfkIf / g]t[Tjsf] ;xh cjt/0f u/fpg] :jfy{ ldn] kl5 @@ a"Gb] ;Demf}tfdf cfP/ 6'+luof] . /fHokIfn] 7Ug] p2]Zon] ;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ u/]sf lyP eg] g]t[Tj kIf k"0f{ eoeLt eP/ . /fHokIfn] ck|Toflzt ?kn] p7]sf] dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ cGttM a8f] rfnfsLk"j{s ;Demf}tff/f cGt u/]kl5 hflthfltsf aLr, wd{ wd{sf aLr n8fpg] /fhgLlts v]nx? ;Grfng ug{ yfNof] . yf? / dw]zLaLr kmf6f] Nofpg /fHo ;kmn klg b]lvPsf] 5 . dw]zL PstfnfO{ ljv08g ug{ rflnPsf cg]s if8oGqsf ;+oGqx? clxn] ;lqmo 5g . dw]zsf rf/j6f /fhgLlts kf6L{ hfHjNodfg gIfqsf] ?kdf pbfP klg dw]znfO{ hfltjfbsf] bnbnaf6 arfpg lsg c;Ifd b]lvO{ /x]sf 5g .

Hffltjfb, ;fd'bflos ;+3if{n] dw]zsf] slxNo} sNof0f gx'g] s'/f :ki6 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ng / g]t[Tj ug]{ rf/j6f kf6L{aLrsf] cGt;"{q 6'6]sf] cj:yfdf dfq /fHosf] if8oGqsf/L ;+oGq dw]zleq k|j]z ug{ ;Sof] . oL rf/} kfn}kfnf] ;/sf/df uPb]lv dw]zsf] s'/f ug]{ t/ dw]zsf nflu s]xL ug{ g;Sg] cj:yfn] dw]zk|ltsf] cbf;LgtfnfO{ phfu/ ub{5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] dd{;+usf] cGt;{+DaGw 6'6]sf] k|tLt x'G5 . /fHo ;'ljwf dx h:t} xf], k/] kl5 dflg; nIoljlxg eP/ cl:tTj ;dfKt x'G5 . ToxfF ck|ToIf pkl:yt ;os8f}+ ;"qx?af6 afFlwbf cfkmgf] nIo sxfF ofb /xG5 < s;}n] an nufpg vf]Hof] eg] cg]sf}+ ;"qx? p;nfO{ tfg]/ oyfl:yltdf NofO{ k'/ofpF5 . p;n] cfkmgf] c;Ifdtf hgtfnfO{ eGg 8/fp5g . s'g} ;Lk gnfu]/ pm JolQmut :jfy{lt/ pGd'v x'G5g . dw]z d'2f ;Daf]wg u/fpg ;lsPg eg] k};f sdfP/ hfcf}+ eg]/ o;/L g]tfx? oyfl:yltsf] lzsf/ x'G5g .

oyfl:yltdf a:g] g]tfx?sf] afgL eO{ ;s]kl5 d'lQm cfGbf]ngsf cfjfhx? cg;"gf x'G5g . d'lQm cfGbf]ngsf] cleef/f bf]>f] k':tfdf hfG5 . lsg eg] d'lQm cfGbf]ng ;w}+ uGtJolt/ pGd'v /xg] ePsf]n] of] oyfl:yltdf /Xg} ;Sb}g . To;sf/0f of] bf]>f] k':tfdf ;b{5 .

@)^* a}zfv #) ut]

;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb ca !% lbg afFsL 5 . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] ylkPsf] Psjif{sf] Dofb laTg !% lbg dfq /x]sf]n] /fhgLlt ;xhLs/0fsf] ;a} ;Defjgf 6fl9Psf 5g . clGtd 38Ldf cfP/ Dofb yKg] rdTsf/L ;Defjgf klg g/x]sf] cj:yfdf /fhgLlts bnx?n] s] ug]{ < Pp6f oIf k|Zg t]l;{Psf] 5 . g]kfnL /fhgLltdf zlQms]Gb|sf] k|ToIf bvn /x]sf] clxn]sf] cj:yfdf /fhgLlts bnx? cfkmgf] ;d:ofk|lt ;+j]bgzLn geP/ ljleGg zlQms]Gb|sf] df]x/f eP/ Pscsf{nfO{ nfFl5t ub}{ cufl8 al9 /x]sf] 5 .

dfcf]jfbL ;dly{t Pdfn] g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/ Pdfn]-!, Pdfn]-@ x'Fb} Pdfn]-# lt/ pGd'v 5 . cTofNk ;dodf ca /fhgLlts bnx?n] k|ltlqmofjfbL zlQmx?n] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ug{ lbO{ /x]sf] 5}g tyf dfcf]jfbLn] ;j{;Qfjfb nfb]/ ;Qf sAhf ug{ rfxG5, dfcf]jfbL nf]stflGqs kltdf cfkm"nfO{ ?kfGt/0f ug{ rfxb}g eg]/ Pscsf{ dfly bf]iff/f]k0f ub}{ cfufdL /fhgLltsf nflu cfkm"nfO{ tof/ kfb}{ 5g .

h;/L klg ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f x'g' kb{5 hgtfsf] cfjfh xf] of] . x/]s 9+uaf6 cleJoQm hgtfsf] of] cfjfhnfO{ /fhgLltdf k|e"Tj hdfPsf k|d'v tLg bn -g]kfnL sfFu|];, Pdfn] / dfcf]jfbL_ d"n nIo 5f8]/ ;/sf/ agfpg], 9fNg] k|lqmofdf ;do JotLt u/]sf, hgtfsf] efjgfnfO{ j]jf:tf ub}{ lx8]sf sf/0f ;+ljwfg aGg] cfzf Go"g x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . cj;/ kfP/ klg hgtfnfO{ ;+ljwfg lbg g;Sg] oL /fhgLlts bnx? ;dfg ?kn] bf]ifL ePgg < hgtf ca of] dfGg afWo 5g .

sfFu|]; dfc]jfbL ;DaGwnfO{ h;/L lul/hf k|;fb sf]O{/fnfn] hLjGt ?k lbPsf lyP / hf] sfFu|];sf cGo g]tfx?nfO{ dfGo lyPg, lul/hf k|;fb sf]O{/fnfsf] cj;fg kl5 Tof] ;DaGw :yfloTj kfpg ;s]g . sfFu|];n] dfcf]jfbL;+u ;DaGw agfpg grfx]sf] dfgl;stf, s]xL 36gfqmd / dfcf]jfbLsf pu| :jfefjsf sf/0f b'a} kf6L{aLr ;DaGw ljR5]b eof] . o;df Pdfn]nfO{ kmfobf eof] . dfwj s'df/ g]kfn nf]stflGqs u7aGwgsf] ;/sf/ eg]/ ax'dtn] ;/sf/ agfof] eg] emngfy vgfnn] /fli6"o ;xdtL eg]/ ax'dtsf] ;/sf/ agfof] . ca Pdfn] efu-# sf] pknlAw lng s]=kL=cf]nL cEof;/t 5 . t/ ;do g} sd ePsf]n] pxfFsf] ;kmntfdf k|ZglrXg nfu]sf] 5, t/ /fhgLlt o;}sf] ;]/f]km]/f]df clxn] 3'ld /x]sf] 5 . nf]stflGqs / afd 36s;+u ;dfg ?kn] lkm6 x'g] Pdfn];+u /fd|f] bIftf 5 . h] xf];, /fHo;'v k|fKt ug{ oL tLg bn hlt ;lqmo /x], Tolt dfqf d} ;+ljwfg lgdf{0fk|lt pbf;Lg b]lvP . Ps kfgf s} ;xL, hgtfn] ;+ljwfg x]g{ rfx]sf] 5 . t/ h'Fufsf] n8fO{n] hgtfsf] of] ;kgf ;kgf g} /Xg] nueu kSsf 5 .

@)^& Ho]i7 !$ ut] /fhgLlts ult/f]wdf ePklg tLgj6} /fhgLlts bnx? b]zsf] ;d:ofk|lt ;+j]bgzLn eP/ clGtd 38Ldf Dofb a9fpg ;xdt ePsf lyP . oL /fhgLlts bnx?n] ljut s} h:t} km]l/ klg s'g} rdTsf/ b]vfpnf eGg] lemgf] cfzf klg /fv]sf 5g hgtfn] . t/ s] /fhgLlts bnx? b]zsf] ;d:ofk|lt uDeL/ aGg ;S5g < olta]nf kl/l:ylt leGg /x]sf]n] rdTsf/ b]vfpg bnx? :jtGq g/x]sf]n] rdTsf/ x'g] ;Defjgf laNs'n} b]lvb}g . zlQms]Gb|x?sf] k|ToIf pkl:yltn] To:tf] rdTsf/sf] s'g} ;Defjgf 5}g . Dofb yk]/ klg ljut Psjif{sf] ;donfO{ ;/sf/ agfpg] 9fNg] lg/y{s v]ndf JotLt u/]sf] tLg bn afx]ssf bnx?nfO{ tLtf] cg'ej 5 . hgtf klg tLg bnsf] ultljwLaf6 jfSs eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . To;}n] t ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb yKg' x'Fb}g eGg] cfjfh 3lGsg yfn]sf] xf] . sfFu|]; klg oyfl:yltdf Dofb yKg] kIfdf 5}g . k"0f{tf k|fKt ug{ g;s]sf] jt{dfg ;/sf/n] ef]Ug' kg]{ r'gf}tL ckf/ 5 / ;/sf/;+u oyfl:yltdf a:g' afx]s cu|udgdf hfg] OR5fzlQm 5}g, ePklg cfkm}n] ;[hgf u/]sf] /fhgLlt ult/f]wn] cu|udgsf] lbzfdf hfg] cg'dtL lbO{ /x]sf] 5}g . cyf{t ;/sf/ oyfl:yltdf afFRg afWo 5 .

Dofb yKg' jt{dfg /fhgLlts ult/f]wnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg' afx]s c? s]xL x'g ;Sb}g . tfhf hgfb]zsf] af6f] /f]Hg' g} ljsNksf] ?kdf ;a}n] :jLsf/ ug'{ kb{5 . cfkm"n] gkfP c?nfO{ klg x'g glbg] h:tf s'k|j[ltsf] cGt ug{sf nflu klg gofF hgfb]z ckl/xfo{ ePsf] 5 . b]z / hgtfsf] hghLljsfsf] ;d:of k|fyldstfsf ljifo aGg g;s]sf] jt{dfg ;+ljwfg ;efsf] cf}lrTo klg 36]/ uPsf] 5 . ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ gjhLjg lbg klg tfhf hgfb]zsf] cfjZostf a9]/ uPsf] 5 . bnx?aLr a9]sf] cljZjf;sf] b"/LnfO{ 36fpg klg;+ljwfg ;efsf] tfhf hgfb]z lng] ;Defjgf k|jn ePsf] 5 .

@)^* h]i7 ^ ut]

;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ ca ( lbg afFsL 5 . dfcf]jfbL ;dly{t emngfy g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/n] Dofb yKg] ls b]znfO{ c/fhstflt/ k7fpg] eGg] ;+j]bgzLntfnfO{ bzf{P/ ! jif{sf] Dofb yk ug]{ ljw]os ;+ljwfg ;efdf kf; u/fpg bQf{ u/fO{ ;s]sf] 5 . ;+ljwfg Dofbleq lsg ag]g < ca Tof] k|Zg xf]O{g, Dofb yKg] ls b]znfO{ c/fhs agfpg] eGg] k|Zg 68sf/f] kdf cl3 ;fl/Psf] 5 . nf]stflGqs u7aGwgsf 36sx klg cfkmgf] c8fgk|lt nrs x'Fb} uPsf] efg x'G5 . ;]gf ;dfof]hgsf] s'/fdf dfcf]jfbL klg sfFu|];nfO{ v'zL kfg{ ljZj;gLotfsf] dfu{ vf]Hg nrstf b]vfpg k|tLt x'G5 . cf]nLsf] af]nL n6kl6Psf] 5 . dfwj g]kfnsf] uh{gf klg sd ePsf] 5 . ;do ljTb} hfFbf ljs6 ;d:ofx ;f+u'l/b} uPsf] cg'dfg ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . cflv/ ;dly+u Oh a]6/ bofg gly+u . eft vfg] d]nf] / zLto''nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg Dofb gyKg'sf] ljsNk s] < cgzg, wgf{, lj/f]w h'n';, aGb, x8tfn cflbn] of] lqb]jnfO{ s]xL km/s kfb}{g . elgG5 ;k{ hlt afFuf] lxF8]klg b'nf] k:g] a]nfdf l;wf x'G5g . tLg jif{df tLg bnsf] lts8dL rfndf kmF;}sf] ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ k'ghL{jg lbP/ km]l/ Pssf{nfO{ unfpg] v]nsf] k'g/fj[lt gxf]nf, h:tf] nfUb}g . /fHo ;'ljwf ef]u ug]{ s'/fdf ;a}sf] :jfy{ ldNg]5 . g/d x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf] sfFu|];, g]kfn, cf]nLsf] af]nLn] oxL s'/flt/ ;+s]t ub{5 . sfFu|]; / dfcf]jfbLsf] s'/f ldn] kl5 dw]znfO{ ttfpg v6fO{Psf dw]zL df]rf{sf] cfd;efxdf x'g] vr{ To;} Joy{ hfg]5 . dw]zsf] d~rdf gfO{6f]sf] an lems]/ dw]zL hgtfnfO{ em'Sofpg vf]Hg] dw]zL df]rf{sf g]tfx oyfl:yltdf xfdL Dofb yKb}gf}, yk} xfdL ;fd"lxs /fhLgfdf lbG5f}+ eGg] gf/fsf ;fy cuf8L a9bf olb Dofb ylkof] eg] klg dw]zL df]rf{nfO{ lg/fz x'g] 7fFp 5}g . kl5 Ifltk"lt{sf] cu|flwsf/ sfod /fv]/ /fli6o ;xdtLsf] ;/sf/df ;;Ddfg dw]zL df]rf{nfO{ ;fd]n u/]kl5 tL lg/fzfsf] jftfj/0f cfkm} d]l6P/ hfg]5 .

Kff7su0f a}zfv # ut] la/u+hsf] cfd;efnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ dw]zL dfrf{sfal/i6 elgg] Ps g]tfn] xfdL ;/sf/df x'Fbf hlxn] klg dw]zsf] d'2fk|lt cfkmgf] c8fg sfod /fVof}+ eg]/ uf]xLsf] cfF;" emfb}{ eGof] . ljutsf] ;/sf/df dw]zL df]rf{sf ( Sofljg]6 dGqL ;fd]n lyof] / dw]zsf] d'2f -!^ hgf zxLb 3f]if0ff afx]s_ ;Daf]wg x'g ;s]g . ;/sf/df uR5bf/sf] jl/otf k|fKt lyof] . dw]z d'2fk|lt s:tf] c8fg lyof] ls d'2f ;Daf]wg x'g ;s]g < jf:tjdf dw]zL df]rf{sf] k|ltlgwL dGqLxsf] s'g} c8fg g} lyPg . dw]zL d'2fk|lt sf]O{ uDeL/ g} lyPg . ;a}nfO{ cfkmgf] :jfy{ k"/f ug]{ afWotf lyof] . # dlxgfdf dw]z d'2f k'/f ug]{ k|ltatf hgfP/ @* ;ef;bnfO{ em'Sofof] eg] dw]zsf] hgtfnfO{ uf]xLsf] cfF;" aufP/ em'Sofpg' ljho uR5bf/sf nflu s'g} 7"nf] s'/f] xf]Og . /fh]Gb| dxtf] hLn] klg Pp6f 6L=jL= sfo{qmdf dw]zsf] nflu s]xL ug]{ ToxfF 7fpF g} 5}g eg]/ /x:of]b3f6g ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . cyf{t cfkmgf] nflu ToxfF k|z:t 7fFp /x]sf] s'/f phfu/ x'G5 .

dw]zk|lt u}/ dw]zL /fhgLlts bnx k"jf{u|xL /x]sf] oyfy{ ;j{ljlbt 5 . t/ dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnxdf nIok|ltsf] ljrng rrf{sf] ljifo aG5 . ;fj{hlgs kdf qmflGtsf/L gf/f lbg] dw]zL g]tfx ha dw]zsf] dfFu k"/f u/fpg ;Sb}g / ;Qfdf 6fFl;O{ /xG5, Tolta]nf d'lQmsf] /fhgLlt Jofkf/sf] /fhgLltdf kl/0ft x'G5 . /fhgLlts Jofkf/Lx hgtfsf] d'lQmsf] cleef/f k'/f ug}{ ;Sb}g . k};fsf nflu ;Qfdf hfg], k};f hDdf kf/]/ dw]zsf] /fhgLlt ug]{, of] ;f]r afx]s dw]zL g]tfdf dw]zsf nflu Tofu / jlnbfgsf] efjgf c+s'l/t ePg . xf]; klg s;/L, cfGbf]ngsf/LxnfO{ yGsfO{of] / k]z]j/ /fhgLlts Jofkf/Lxsf] xftdf dw]zsf] /fhgLlt uof] .

hgfj/sf] ayfgdf rd]/f] cfP/ eG5 ltdLx dnfO{ g]tf agfpm d klg hgfj/ x'F . ltdLx h:t} d klg jRrfnfO{ b'w VjfpF5' . d ;kmntfk"j{s cfqmd0f ug{ ;S5' / jrfj klg . d dfly e/f];f u/ eg]/ rd]/f] hgfj/sf] g]tf aG5 . ptf r/fsf] ayfgdf klg uP/ cfkm"nfO{ g]tf agfpg k|:tfj /fV5 r/fx xf] ltdLx h:t} d klg r/f xf] . cfqmd0f tyf k|ltcfqmd0fdf d h:tf] ltdLx ;kmntf kfpg ;Sb}gf}+ . lsgls d h:tf] lx+;s bfFt ltdLx;+u 5}g . To;sf/0f dnfO{ g]tf :jLsf/ u/ eg]/ r/fxsf] klg g]tf aG5 . kl5 b'j} ;d'bfoaLr o' x'G5 / rd]/f]sf] rfnfsLsf] kf]n v'N5 . cflv/df b'a} k|lt:kwL{ ldn]/ rd]/f]nfO{ df5{ .

dw]zdf klg rd]/f]sf] h:t} rfnfsL tyf nIoxLg g]t[Tjsf] cfjZostf 5}g . g cfjZostf 5 k]z]j/ /fhgLlts Jofkf/L g]tTjsf] . cfjZostf 5 dw]zsf] df6f]n] hGdfPsf tL jL/ ;k"txsf] h;n] dw]zsf /fhgLlts Jofkf/LxnfO{ -d[tk|fo cj:yfdf /x]sf_ j]jf:tf ub}{ cfkmgf] ana"tfdf cfkmgf] clwsf/sf] cfGbf]ngnfO{ oxfF;Dd NofO{ k'/ofPsf] 5 . :d/0f /xf];, /fhgLlts Jofkf/Lx ;Qfsf /;f:jfbg ub}{ cfGbf]ngnfO{ ufnL ul/ /x]sf lyP . ylGsP/ a;]sf] h:tf] ;'s} rl/q ePsf dw]zL g]tfnfO{ dw]z cfGbf]ngn] k'ghL{jg k|bfg u/]sf] oyfy{ klg ;j{ljlbt} 5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngn] oxfF;Dd NofO{ k'/ofpFbf klg cfGbf]ngsf] pknlAwnfO{ lhDd]jf/Laf]wsf ;fy ;+:yfut ug'{sf] ;f hft hftdf cfGbf]ngnfO{ ljeQm ug]{ sfd ePsf] 5 .

@)^* h]i7 !# ut]

h+undf xl/0fsf] em'08af6 Pp6fnfO{ PSNofP/ lrt'jfn] xl/0fnfO{ v]b]/ df5{ / Psl5g d} ;a} lrt'jf ldn]/ Tof] xl/0fsf] cl:tTj g} l;WofP h:t} dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ klg dw]zsf lx+;s lrt'jfxn] lryf]/]/ l;Wofpg] k|of;df nfu]sf 5g . oxL Ho]i7 ( ut] dw]zL hgclwsf/ kmf]/d, g]kfnaf6 ljeflht dw]zL hgflwsf/ kmf]/d-u0ftflGqs_ sf cWoIf hok|sfz u'Ktfn] pk]Gb| ofbjdfly k|Zg p7fpFb} pk]Gb| ofbjnfO{ g]t[Tj ug]{ Ifdtf 5}g eGg] cf/f]k nufPsf 5g . oxL cf/f]k klxnf] km'6df dxfgGb 7fs'/n] bf]>f] km'6df efUogfy u'Ktf, /fds'df/ zdf{, lszf]/ ljZjf; / lht]Gb| ;f]gnn] nufPsf lyP . t]>f] km'6df ljho uR5bf/n] / rf}yf] km'6df ho k|sfz u'Ktfn] :ki6 zAbdf g]t[Tjsf] c;Iftf eg]/ cf/f]lkt u/]sf] 5 . klxnf] / bf]>f] km'6n] kf6L{nfO{ vf;} c;/ u/]g . t]>f] km'6sf] a]nf dw]zL hg clwsf/ kmf]/d, g]kfn %# ;ef;bsf ;fy zlQmzfnL kf6L{sf] kdf cfpFbf pk]Gb| ofbj dxTjk"0f{ JolQmsf] kdf /fli6o, cGt/fli6o hutdf rlr{t x'g k'u] . elgG5 qmlds kn] ;kmntf k|fKt x'Fb} hfFbf dflg;df bDe, cx+sf/ klg ;f]xL cg'kftdf ljsl;t x'Fb} hfg' :jfefljs xf] . o;sf] c;n Joj:yfkg -kf6L{sf] lxtdf, hgtfsf] lxtdf_ dxfgtflt/ 8f]/ofpF5 eg] JolQmdf k|of]u eof] eg] ljgfzsf sf/0f aGb5 . w]/} pFrfO{df k'Ug] dflg;df v:g] ;Defjgf klg plQs} x'G5 . of] oyfy{af6 a]va/ x'g] b'3{6gfsf lzsf/ x'G5g .

r'gfj kl5 ljleGg rl/qsf JolQmxsf] k|j]zn] kf6L{sf] PsfTds rl/q;+u Psfsf/ ug]{ k|of;sf] yfng ug'{ kg]{, ;f] geP/ km/s rl/qsf] kf/:kl/s k|lt:kwf{ z' eof] . of] k|lt:kwf{ g} g]t[Tj ju{sf] Joj:yfkgsf] sdhf]/L / e"n lyof] . :d/0f /xf];, ljho uR5bf/sf] nZs/ kf6L{df k|j]zsf avt tTsfnLg ax'dt s]Gb|Lo ;b:ox o;sf] lj/f]wdf plePsf lyP . t/ pk]Gb|sf] kmf]/dnfO{ zlQmzfnL agfpg] lgzfn] of] nZs/ lelqPsf] lyof] . ljljwtfo'Qm kf6L{nfO{ PsfTds rl/qaf6 xfFSg vf]Hg' csf]{ e"n lyof] . c;n Joj:yfkgsf] cefjdf b'a} km/s rl/qsf] c:j:y k|lt:kwf{ hl6n aGb} uof] . km]l/ ax'dt s]Gb|Lo ;b:oxn] ljefhgsf] ;+3f/df k'Ug nfu]sf] kf6L{nfO{ arfpg w]/} k|of; ul/bf klg g]t[Tjn] jf:t} gu/]kl5 kf6L{ ljefhgsf] kL8f ef]Ug afWo eof] . ;aeGbf b'Mvb s'/f s] lyof] eg] ljefhgsf] afl9df ljho uR5bf/sf] nZs/ dfq au]g, pk]Gb|sf kIfw/ w]/} efl:;P . @*j6f ;ef;b kf6L{af6 knfog x'g'nfO{ pk]Gb|n] kmf]xf]/ a9fl/P/ kf6L{ rf]lvof] eg]/ ;Gtf]if dfg], lsGt' Tof] pk]Gb|sf] 7"nf] k/fho lyof] . ljefhgn] ax'dt ;ef;b lnP/ uPsf] 36gfnfO{ uDeL/tfk"j{s cWoog ul/ lzIff lng'sf] ;f ;kmntfn] lbPsf] pGdfb / lh2L ljrf/sf] k'gZr lg/Gt/tfn] km]l/ dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] dd{ ljkl/t e6sfjsf] /fhgLlt z' eof] . o;sf] kmn:jk hok|sfzsf] g]t[Tjdf km]l/ ax'dt ;ef;b pk]Gb|sf] kf6L{af6 cnu eof] . o;kfnL klg kf6L{ rf]Vofpg b]zL ljb]zL if8oGq kmf]xf]/x a9fl/of] eGg] dGqsf] k|of]u eof] / kf6L{ rf]lVvof] . pk]Gb| ofbjsf] kf6L{df slt kmf]xf]/ hDdf ePsf] lyof], ;kmfO{ ub}{ hfFbf rf]vf]sf] kdf Psdfq pk]Gb| /Xg] eof] .

cfkmgf] %# zxLb / ;os8f}+ 3fO{t] ckf agfP/ nufgL ul/ dw]z cfGbf]ngn] hGdfPsf] kf6L{ dw]zL hgclwsf/ kmf]/d, g]kfn Ift ljIft x'Fb} lj;h{gsf] cj:yfdf k'Ug' dw]zsf] nflu ;'vb kSs} klg dflgb}g . kf6L{ hLjgdf kf6L{n] ef]Ug' k/]sf] c;kmntf / ;kmntfsf] ;Dk"0f{ >]o g]t[Tjdf hfG5 . kf6L{sf] c;kmntf, g]t[Tjsf] c;kmntf dflgG5 . g]t[Tjn] cfkm"nfO{ rf]Vofpg hlt;'s} asDkm';] dGq k9]klg dw]zL hgtfsf] gf;f]nfO{ ;+/If0f lbg g;Sg] kf6L{sf] g]t[TjnfO{ bf]ifL dfGg dw]zL hgtf afWo ePsf] 5 .

cfGbf]ngaf6 ckf/ ;kmntf lnP/ cfPsf] kf6L{n] g]t[TjnfO{ pGdflbt agfof] . ;kmntf;+u} lelqPsf] vt/faf6 a]va/ g]t[Tjn] ;kmntfnfO{ cfkmgf] dxfgtfsf] pkh 7fgL cfTdut ljrf/df cuf8L a9b} hfFbf csf] dfg, k|lti7f s'l07t eO{ /x]sf] kQ} ePg . kf6L{nfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ cfjZostfnfO{ g]t[Tjn] r6Ss} lj;]{/ kf6L{nfO{ g]t[Tjd'vL agfP kl5 rf6'sfl/tfsf] ce"tk"j{ ljsf; eof] . :jfy{l;l ug]{ rf6'sf/sf] ;+VofTds a[l / dw]zsf d;Lxf eg]/ ho3f]if ug]{xsf] hdftn] g]t[Tjdf s[i0ffjtf/ sf] df]xfGwtf knfof] . JolQm g} kf6L{ aGof] . ;'vb tyf ljgfzsf/L of] df]xfGwtfaf6 g]t[Tj lg:sg rfx]g . kf6L{ dflg;sf] eL8df kl/0ft eof] . kf6L{leqsf dw]z lrGtg af]s]sf cfGbf]ngsf/Lx o; eL8df x/fP . p;sf] s'g} jf:tf ul/Pg . kf6L{ pk]Gb| ofbjsf] dfq /Xof], cyjf s]xL rf6'sf/xsf] . c;Gt'i6tf km}lnb} uof] . kf6L{ km'6b} uof] . pk]Gb| ofbj zlQmxLg aGb} hfFbf rf6'sf/xsf] :jfy{k"lt{ gx'g] ePsf]n] ;a} x/fP . dw]zsf d;Lxf eGg]x klg k'R5/ n'sfP/ sxfF k'u], yfxf ePg . ;kmntfn] dbfGwtf hufpFb5 eg] c;kmntfn] g}/fZotf NofpF5, dgf]an tf]85, hf]z hfFu/ x/fpF5 . o:tf] cj:yfaf6 k'jf{j:yfdf hfg]af6f] klg x/fpFb5 .

d}n] pk]Gb| ofbasf] lj/f]w ug]{ p2]Zon] oL x/kmx N]v]sf] xf]O{g, pk]Gb| ofbjsf] uNtLn] dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] p2]ZonfO{ k'u]sf] IfltnfO{ bzf{Psf] x"F . gLlt k|wfg x'g' kg]{df g]tf k|wfg eof] / o;sf] k|ltkmn k6s k6ssf] ljefhg kf6L{n] ef]Ug' k/of] . cfkmgf] k|wfgtf vf]Hbf kf6L{ p2]Zoljlxg x'g' :jefljs xf] / p2]ZoxLg kf6L{sf] s'g} eljio klg x'Fb}g . hf]8g'sf] ;f km'6g'df clws /dfpg] pk]Gb| ofbjn] dw]zdf k6s k6ssf] 3fj lbP/ cfkm"k|lt ;xfg'e"lt a6f]g]{ k|of; ug'{ ePsf] xf] ls 3[0ff <

h]xf];, dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] /fhgLlt p2]Zoljlxg eP/ ;Qf bnfnLdf kl/0ft ePsf] 5 . /fhgLlts cu'jfxn] dw]zsf] d~rdf dw]zsf] lxtdf h:tf];'s} qmflGtsf s'/f ul/ cnfO{ ufnL u/]klg JolQmjfbL rl/qdf cGtlg{lxt ;Qf :jfy{ g} /x]sf]n] of] dw]zsf] lsl~rt lxt gx'g] s''/f :ki6 5 . dw]zsf] /fhgLlts bnxdf ;ef;bsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /x]sf]n] JolQmjfbL rl/qsf] pRr dxTjfsfFIff g} ljefhgsf] sf/0f /Xof] . dw]z clwsf/sf] s'/f ul/ gyfSg] ;Qfsf bnfnx cGttf]uTjf dw]zsf] /fhgLltnfO{ hftLotfsf] bnbndf w;fP/ lj;h{gsf] cj:yfdf k'/ofpg] h'g w[i6tf ub}{5, ;du| dw]zsf] PstfnfO{ cfkmgf] cfkmgf] lsQfdf afF8b}5, cfkmgf] ultljwLn] dw]znfO{ cem clwsf/ljlxg cj:yfdf k'/ofpg] h'g b':;fx; ul/b}5, o;sf] lj dw]z cfGbf]ng cem z;Qm / kl/dflh{t eP/ cfpg]5 . ;Qfsf] bnfnL ul/ k};f sdfpg] / dw]zsf] /fhgLltnfO{ cfkmgf] jl/kl/ s'bfpg] dw]zL g]tfsf] ceLi6 /x]sf]n] o;sf] lj dw]zn] cfFwL a]x/L NofO{ cfkm"leq /x]sf 5bdj]zL dw]zL zq'nfO{ k/f:t ug]{5 . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] efjgf;+u v]njf8 ug]{, dw]zsf] p2]ZonfO{ ;Qf ;+3if{sf] gfddf JolQmut nfesf] dfWod agfpg], dw]zsf] PsLs[t PstfnfO{ hfltotfsf] lsQfdf afF8g], h:tf s's[Tosf] lvnfkm dw]zsf zq'x;+u ;r]t eO{ lbzfljlxg kfl/Psf] dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ lbzf k|bfg ug{ dw]zsf jL/ ;k"tx km]l/ Psh"6 eO{ n8g' kg]{ cfjZostf b]lvG5 . /fHof/f ;+rflnt if8oGqdf s'g} g s'g} kdf dw]zsf /fhgLlts cu'jfxsf] k|ToIf, ck|ToIf ;xeflutf /x]sf sf/0f dw]zsf] p2]Zo k"/f x'g] s'/f z+sfsf] 3]/fdf /x]sf]n] ca ljZjf; ul/xfNg] cj:yf eg] /x]g . pk/f]Qm sf/0fxn] dw]z lbzfljlxg /Xg] s'/f nueu lglZrt g} 5 . To;sf/0f klg dw]zn] cfkmgf] clwsf/sf nflu Psh"6 x'g cfjZos ePsf] 5 .

@)^* h]i7 @) ut]

;}flGts cjwf/0ff hlt;'s} cfsif{s ePklg, /fhgLlt nIo hlt qmflGtsf/L ePklg sfo{ljlw / sfof{Gjog kIf;+u tfnd]n 5}g eg] kf6L{ nIoljlxg eP/ oyfl:yltdf x'Fb} lj;h{gsf] cj:yfdf k'U5 . d'Ldf afn'jf ;dft] h:t} d'L t /xG5 t/ afn'jf lg:s]/ uPsf] yfx} x'Fb}g . Pp6f /fhgLlts kf6L{ eg]sf] ;du| hgtfsf] efjgfnfO{ ;d]6]/ Pp6f vf; p2]Zo k|flKtsf nflu cu|udgsf] lbzfdf a9g k|ltlgwLsf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] x'G5 . ;os8f}+ ofqLnfO{ af]s]/ xfjfdf p8g] af]O ladfg h;/L xhf/f}+ vt/fsf r'gf}tLx?nfO{ em]Nb} uGtJodf ;kmntfk"j{s cjt/0f u5{ / lsl~rt klg ;kmntfsf] cx+sf/ k|bz{g ub}{g . /fhgLlts kf6L{sf] hLjg klg To:t} x'g' kb{5 . ofq'x?nfO{ uGtJo ;Dd k'/ofpg] Psdfq p2]Zo af]s]sf] ljdfg rfns hlt;'s} r'gf}tL cfPklg lg?2]Zo x'Fb}g, clgdfq pm uGtJodf k'U5 .

dw]z cfGbf]ngsf r'gf}tLx?M /fHon] ck|Tofl;t ?kdf kl/eflift u/] klg zlbof}+b]lv lje]bsf] kL8f em]Nb} cfPsf] dw]zL ;dfh zf]if0fsf ;a} cjojx?nfO{ r'8fNg kl/kSj eO{ ;s]sf] lyof] . @)^# df3sf] P]ltxfl;s dw]z ljb|f]x o;}sf] kl/0ffd xf] . u'nfd / sft/sf] ?kdf dw]znfO{ x]b}{ cfPsf] /fHosf] dfgl;stf lj? cfPsf] dw]z ljb|f]xnfO{ PSsf;L cfPsf] x'/Lsf] ;+1f lbof], t/ dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] eofjx :j?knfO{ x]/]/ /fHo uDeL/ / ;+j]bgzLn klg eof] . dw]zn] p7fPsf] cfjfhnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ xf]Og, dw]zsf] l;+uf] PstfnfO{ vl08t ul/ s;/L dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] :j?knfO{ 5f]6ofpg ;lsG5 eGg] ;DaGwsf] /fHon] dw]z RofK6/ sf] kmfon v8f u/of] .

dw]z /fli6o cfosf] k|d'v ;|f]t /x]sf]n] o;nfO{ s;/L lgoGq0fdf lng] eGg] ;DaGwdf /fHosf lj1x? /fli6o of]hgf th'{df ug]{, cg';Gwfg ug]{, /0flgtL agfpg]b]lv lnP/ sfof{Gjog u/fpg;Dd ;lqmotfk"j{s nfu] . G lj:yfkgsf] gfddf /fHon] ckf/ cGt/f{li6o ;xof]u klg kfpg ;kmn ePsf] 5 . /fHon] clVtof/ u/]sf] klxnf] /0fgLlt cGtu{t !=afXo ?kdf dw]zsf k|ltlgwL kf6L{nfO{ ldqjt Jojxf/ ug]{, @= cfGtl/s ?kdf dw]zdf s8fO{sf ;fy k|:t't x'g] . o;} }w /0fgLlt lnP/ /fHo dw]zdf pkrf//t 5 . ckf/ wg/flz Joo u/]/ ePklg dw]znfO{ k'gZr lgoGq0fdf lnO{ 5f8g] /fHosf] eflu/y k|oTg ;kmn klg eO{ /x]sf] cj:yf 5 .

dw]znfO{ lgoGq0fdf lng ckgfOPsf oL b'O{ /0fgLlt cGtu{t cg]s if8oGqsf cjojx? lqmofzLn 5g . dw]zsf nflu oL g} d'Vo r'gf}tL x'g . dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntfsf] ljhof]Gdfbdf dw]zsf k|ltlgwL kf6L{n] tLI0ftfk"j{s km}nfOPsf if8oGqsf oL hfnx?nfO{ gh/ cGbfh u/]/ cuf8L a9] . klxnf] /0fgLlt cGtu{t /fHon] hlt cg'kftdf k|ltlgwL kf6L{nfO{ nf]Eofpg ;kmn eof], Toltg} cg'kftdf pm dw]zdf pkb|j ug{ klg ;kmn eof] .

dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntfaf6 cfg'kflts ?kdf pGdflbt dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx?df -/fHon] rfx] h:tf]_ hfltjfbL / JolQmjfbL rl/q b|"tultn] ljsf; eof] . oL k|j[ltn] kf/:kl/s G ;[hgf u/]/ kf6L{nfO{ zlQmxLg agfpg ljefhg ;Dd k'/ofof] . /fHon] ck]Iff u/] cg';f/ ljefhg x'Fb} dw]zsf bnx? hflt cltjfbsf] lsQfdf pleP . ljut tLg jif{df oxL b'O{ cltjfbL rl/qsf] k|bz{g, ;Qfsf nflu xfgyfk / kf6L{ ljefhg oL g} /0fgLlt /Xof] dw]zL kf6L{sf] . o;sf] ljkl/t ;+3Lotfsf] lj? zlQm;+ro ug{ /fHo ;kmn klg ePsf] 5 . tLg bnx?sf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] /fli6o /fhgLltdf klg cxd e"ldsfaf6 k/ x6fOPsf dw]zsf bnx? cfkmg} cGt/Joyf / ;Qf /fhgLltdf Jo:t /x]sf sf/0f dw]zsf] pknlAwnfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ lbzfdf s'g} e"ldsf g} /x]g . cfO{ k/]sf r'gftLdfly cfFvf klg k/]g . r'gf}tLnfO{ klxrfg u/]/ lng] k|ltsf/fTds /0fgLltsf] s'/} 5f8f}+ .

dw]zsf /fhgLlts bnx?df -s_ hflt tyf JolQmjfbL rl/qsf sf/0f sdhf]/ g]t[Tj, -v_ nIok|lt c8fg sf] cefj, -u_ ;QflnK;f d'Vo nIo dfGg] -3_ ;du| dw]zsf] PstfnfO{ JolQmjfbL dfkb08df tf}Ng], -_ nIo / sfo{ljlwsf] tfnd]n gx'g]-r_ ;fd'bflos ;lxi0f'tfsf] cefj, -5_ nf]stflGqs rl/qsf] cefj, -h_ 3f]/ blIf0fk+yL rl/qsf] k|bz{g -em_ ;xcl:tTjnfO{ :jLsf/ ug]{ Ifdtfsf] cefj, -~f_ cb'b{zL{ tyf cnf]stflGqs lg0f{o, -6_ JolQmjfbL pRr dxTjfsfFIff b]lvPsf dw]z cfGbf]ngsf] kljq nIo ljkl/tsf oL k|j[ltx? lgZro klg uGtJo ;Dd k'/ofpFb}g . dw]z lj/fwL k|j[ltx?af6 k|fKt kl/0ffd kf6L{x? ef]Ub} 5g / c? ef]Ug] g} 5g .

dw]zn] cfGbf]ng kZrftsf lbgx?df pbfPsf oL k|j[ltx?af6 cfPsf kl/0ffd efUof] . o;af6 lzIff lnb} lbzfljlxg dw]z cfGbf]ngnfO{ lbzf lbg / kfPsf] pknlAwnfO{ ;+:yfut ug{ km]l/ dw]zsf] cv08 Pstfsf] wf/nfO{ ltVv/ kf/]/ oL k|j[ltx?nfO{ ;dfKt kfg]{ cleofgdf h'6g clgjfo{ ePsf] 5 . xfdLn] h] kfof}+ cfkmg} ana"tfn], ca h] kfpF5f}+ cfkmg} ana"tfn] . ho dw]zsf] cleofgdf h'6f}+ .

@)^* h]i7 @&ut]

s'g} klg lg/+s"z zf;g k|0ffnL cfkm"df cGtlg{lxt kfgt/0fsf ;Defjgfxf/f hgljb|f]xsf] cj;/nfO{ ljsl;t ub}{ hglxtsf nflu kfGt/0f x'g afWo x'G5 . of] k|lqmof ;xh kn] xf]Og, cfGbf]ng tyf ;z:q o's} dfWodaf6 k"/f ePsf] x'G5 . zf;g k|0ffnLsf] kfGt/0fsf] o; hl6n k|lqmofdf c;+Vo dfgj Iflt ePsf] ljZj Oltxf; 5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df klg c;+Vo dfgjIflt Jof]xf]/]/ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq :yfkgf ePsf] xf] .

@))& ;fndf NofOPsf] k|hftGq clxn] nf]stGqdf kl/0ft ePsf] 5 . k|hftGq cyjf nf]stGqsf] ljleGg yl/sf dflg;n] ljleGg 7fpF / ;dodf ljleGg cy{ nufpg] u/]sf 5g . ;Qflgs6 clt ljsl;t cj:yfdf /x]sf ;e|fGtju{n] g} kl/jt{gsf] klxnf] :jfb rfVg] / k|hftGq cyjf nf]stGqsf] kl/efiff ug]{ u/]sf] b]lvPsf] x'G5 . /fhfsf] kof{ojfrL zAb k|hf ePsf] / k6s k6s /fhff/f k|hftGqsf] xTof ePsf] sf/0fn] klg xf]nf, k|hftGqnfO{ kl/dflh{t u/]/ nf]stGq zAb k|of]u ePsf] x'g' kb{5 . gfd hlt;'s} km]l/P klg g]t[Tj cg';f/sf] k|hftGq cyjf nf]stGqsf] :jk lgwf{/0f x'G5 .

%)) jif{ Ozfk"j{ k|frLg u|L; / /f]ddf k|hftGq zf;g k|0ffnL cfPsf] xf] / w]/} kl/jt{gsf ;fy s}of}+ ztfAbL ;Dd sfod /Xof] . k|hftGq cyjf 8]df]qmof;L u|Ls efiffdf 8]df]; sf] cy{ x'G5hgtf / qmf6f]; sf] cy{ x'G5zf;g . 8]df]qmof;L cyf{t hgtfsf] zf;g . u|L;df hlta]nf nf]sdtdf cfwfl/t zf;g k|0ffnL z' eof], O6flnog k|foLksf] /f]d zx/n] klg ;f]xL adf]lhdsf] zf;g k|0ffnL k|of]udf Nofof] . t/ /f]dn] o;sf] gfd l/klAns -u0ftGq_ /fVof] . Nofl6g efiffdf /];sf] cy{ x'G5j:t' jf ultljwL / klAnssf] cy{ x'G5cfd hgtf .

Gffdsf] leGgtfnfO{ gofF k|:tfljt cd]l/sL ;+ljwfgsf] kIfdf ;dy{g h'6fpg Tof] a]nfsf] /fhgLlt zf:qsf 1ftf / ;+ljwfg lgdf{tf dWo]sf k|efjzfnL JolQm h]D; Dofl8;gn] !&*& df n]v]sf lyP ;fgf] ;+Vofsf gful/sx /xg] o:tf] ;dfh hxfF gful/sx cfkm" :jo+ pkl:yt eO{ ;/sf/ lgdf{0f ug{ / k|zf;g rnfpg ;S5g Tof] d]/f] ljrf/df ljz' k|hftGq x'G5 / To:tf] ;/sf/ hxfF k|ltlglwTjsf] k|lqmof sfod /xG5 d]/f] ljrf/df ;f] u0ftGq x'G5 . oL zflAbs leGgtfsf] P]ltxfl;s k|df0f eg] kfOb}g . h]D; Dofl8;gn] k|:t't u/]sf] zflAbs lje]b Dofl8;gsf clt lk|o dflgg] k|l; k|mfG;]nL /fhgLlts bfz{lgs dG6]:So"sf] s[ltdf klg sxL+ kfOb}g . To;}n] pgsf] egfOdf Pp6f s] ts{ lgl:sG5 eg] pgn] k|:tfljt ;+ljwfg kof{Kt kdf k|hftflGqs 5}g eg]/ ts{ ug]{ cfnf]rsxnfO{ hjfkm lbgsf nflu g} of] lje]b ;'emfPsf] x'g' kb{5 .

k|hftGq, nf]stGq / u0ftGq Nofl6g / u|Ls efiffdf hgtfsf] zf;g eg]/ cyf{Psf] 5 . gfdxdf leGgtf b]lvP klg zflAbs cy{ ;dfg g} xf] . oL tLgj6} zf;g k|0ffnLdf b]lvg] leGgtfsf sf/0f ;/sf/ x'g . s'g ;/sf/ a9L hgd'vL 5g / s'g nf]stGqsf] gfddf ju{ljz]ifsf] >]i7tfnfO{ dfGotf lbPsf] x'G5 . s;n] dfgjflwsf/sf] g};lu{s ;dfgtfnfO{ zf;gsf] cfwf/ agfPsf] 5 / s;n] dfgjflwsf/ pNn+3g u/]/ ju{ljz]ifsf] af/]df ;f]Rb5 . lxhf] /fhtGqdf /fHo;Qfsf] cEof; ul/ ;s]sf t/ /fhfnfO{ krfpg g;s]sf s"nLgju{ gjf]lbt nf]stflGqs ;/sf/sf] g]t[Tjdf ;lqmotfk"j{s pkl:yt x'g' :jfefljs xf] . o;}n] k'gZr kl/dflh{t hgd'vL kl/jt{glt/ b]znfO{ ws]Ng] sf/0f klg aGg ;S5 . h;/L @))& ;fnsf] kl/jt{g kl5 g]kfnsf] zf;g Joj:yf k|hftflGqs x'g]5 eg]/ /fhf lqe'jgn] tTsfnLg ef/tLo k|wfgdGqL hjfx/nfn g]x ;dIf k|ltatf hfx]/ u/]klg zf;g ;Qf cfkmgf] xftdf lnP/ k|hftflGqs k|0ffnLnfO{ k/ ws]n]/ /fhtGqsf] cfo' 5f]6ofP/ ljgfzsf] sf/0f aGof], To:t} hgtfsf] cfGbf]ngaf6 k|fKt nf]stflGqs zf;g k|0ffnL olb ;Lldt JolQm jf ju{ljz]ifsf] ;]jfsf] ;fwg aGof] eg] lgZro klg Tof] g]t[Tj cfkmgf] ljgfzsf] sf/0f aGg ;S5 . o; k|0ffnLnfO{ k|fs[lts kn] cuf8L a9g glbO{ ;+sL0f{tfsf] aGwgn] afFw] kl5 oLg} zlQmn] bL3{sfnLg kl/b[iodf kl/dflh{t nf]stGqsf ckl/xfo{ cfjZostf :yfkgf ul/ lg:t]h x'G5 .

lje]bdf k/]sf ju{, ;d'bfon] ;dfg clwsf/, klxrfgsf nflu ljut ^) jif{b]lv ;+3if{/t /x] kZrft k|fKt u/]sf] ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq df klg hgtfsf] d"ne"t d'2f ;Daf]wg ePg eg] nf]stGq s"nLgju{sf] lgoGq0fdf /x]sf] k'i6ofpg] s'/f :ki6 x'g]5 . ;dfgtfsf] xs dfgjsf] g};lu{s clwsf/ /x]sfn] o; ljsf ;a}vfn] lje]bsf cjojx ;dfKt kfg'{ hgljb|f]xsf] dd{nfO{ sb/ ub}{ hgtfnfO{ hglk|o zf;g k|0ffnLsf] cg'e"lt lbnfpg ;/sf/sf] klxnf] / clgjfo{ bfloTj x'g' kb{5 .

;g !&&^df cd]l/sL :jtGqtfsf] 3f]if0ffkqsf k|d'v n]vs 6f]d; h]km;{gn] 3f]if0ff u/]sf lyPxfdL oL cfbz{xnfO{ :jo+l; ;Tosf] kdf :jLsf/ ub{5f}+, tL s] x'g eg] ;Dk"0f{ dfgjx ;[li6sf ;fd' a/fa/ 5g, ;[li6sQf{n] pgLxnfO{ lglZrt clwsf/x lbPsf 5g hf] s;}af6 vf]l;g' x'Gg, o:tf clwsf/x dWo] afFRg kfpg], :jtGqtfsf] pkef]u ug]{ / cfkm"nfO{ cfgGb nfUg] af6f] lng kfpg] s'/f /x]sf 5g .

Zlbof}+b]lv c;dfgtfsf kL8f ef]uL /x]sf dflg;xk|lt ;+j]bgzLn x'Fb} cd]l/sf / o'/f]ksf bfz{lgsxn] %)) O{zfk"j{b]lv g};lu{s ;dfgtfsf] s'/f p7fpFb} cfPsf x'g . c;dfgtfsf] oy]i7 k|df0f ;dfhdf pkl:yt /xsf] sf/0f h]km;{gn] g};lu{s ;dfgtf sf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf lyP . dfgj d"ne"t kdf ;dfg 5g eGg] wf/0ff cfdkdf cd]l/sf / o'/f]kdf km}lnb} uO{ /x]sf] s'/faf6 k|efljt eO{ !*#% df Pnf]lS; l8 6sljlsn] eg] s'g} b]jL ;Tosf] kdf OZj/Lo cfb]zsf]ljz]iftfn] ;DkGg b]lvG5, of] x/ 7fpFdf 5fPsf] 5, lbuf] ksf] b]lvG5, o;n] lg/Gt/ ;a} lsl;dsf dfgjLo x:tIf]knfO{ 5Ng ;s]sf] 5 / ;a} 36gf kl/j]z tyf ;a} dflg;xn] o;sf] k|ultsf nflu of]ubfg k'/ofPsf 5g .

g};lu{s ;dfgtfsf] Jofks kn] s'/f p7] kl5 o;sf] cEof;sf] qmddf g};lu{s >]i7tf n] s;}sf] clwsf/ vf]l;g' x'Gg eGg] df}lns xssf] cfwf/df ts{nfO{ cuf8L ;fb}{ cfkmgf] cl:tTjnfO{ ;lqmotfk"j{s g]t[Tj txdf :yflkt ul/ g};lu{s ;dfgtfsf] l;fGtnfO{ b]z, kl/l:yltsf] cg]s s'/f u/]/ Go"gLs0fsf] lbzftkm{ df]8g k|of;/t /xG5g . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] tLgjif]{ cjlwdf oL nIf0fx b]lvPsf klg x'g . JolQmut nfelt/ pGd'v dfgj :jefj cfkmgf] cl:tTjsf] ljifodf a9L lrlGtt /xG5g . o;}n] g};lu{s >]i7tfnfO{ hGd dfq xf]Og, kfng kf]if0fdf klg cfkmgf ;Dk"0f{ ;do vr]{sf] x'G5 . ;Qf cEof;df vfl/Psf, bIf, k|a'ju{, /fhgLlt1 ePsf sf/0f klg kl/jlt{t kl/j]zdf hgtfsf] df}lns xs lbnfpg ;Ifd, g]t[Tj txdf ;lqmo e"ldsfdf pkl:yt s"nLgju{ g};lu{s >]i7tfnfO{ cflv/sf/ dfGotf lbnfPs} x'G5 . of] :jfefljs klg xf] . o;}sf] xftaf6 ;DkGg x'g] hgtfsf] ;dfgtfsf] xs slt xb;Dd ;Daf]wg x'g] cxd s'/f xf] .

;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] ;Da}wflgs dfGotfsf] cfwf/df ;+lawfg n]vg / zflGt :yfkgf oL d"ne"t ;d:of ;/sf/sf] cuf8L plePsf] 5 . /fli6o ;xdlt lagf oL ;d:ofx 6b}{g eGg] s'/f # jif{sf] cEof;n] b]vfPsf] 5 . kf/:kl/s ljZjf; hufpg / /fli6o ;xdlt ug{ ;/sf/ slt xb;Dd ;kmn x'G5, x]/f}+ .

@)^* cfiff9 #ut]

hg cfGbf]ngsf] dfkm{t /fhtGqnfO{ cGt ul/ lje]bdf k/]sf ;d'bfonfO{ ;d]6g Pp6f dfGotf :yflkt ubf{ csf]{ dfGotf / ;d'bfon] s] slt d"No r''sfPsf] x'G5, slt c;Gt'i6 cj:yfdf x'G5g, To;sf] n]vfhf]vf ul/ c;n Joj:yfkg ul/g' ;+qmd0f sfnsf cl/xfo{ ljifo xf] . gjLg dfGotfsf] aLrdf k/jQL{ dfGotfsf zlQmx? ljBdfg /x]sf] cj:yfdf Pp6fnfO{ csf]{n] ultzLn agfpg ;Sb}g . o; kl/l:yltsf] Jojxfl/s kIfsf] ljZn]if0f / d"NofFsgn] /fhgLlt ;xhLs/0fsf nflu ;xcl:tTjsf] cfwf/df ;xsfo{nfO{ g} an lbPsf] x'G5 .

:yflkt dfGotfn] ck]Iff u/] cg'?ksf] pknlAw xfl;n gx'g'df kl/jt{gsf/L /fhgLlts ;+:yf / :yflkt dfGotfnfO{ afWotfjz :jLsf/]sf /fhgLlts ;+:yfaLrsf] km/s ljrf/df ;dembf/L gx'g'' bf]ifL 5 . ;dembf/Lsf] dfgb08 v8f ePdf o;n] Pp6f o:tf] dfgs pknAw u/fpF5 h;n] ;fd"lxs k|of;sf] dfWodaf6 /fhgLlts pknlAw xfl;n ug]{ lbzftkm{ cuf8L a9g lgb]{lzt ub{5 . kl/jt{gsf/L zlQm j:t'ut kl/l:yltsf] ljZn]if0f gul/ b|"tultn] cuf8L a9g vf]Hg' / kl/jt{gdf cfkmgf] cl:tTj g} ;dfKt x'g] h8;"qjfbL dfgl;stfaf6 u|l;t csf]{ zlQm ultzLn gx'g' b'a} zlQmsf] ;f]r, hgtfn] xfl;n u/]sf] pknlAw ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqnfO{ kZrudgsf] lbzfdf ws]Ng cu|;/ /x]sf] b]lvG5 . laut ;+ljwfg ;efsf] # jif{df ;dfg cl:tTjsf] 6s/fx6af6 a]xf]g'{ k/]sf] Ifltsf] g/fd|f] :jfb /fhgLlts bnx?n] rflv ;s]sf 5g . /fhgLlts ;xdtLsf] gfddf km}lnPsf] ult/f]wsf] k/fsfi7fdf Ho]i7 !$ ut] /flt !@ ah] ;+ljwfg ;efsf] Dofb ;dfKt u/]/ afWofTds kl/l:yltdf #=!% ah] kfFr a"Gb] ;xdtLsf] cwf/df ;+ljwfg ;efsf] tLg dlxg] Dofb ylkof] . cyf{t hl6n kl/l:yltdf /x]sf] ;+ljwfg ;efsf] dd{k|lt ;+j]bgzLn eP/ g} ;a} bn ;xdt ePsf] xf] . To;sf/0f ;+ljwfg ;ef ;a} /fhgLlts bnx?sf] ldngljGb' ePsf]n] klg ;xdtL / ;xsfo{sf] cfjZostfnfO{ gsfg{ ldNb}g .

ljut # jif{sf] ;Qf cEof;af6 k|fKt tLtf dL7f cg'ejn] klg /fhgLlts bnx?nfO{ ;xdtLsf] jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug{ k|]l/t ul/ /x]sf] s'/f ljl;{g' x'Fb}g . ljBdfg kl/l:yltnfO{ j]jf:tf ul/ s'g} klg ljrf/ k|of]ufTds ?kn] ;kmn x'Fb}g eGg] oyfy{nfO{ ;a}n] a'embf a'emb} klg cuf8L a9g' ult/f]wnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg' afx]s c? s]xL dfGg ;lsb}g . nf]stGq ;xeflutfd"ns klt ePsf]n] o;df ;a}sf] ljrf/ ljdz{, lg0f{on] ;QfnfO{ lgb]{lzt ub{5 . tLg bnLo bDesf] 6s/fjn] ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ dfq lgliqmo agfPg, ;/sf/nfO{ klg ;xh ?kn] rNg lbPg .

ljutsf 7"N7'nf cfGbf]ngn] hgtfsf] cfjZostf k"/f ug{ hgd'vL k|0ffnL ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ b]zdf ljBdfg hgtfsf c;+Vo ;d:ofx?nfO{ ;dfwfg ul/ hgtfsf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{, dfgjflwsf/ sfod ug]{ h:tf dfGotf :yflkt u/of] . ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] d~rdf ^)! Hgf hgk|ltlgwLsf] pkl:ylt klg b]lvof] . ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] dfGotfnfO{ :jLsf/ ul/ hgk|ltlgwL ag]/ cfPsfx?n] ljutsf lbgdf ;+3Lotfsf] lj/f]wdf Jofks ;+Vofdf hg k|bz{g u/], /fhfsf] j}wflgstf sfod ug{ ;8s ttfP . cfGbf]ngsf] pef/nfO{ yfDg g;s]/ clgR5fk"j{s ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqnfO{ :jLsf/ u/] klg o;nfO{ dgf]jfFl5t kl/efiff ug{ ;lsG5 eg]/ Pp6f zlQm k|ltlgwLd"ns Joj:yfdf klg k/Dk/fut :j]R5frf/L zf;g k|0ffnL :yflkt ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] dfGotfdf cuf8L a9of] . ToxL+ csf]{ zlQm cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] lbzfdf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] dfGotfnfO{ s'Nrb} tLa| ultn] a9of] . Pp6} d~rdf Joj:yf lj/f]wL zlQm b]lvof] eg] :yflkt dfGotfnfO{ bnLo :jfy{df kl/eflift ug]{ dgf]utjfbL zlQm klg b]lvof] .

!(^) !(&) sf] bzsdf k|ltlgwLd"ns Joj:yfsf] cTolws b'?kof]u ePkl5 cd]l/sfsf ljBfyL{x?n] k|ltlgwLd"ns k|0ffnL sf] 7fpFdf ;xeflutfd"ns k|0ffnL x'g' kb{5 eg]/ hf]8bf/ dfFu u/]sf lyP . o;n] s] ;To phfu/ u5{ eg] k|ltlgwL k|0ffnLsf] k'/fgf] Oltxf; ;d;fdlos x'g ;s]g, hgtfsf] cfwf/e"t cfjZostfnfO{ o;n] ;Daf]wg ug{ ;s]g, :j]R5frf/L zf;gsf nflu k|ltlgwL k|of]u eof] . /fhfsf] zf;gsfndf klg hgk|ltlgwLx? k|of]usf ;fwg lyP .

cd]l/sfdf p7]sf] ;xeflutfd"ns k|0ffnLsf] cjfhnfO{ oxfFsf nf]stGqsf lxdfotLx?n] cfkmgf] lrGtgsf] laifo agfpg' kb{5 . tLg bnLo k|ltlgwLsf] cx+sf/df g]kfnsf] /fhgLlt cGof]nu|:t ag]sf] k|dfl0ft e} ;s]sf] ;Gbe{df, oL cx+sf/jfbn] a'g]sf] hfndf dfs'/f h:t} cfkm} kmF;]sf] cj:yfaf6 lgbfg kfpg klg pk/f]Qm dGqsf] cfwf/df cfkmgf] cfr/0f agfpg ;fGble{s b]lvG5 .

k|hftGq cyjf nf]stGq ax'cyL{ zAb xf]Og, o;sf] Pp6f dfgb08 5, cfbz{ 5, ;j{dfGo l;4fGt 5 . t/ cfkmgf] w/ftndf ;a}n] o;sf] k|of]u cfkmg} lsl;dn] u/]sf 5g . s'g} a]nf /fhfn] klg k+rfotL k|hftGqsf] gfddf k|of]u u/]sf lyP, hf] l6Sg ;s]g . nfdf] ;dob]lv k|hftflGqs cEof;df nfu]sf /fhgLlts ;+:yfn] klg o;sf] :yfloTj lbg c;kmn /xof] . le= cfO{= n]lggn] klg bfaL u/]sf lyP ;j{xf/fjfbL k|hftGq s'g} klg a'h'{jf k|hftGq eGbf bzf}+ nfv u'gf a9L k|hftflGqs x'G5 . ;+;f/df klg k|hftGq cyjf nf]stGqsf] km/s km/s cEof; eP/ km/s km/s :j?kdf xfdL b]Vg ;S5f}+ . s'g} h?/L 5}g ls k|hftflGqs cEof;df nfu]sf /fhgLlts ;+:yfn] nf]s ;Ddt k|0ffnLsf] cleef/f ;kmntfk"j{s k"/f ug{ ;S5 . nf]s ;Ddt k|0ffnL cyf{t nf]stGqsf] l;4fGt, dfgb08 / dfGotfnfO{ b]zsf] w/ftnLo oyfy{;+u ;dfof]hg u/]/ hg ;xeflutfd"ns cfwf/df hg ck]lIft k|0ffnL agfof] eg] h;n] klg ;kmntf ;fy cuf8L hfg ;Sb5 .

lglj{sNk nf]stGqsf cEof;sQf{df hlGdPsf] bnLo bDesf] ljkl/t cfpg] ljb|f]xsf] x"/Ln] 6fl9Psf grflxbf sl;+u/ klg NofO{ y'kfg]{ oyfy{nfO{ gh/ cGbfh ug'{ x'Fb}g . ;+;f/df nfdf] ;do ;Dd cEof;df /x]sf nf]stflGqs k|0ffnL nf]k eP/ uPsf] Oltxf;df k|z:t pbfx/0f kfOG5 . g]kfnd} k|hftGqsf] xTof ePsf] pbfx/0f 5 . @)$^ ;fnsf] k|hftflGqs ;/sf/sf] lg/+s"ztfn] dfcf]jfbLnfO{ hGd lbof] . g]kfnL hgtfn] zlbof}+b]lv lg/+s"ztfsf] kL8f ef]Ub} cfPsf]n] hgtf /fhgLlts ?kn] r]tgzLn eO{ ;s]sf] cj:yfdf pm s'g} lsl;dsf] lg/+s"ztfnfO{ abf{:t ug{ tof/ 5}g . /fli6o /fhgLltdf Psflwsf/ sfod u/]sfx?sf] nflu nf]stGqsf] ;xeflutfd"ns l;4fGtsf] s'g} cy{ 5}g, cyjf o;sf] dd{ a'em]s} 5}g .

lhDd]jf/Ln] bfloTjsf] af]w u/fpFb5 eGg] plQmnfO{ cfTd;ft ul/ hgtfsf] cledtf/f nf]stGqsf] cEof; dfq xf]Og, hgd'vL ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f / zflGt :yfkgf ;a}sf] uxg lhDd]jf/L /x]sf]n] cfd ;xdlt, kf/:kl/s ljZjf;, ;fd"lxs lg0f{of/f g} ;xh cjt/0f x'g] s'/fdf ;a}n] ljZjf; ug'{ k/of] .

@)^* cfiff9 !)ut]

k|hftGq k|0ffnLsf] lbuf]kgfsf nflu k|lts"ntf eGbf cg's"ntfsf] 7f]; cfwf/ x'g h/L x'G5 . ljifd w/ftnLo cfwf/df plePsf] k|hftGqsf] s'g} eljio x'Fb}g . k|hftGqsf] nfdf] cEof; u/]sf d'n'sxaf6 k|hftGq x/fP/ uPsf] k|z:t pbfx/0fx Oltxf;sf] kfgfdf kfOG5 . k|hftGqsf] dfnf hk]/, :yfloTjsf] sfdgf u/]/ dfq o;sf] l:y/tf cfpg ;Sb}g . k|hftGq :yfloTjsf nflu rflxof], Jofks hg ;dy{g . cGgk"0f{ kf]i6df -@)^* cfiff9 &_ /fhgLlts ljZn]ifs k|bLk lul/n] cfkmgf] n]vdf;+;bLo Joj:yf jf a'h'{jf k|hftGqn] cfd hgtfsf] ;zlQms/0f ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . of] Ps tLtf] ;To xf] p4[t k+lQm w]/} ;/fxgLo 5 . hgtfsf] dd{ cg';f/sf] k|hftGqsf] rfxgf /fVgs} sf/0f of] tLtf] ;To phfu/ ug'{ ePsf] xf] .

hg ck]lIft k|hftGqsf] ;fdf s'nLgju{nfO{ ;]jf ug]{ k|hftGqsf] :jknfO{ s6fIf ub}{ pxfFn] a'h'{jf k|hftGq eGg' ePsf] xf] . utf+sdf d}n] n]v]sf] lyPF cd]l/sfdf nfdf] ;do ;Dd cEof;/t k|hftGqsf] k|ltlgwLd"ns k|0ffnLsf] lj/f]wdf;xeflutfd"ns Joj:yfsf] dfFu ePsf] lyof] . jf:tjdf kx'Fr gePsf hgtfnfO{ o;n] ;d]6g ;s]g . s'nLgju{d} k|hftGq l;ldt b]lvPsf]n] lj/f]wsf :j/ u'FlhPsf] lyof] .

k|hftGq cyjf nf]stGq ha s'g} vf; ju{ jf JolQmsf] lxtdf pkof]u ul/G5, ToxfF hg c;Gtf]if dfq xf]Og, k|0ffnLleqsf ;Dk"0f{ ;+oGq klg c;Gt'i6 eP/ hfG5 . k+rfotL k|hftGqdf klg ;a}n] c;xof]u cfGbf]ngaf6 k+rfotL Joj:yfnfO{ l;WofPsf lyP . k|hftGq :yfkgfsfn jf To; kl5sf lbgdf b]zdf ljBdfg kl/l:ylt tyf cGtlg{lxt ljifdtfnfO{ gh/ cGbfh ul/ k|hftGq k|0ffnLsf] lbuf] :yfloTjsf] sNkgf lbjf :jKg dfq 7x5{ . hg c;Gtf]if ;dy{gsf] k+lQmaf6 ljb|f]xsf] k+lQmdf ;fd]n x'G5 / hg cfwf/ vl:sP kl5 wf/fzfoLsf] cj:yfdf k'U5 . ;g !($* b]lv !(*@ ;Dd cd]l/sL d'n'ssf Ujf6]dfnf, Pn ;Nefsf]/, xf]08'/;, lgsf/fu'cf nufot $& j6f b]zdf ;}lgs ljb|f]x eP/ k|hftGq nf]k ePsf] b'Mvb Oltxf; 5 . sf]:6fl/sf eg] k|hftGq hf]ufpg] cnu pbfx/0f aGof] . rf/}lt/ nf]k x'Fb} uO{ /x]sf] k|hftflGqs b]zsf] aLrdf sf]:6fl/sfsf] k|hftflGqs /fi6kltn] ;g !(%) df cfkm";+u ePsf] ;]gfnfO{ g} vf/]h u/]/ k|hftGqnfO{ hf]ufO{ /fVof] . sf]:6fl/sfsf] of] ;fxl;s sbd Oltxf;sf] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ kfgf aGof] . k|hftflGqs k|0ffnL :yfkgf ul/ ltgnfO{ ;'/lIft /fVgsf lgldQ kIf / ljkIf;+u v]Ng] s'zntfk"j{ssf] e"ldsf g} cxd s'/f xf] . km/s p2]Zo /fv]sf /fhgLlts bnxn] /fli6o :jfy{sf] s'/fdf kf/:kl/s ;DaGw agfO{ ;xsfo{ ug]{ u/]sf] l5d]sL ldq/fi6 ef/tdf klg o;sf] pbfx/0f x]g{ ;lsG5 . ljkl/t ljrf/ /fVg] bnx;+u ;xsfo{ ub}{df s;}sf] enf] x'G5 eg] Tof] xf] /fi6 g]kfnL hgtf hf] zlbof}+ b]lv /fHof/f k|tfl8t eP / clxn] bnut :jfy{sf] unt ultljwLaf6 klg . /fhgLlts k|lti7f k|fKt ul/ ;s]sf g]tfx ltnsf] tf8 agfpg] /fhgLlts ljZn]if0faf6 cfGbf]ngaf6 k|fKt hgtfsf] pknlAw u'Dg] vt/fsf] ;+j]bgzLntfk|lt uDeL/ gx'g' klg Pp6f 7"nf] ;d:of xf] .

ef}uf]lns ljs6tf / ;fF:s[lts ljljwtfn] kl/jt{gsf] gofF kl/j]zdf ;a}sf] dxTjfsfFIffnfO{ a9fPsf] 5 . ljljw ;+:s[ltsf] ljrf/sf] k|efjn] /fhgLltnfO{ klg g/fd|f];+u k|efljt u/]sf] 5 . leGg ;fF:s[lts dtleGgtfxnfO{ /fli6o /fhgLltsf] d"nwf/df s;/L ;dfof]hg u/]/ n}hfg] eGg] ;d:of klg 68sf/f] kdf Ps 7fpFdf 5 . hxfF ;fF:s[lts Psktf x'G5, ToxfF /fhgLlts ;F:yfnfO{ Gsf] ljs6tf em]Ng' kb}{g, t/ hxfF ljleGg ;F:s[lt cfkmgf] klxrfgsf nflu G/t 5g, ToxfF cg]stfnfO{ Pstfdf Nofpg plQs} s7Lg klg 5 . /fhgLlts kf6L{xn] hg ;dy{g k|fKt ug{ ljljw ;F:s[ltnfO{ cfkmgf] kf6L{sf] /fhgLlt Ph]08f agfPsf] 5 . kf6L{leq} klg tL ljljwtfsf] ;dfof]hg x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g .

cd]l/sfdf ljljw ;F:s[ltsf] PsLs/0fsf] l;4fGt cg';f/ ;g !*$) b]lv !(@) sf] cjlw;Dd d'VotM a]nfotaf6 a;fO{ ;/]/ cfPsf cf}klgj]lzs zf;g / :jtGqtf ;lxtsf b'O{ ;o jif{leq 7f]; kdf :yflkt u/]sf] d"n ;F:s[ltn] cfoNof{08, :SoflG8g]leof, hd{gL, kf]Nof08, O6fnL / cGo ljleGg 7fpFxaf6 u}/ a]nfotL cfk|jf;Lxsf cg]sf}+ dte]bxsf] ;fdgf u/of] . efiff, wd{, ;F:s[lt, vfglkg, klx/g, Jojxf/, rfnrng cflb ;a}sf] km/s eP tfklg b'O{ k'Ztf kl5 pgLx ;flRrg} olt 3'nldn eP ls cfhsf cg]sf}+ cd]l/sLxn] cfkmgf] k'Vof}{nL b]z jf ;F:s[lt af/] s]lx nufj /fVg] u/] klg pgLxsf] d"ne"t /fhgLlts lgi7f / kl/ro cd]l/sg ePsf] lyof] .

cd]l/sfdf PsLs/0f k|of;n] ;fdgf ug'{ kg{ ;Sg] r'gf}tL lsg lgs} xb;Dd ;xh x'g k'u]sf] lyof] eg] cd]l/sfdf cem /fd|f] hLjg:t/df a:g kfOG5 eGg] ljZjf;sf ;fy ToxfF k'u]sf clwsfFz jo:s cfk|jf;Lx d"n ;F:s[ltdf 3'nldn eP/ a:g lgs} pT;'s lyP . ctM ToxfFsf] PsLs/0f d'Vo kn] :j]lR5s jf ;fdflhs k|lqmofaf6 k|]l/t b]lvGYof] h;n] ubf{ /fHon] bafj lbg' kg]{ cfjZostf lyPg .

7"nf] cfk|jf;L hg;FVofnfO{ ;kmntf;fy PsLs/0f ul/Psf] eP klg cd]l/sfdf nfdf] ;dob]lv a;f]af; ub}{ cfPsf cflbjf;L hgtfx aLrsf] Gdf ;xh PsLs/0fsf] 7fpFdf ank|of]u, ha/b:tL k'gjf{; / d"n ;dfhaf6 k/} /fVg] sfo{x ul/P . hftLo cfwf/df ank"j{s nfu' u/fOPsf] sfnfuf]/fsf] e]befjn] hftLo PsLs/0fsf] s'/fnfO{ k|efjsf/L kn] /f]lslbof] . cd]l/sfsf] pQ/ / klZrddf a:g]xsf] hLjg k4lt / blIf0fdf a;f]jf; ug]{ cflbjf;Lsf] hLjg k4lt km/s cj:yfdf /lx slxNo} klg PsLs/0fsf] aGwgdf afFlwPg . pGgfO;f}+ ztflAbsf] z'lt/ cd]l/sfsf] blIf0fL /fHodf bf; k|yfdf cfwfl/t cy{tGq / ;dfhsf] Pp6f k|i6} b]lvg] pk ;F:s[lt ljsl;t eof] hf] clxn] ;Dd ljBdfg /Xof] . hlt;'s} ;Demf}tfsf, jftf{sf k|of; u/] klg cflv/ ;F3if{ / bdg g} ToxfFsf] lgolt aGof] .

Ps csf{af6 k|i6} 5'lg] / k/:k/df G hufO{ lbg ;Sg] pk ;F:s[ltx Nfdf] ;do b]lv :jL6h/Nof08, a]lNhod, / g]b/Nof08df /lx cfPsf 5g . tL tLgj6} k|hftflGqs d'n'sdWo] k|To]s d'n'sdf To:tf /fhgLlts aGbf]a:tx l;h{gf ul/Psf 5g h;n] dlGqd08n / ;F;baf6 ul/g] ;a} lg0f{oxdf ;j{;DdtL jf Jofks ;xdlt /xg' kg]{ Joj:yf u/]sf 5g . ax'dtsf] zf;g eGg] l;4fGtnfO{ ;j{;DdtLsf] l;4fGtdf kl/0ft ul/Psf] 5 . cyf{t ;Qf ;fem]bf/Lsf] k|hftGq sf] dfWodn] oL b]zx cfkmgf cfGtl/s ljjfbdfly ljho k|fKt ul/ ljZjdf pbfx/0f ag]sf 5g .

cd]l/sfsf] blIf0fL /fHosf] cflbjf;L, /]8 Ol08og h:t} g]kfnsf] dw]zL ;d'bfo cfkmgf] 5'} efiff, ;F:s[lt, vfglkg, /Lltl/jfh, af]nLrfnL, Jojxf/ lnP/ b]zsf] cfwL hg;FVof cf]u6]sf] 5 . zlbof}+b]lv /fHof/f lje]bdf kfl/Psf dw]zL ;d'bfok|lt /fHo ;lxi0f' x'g g;Sg' 7"nf] la8Dagf t 5Fb}5, km/s b'O{ ;d'bfoaLrsf] G Joj:yfkg ug{ nf]stflGqs k|0ffnLdf cEof;/t clehft ju{sf] rfl/lqs kfGt/0fsf] cefjn] klg of] ;Dej b]lvb}g . cd]l/sfsf] cflbjf;L h:t} dw]zsf] klg cfkmg} klxrfg, d"No / dfGotf ljsl;t /x]sf sf/0f nf]stGqsf lxdfotLxn] dw]zLxk|lt k/Dk/fut Jojxf/ sfod g} /fv]sfn] G Joj:yfkgsf nflu :jL6h/Nof08, a]lNhod h:tf b]zx;+u lzIff lnP/ cuf8L a9g' cfjZos b]lvG5 .

@)^* cfiff9 !&ut]

b]zdf k|hftGq :yfkgf eP klg To;df cGtlg{lxt ljs[lt / lj;+ultnfO{ /fd|/L b[li6ut ul/ lgoGq0f ubf{ k|hftGq cyjf nf]stGqsf] lbuf] ljsf; x'G5, xf]O{g eg] nf]k x'g klg a]/ nfUb}g . o;df cGtlg{lxt kfFrj6f s'/f k|hftGqsf] ljsf;nfO{ 6]jf k'/ofpFb5 != ;]gf / k|x/Lsf] k"0f{ nf]stflGqsLs/0f tyf lgoGq0f, @= nf]stflGqs cf:yf / /fhgLlts ;F:s[ltsf] ljsf;, #= pbf/ ahf/d'vL cy{tGq / ;dfh, $= dTy/ k|s[ltsf] pk ;fF:s[lts ax'ntf / %=nf]stGq lj/f]wL alnof] afXo x:tIf]ksf] lgoGq0f . oL kfFrj6f cg's"ntfdf nf]stGq, lagf s'g} ult/f]wsf] cfkmgf] lglb{i6 lbzfdf lg/Gt/ ultzLn eO{ /xG5 .

k|Zg p7b5, xfd|f] b]zdf nf]stGq ljsf;sf nflu xfdLnfO{ slt cg's"ntf k|fKt 5 < dnfO{ nfUb5, o;df uxg ljrf/ / 5nkmnsf] cfjZostf 5 . klxnf] a'Fbf cg';f/ zlbof}+b]lv ;fdGtL Joj:yfsf] ;'/Iffsfnflu v8f ul/Psf] g]kfnL ;]gfsf] To; cg'?ksf] tflndsf] ;F:s[ltn] cfh nf]stflGqs k4ltdf olt l56f] ?kfGt/0f x'g lbG5 < ;]gfnfO{ qmlds ?kn] nf]stflGqs k4ltsf] nfdf] cEof;sf] cfjZostf b]lvGg < /fhtGqsf] cGt ePkl5 ;]gf afWotfaz nf]stflGqs lzIffsf] k|:yfg ljGb'df 5 . cuf8L / k5fl8 o;sf] ultzLntf sfod 5 . bf]>f] a'Gbf cg';f/ nfdf] ;dob]lv nf]stflGqs cEof;df nfu]sf /fhgLlts ;+:yfx?n] hgtfdf nf]stGqk|ltsf] cf:yf hufpg ;kmn b]lvPklg ^) jif{sf] ;dofjlwdf ck]lIft ;kmntf k|fKt ug{ ;s]sf 5}gg . o;sf] k|ToIf pbfx/0f ;+ljwfg ;efdf nf]stGqk|lt cf:yf /fVg]sf] @* k|ltzt dfq pkl:ylt /x]sf] 5 . oltsf nfdf] ;do ;Ddsf] nf]stflGqs cEof;sf afjh"b klg olt Go"g pkl:ylt x'g' la8Dagf g} xf] . /fhgLlts ;F:s[lt t of] eGbf klg Go"g cj:yfdf /x]sf] k|tLt x'G5 . nf]stflGqs k4lt s"nLgju{sf] ;]jfdf ;Lldt /x]sf sf/0f klg of] hgd'vL x'g ;s]g, o;n] Jofks hg ;dy{g k|fKt ug{ ;s]g . s'nLgju{sf] ;+:s[lt g} nf]stflGqs /fhgLlts ;F:s[lt ag]sf] 5 . nf]stflGqs /fhgLlts ;F:s[ltn] of] ju{nfO{ ?kfGt/0f ug{ ;s]g, a? k4lt cfkm} ?kfGtl/t ePsf] 5 s"nLgtfsf] :j?k lnP/ . nf]stflGqs l5d]sL d'n's ef/tsf] g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /x]sf]n] h;f] t;f] g]kfnsf] nf]stflGqs k4ltnfO{ l3;fg{ o;} ju{nfO{ ;xof]u k|fKt 5 . ef/tnfO{ csf]{ ljsNk klg 5}g . g]kfnsf] nf]stGq;+u ;DaGw 5, o;sf] pGglt cjglt;+u ef/tsf] s'g} dtna x'Fb}g . pTyfg / ktg nf]stGqsf] dfgb08 xf] eg]/ cyf{P klg jf:tjdf of] nf]stGqsf] dfgb08 geP/ g]t[Tjsf] dfgb08 x'G5 .

t]>f] a'Fbf cg';f/ b]zdf nfdf] ;do ;Dd rn]sf] ;+3if{ / o;af6 k|efljt pBf]uw+wf lgik|f0f /x]sf sf/0f b]zsf] cy{tGqn] g/fd|f] c;/ a]xf]g'{ k/]sf] cj:yf 5 . b]zdf /fhgLlts :yfloTjsf] cefjdf Pslt/ ax'/fli6o sDkgLx?sf] knfog ePsf] 5 eg] csf]{lt/ /fli6o k"FhL ljleGg k|lts"n ;d:ofsf] df/df 5g . b]zsf cf}Bf]lus k|lti7fgx? /fhgLlts cl:y/tfsf sf/0f sltko aGb eP eg] sltko ?Ug cj:yfdf 5g . /fhgLlts :yfloTj / nf]stflGqs k4ltdf ljsl;t ePsf] cfw'lgs ahf/ cy{tGq clxn] xfd|f] sNkgfdf dfq ;Lldt /x]sf]n] sfNklgs ;'vdf /dfpg'sf] cy{ 5}g . To;sf/0f cy{tGqsf] ;xhLs/0f / ljsf; x'g afFsL g} /x]sf]n] pbf/d'vL ahf/ cy{tGqsf] ;sf/fTds, gsf/fTds k|efjsf] rrf{ ug{ xtf/ xf]nf .

rf}yf] a'Gbfsf] pk;F:s[ltn] cfkmgf] klxrfg, xslxt, dfgjflwsf/ sfod ug{ n8]sf] eLif0faf6 k|fKt u/]sf] ;+ljwfg ;ef clxn] 6+'uf]df k'Ug afFsL g} 5 . zlbof}+b]lv ;fdGtL /fHo Joj:yfn] e]befjdf kfl/Psf ;d'bfonfO{ zf]if0f s} lzsf/ agfof], @)$^ kl5sf k|hftflGs ;/sf/n] klg tL ;d'bfonfO{ zf]if0f d'Qm ug{ ;s]g . kmntM tL pk;F:s[ltsf] klxrfgsf] eLif0f ;F3if{ /fHon] a]xf]g'{ k/of] . ;+ljwfgdf ;a}sf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{ /fhgLlts k|lta4tfsf ;fy plePsf] ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ hgtf cfzfd'vL eP/ k|tLIff/t 5g . ;+3if{ 6fl9Psf] 5}g, ;';'Ktfj:yfdf ;+ljwfg ;efsf] clGtd lg0f{onfO{ Jou|tfk"j{s klv{/x]sf 5g . cyf{t pk;F:s[ltsf] ax'ntf cfkmgf] xs, clwsf/ / klxrfgsf nflu ;F3if{/t /x]sf]n] klg k|lts"n l:ylt 5 .

rLg / ef/tsf] km/s /fHo Joj:yfsf] aLrdf g]kfn ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq Joj:yfsf] d'n's xf] . g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf ef/tsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /lx cfPsf]n] o;nfO{ Go"g ug{ s7Lg 5 . g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf vf;} rf;f] g/fVg] rLg eg] clxn] ;lqmo e"ldsfdf b]lvG5 . g]kfn dfldnfdf b'a} b]z clxn] ;lqmo /x]klg afXo x:tIf]ksf] s''g} ;Defjgf 5}g . nf]stGqsf] ;xhLs/0fsf] lbzfdf of] a'Gbf dfq cg's"n b]lvPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf pTsif{df k'u]sf] /fhgLlts ult/f]wn] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f tyf ;+ljwfg n]vgdf g} cj/f]w ag]sf 5g eg] ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] s'/f d[u d/Llrsf ;/x ;flat eO{ /x]sf 5g .

@)^* cfiff9 @$ ut]

k|hftGqsfnflu p7]sf ;+3if{xn] g} k|hftflGqs /fhgLlts ;+:yfsf] hGd lbP/ p;nfO{ x'sf{Psf] x'G5 . /fhgLlts ;+:yfsf] hGd ePkl5 k"j{jQL{ ljsl;t /fhgLlts ;+:sf/n] cfkmgf] /]vb]vdf ljsl;t u/]sf] sf/0fn] o;n] km/s :jk kfpg' :jfefljs xf] . hgtfsf] cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k"lQ{ ug{ g;Sg] k|hftflGqs /fhgLlts ;+:yfleq klg j}wflgs ;+3if{x rln /xbf Tof] ;+3if{n] /fhgLlts ;+:yfsf] :jk kl/dfh{g ub}{ cufl8 a9]sf] b]lvG5 . Joj:yflksfsf] nflu r'gfj ug]{ k|lqmof ;eGbf klxn] a]nfotdf t]/xf}+ ztfAbLdf z' ePsf] xf] eg] cd]l/sfdf c7f/f}+ ztflAbdf . c7f/f}+ ztflAb ;Dd cfO{ k'Ubf klg a]nfotdf !*#@ ;Dd @) jif{ eGbf a9L pd]/sf s]jn % k|ltzt hg;+VofnfO{ dfq dt lbg] clwsf/ k|fKt lyof] . ltLo ljZjo'4 kl5 dlxnfxn] a]nfotdf dt lbg] clwsf/ k|fKt u/of] .

!*cf}+ ztfAbLsf] clGtd jif{xlt/ ev{/} :yflkt x'g cfPsf] ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfdf pk /fi6klt 6f]d; h]km;{g / k|ltlgwL ;efsf g]tf h]D; Dofl8;gn] km]8/ln:6;+3LojfbL bnsf g]tf /fi6klt hf]g P8D; / pgsf cy{dGqL cn]Shf08/ XofldN6gsf gLltxsf] lj/f]w ug{sfnflu sfFu|];leq /x]sf cfkmgf cg'ofoLxnfO{ ;+ul7t kf/] . cg'bf/ gLltsf wgL cfkmgf k|ltGLnfO{ r'gfjdf x/fP/ kbd'Qm ug'{ cfjZos lyof] . h]km;{g, Dofl8;g / pgLxsf] ljrf/;+u ;xfg'e"lt /fVg]x cfk;df ;Da4 eO{ Pp6f /fhgLlts bn v8f u/] . pgLxn] :yfkgf u/]sf] l/klAnsg kf6L{ Jofks hg ;dy{g k|fKt u/]/ klxnf] 7"nf] 8]df]qmofl6s kf6L{sf] kdf :yflkt eof] . kl/0ffd :jk, cfw'lgs k|hftGqsf d"ne"t l;4fGt / ljlzi6tf lnP/ of] /fhgLlts bn cg'bf/ k|hftGqsf] ;a} l;df tf]8]/ ;zQm kdf b]vf k/of] h;n] gful/sx :jo+nfO{ ;+ul7t ub}{ /fli6o lgjf{rgxdf cfkmgf bnsf ;dy{sxnfO{ kl/rfng ug{ z' u/of] . hgkIfLo gLlt :yflkt ug{ u/]sf] ;+3if{ ;kmn eP klg ;a}nfO{ dtflwsf/ lbg], gful/stf lbg] s'/f ufoa g} /x]sf] lyof] . ;a}nfO{ dtflwsf/ lbg] Joj:yfleq clwsfFz clk|msL cd]l/sLx ;dfj]z lyPgg . o;sf] sf/0f s] lyof] eg] pgLxn] ;fIf/tf jf ;DklQ :jfldTjsf] lgodxnfO{ k"/f ug{ ;Sb}gy], o:tf] aGb]hnfO{ To:tf cg]sf}+ JolQmxn] ;dy{g lbPsf lyP hf] cfk"mnfO{ k|hftflGqs jf u0ftGqfTds ;/sf/ sf] lxdfotL 7fGby] . cfwf hg;+Vof cyf{t dlxnfnfO{ /fli6o /fhgLlts hLjgaf6 6f9f /flvPsf] lyof] . ljutsf] cEof;df s] b]lvG5 eg] k|hftGqdf k"0f{ kn] ;xeflu x'g] clwsf/ Pp6f vf; ;d'bfo -s"nLg_ df dfq l;ldt lyof] . hgtfsf nflu s]xL v's'nf eP klg cfwf/e"t cfjZostf kl/k"lQ{sf nflu tTkZrft klg ;+3if{ rln g} /Xof] . hgtfsf nflu k|hftGq, of] :jk :yfkgf ug{ To;leq klg ;zQm cfjfhx pl7 /x] . !#cf}+ ztfAbLdf k|hftGq k|0ffnL a]nfotdf :yfkgf eP klg dlxnfsf] dtflwsf/ eg] ^)) jif{kl5 k|bfg ul/of] . cd]l/sfdf klg To:t} b]lvof] . cEof;sf] qmddf kfq cg';f/ jf hgtfsf] dfFusf] kl/df0fdf k|hftGqsf] :jk lgwf{/0f x'b} hfg] s'/f ljZj cg'ejn] b]vfPsf] 5 . k|hftGqsf] d"n ;}4flGts w/ftndf cem kl/dfh{gsf] vfFrf] cf}+NofpFb} cd]l/sfsf /fhg}lts ljBfyL{xn] k|ltlgwLd"ns xf]Og, ;xeflutfd"ns k|0ffnL x'g' kb{5 eg] .

pGgfO{;f}+ ztfAbLsf] dWolt/ cfO{ k'Ubf k|hftGqk|ltsf] k/Dk/fut dfGotfnfO{ jf:t fug{ 5fl8of], lal;{of] jf s]xL ul/ ;lDemP klg To;nfO{ c;+ut dfGg yflnof] . hf]g :6'c6{n] ldnn] ;g !*^! Df n]v] ;fdflhs cj:yfsf ;Dk"0f{ kIfxnfO{ k"0f{ kdf ;Gt'i6 u/fpg] Pp6} dfq To:tf] ;/sf/ x'g' kb{5 h;df ;Dk"0f{ hgtf ;xefuL x'g ;s"g, x/ k|sf/sf] ;xeflutf ;;fgf lsl;dsf ;fj{hlgs sfo{qmdx Klg pkof]uL x'G5g, ;fd'bflos l:yltdf h'g :t/sf] ;'wf/ ePsf] 5 ;f]xL cg'k x/ If]qdf ;xeflutf b]lvg' kb{5 / /fHosf] ;fj{ef}dzlQmdf ;a}n] cfcfkmgf] efu xfl;n ug{ kfpg] eGbf sd s'g} s'/f klg clGtd ljGb'df jf~5gLo x'g ;Sb}g .

g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df @)$^ ;fn kl5 k|hftGqsf] k|f/lDes cEof;sf] ljs[t :jk eGbf xfn km/s b]lvP klg :jfefj eg] p:t} b]lvG5 . ljleGg sf/0fjz k|hftGqsf] gfd kl/dfh{g u/]/ nf]stGq /flvP klg :jefjdf kl/jt{g geP ;Dd nf]stGqsf] d"n :jk b]lvGg . k"j{jQL{ l;ldt ju{sf] ;fdGtL zf;g k|0ffnLn] b]zel/ lkm+hfPsf] zf]if0fsf ;+oGqxsf] lj4 p7]sf eLif0f ljb|f]xn] ;}4flGts kdf ;fdGtL /fHo Joj:yfsf] ;f ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq :yfkgf t u/of] t/ ;f]xL cg'k ult lng ;s]sf] 5}g . dfgl;s pbfl/s/0f / ;fdgh:otfsf] cefjdf b]zdf klxrfgsf nfluljzfn zlQmsf] kdf plePsf pk;+:s[ltxk|lt nf]stGqsf lxdfotLx clxn] klg O{dfgbf/ gagL Hof]ltif u0fgfnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ lkmh'n s'/f ul/ JofVof ub}{5g . ljb|f]xsf] cjfhnfO{ lj/fd nufP/ k'gZr k/Dk/fut ;+:sf/, Jojxf/ / sfo{z}nLf/f s]xL kl/jt{g b]vfP/ s]Gb|Ls[t PsflwkTo sfod /fVg h'g w[i6tf ul/b}5, Tof] nf]stGqdf klg ljBdfg s"nLg :jefjsf] kl/0ffd xf] . Psflt/ cfkmgf] cl:tTj ;dfKt kfg]{ s'g} lsl;dsf] kl/jt{g grfxg] /fhgLlts ;+:yf 5 eg] csf]{lt/ pu| afdzlQm cfd"n kl/jt{gsf] rfxgf lnP/ 7"nf] zlQmsf] kdf plePsf] 5 . b]zdf zf;g k4ltsf] dfgb08 ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq :yflkt eO{ ;s]kl5 of] dfgb08sf] km/s lbzfdf cu|;/ /fhgLlts ;+:yfx Clxn] ;+qmd0fsfndf ;+ljwfg n]vg, zfFlt k|lqmof 6'Fuf]df k'/ofpg] tyf b]znfO{ ;xh lgsfz lbnfpg] bfloTj k"/f ug{ ;S5 < b]z / hgtfn] ;'Dk]sf] hgd'vL ;+ljwfg n]Vg], zflGt k|lqmof tyf b]zdf ljBdfg r/d ;d:ofaf6 b]znfO{ lghft lbnfpg] bfloTjnfO{ lj;]{/ ;/sf/ agfpg] s'/fnfO{ cTolws dxTj lbP/ ;+ljwfg ;efsf] dxTjk"0f{ ;donfO{ Joy{df latfpg] sfdn] Pp6f pvfgnfO{ rl/tfy{ ub{5 afFb/sf] xftdf gl/jn . # jif]{ ;dofjlwdf ;os8f}+ kN6 /fhgLlts bnxsf] a}7sn] g kf/:kl/s ;xsfo{sf] ;+:sf/nfO{ hGdfpg ;Sof], g cfkmgf] ana"tfdf j}rfl/s kn] cl8g] Ifdtf g} ljsl;t u/of] .

oxL /fhgLlts bnxn] z'sf lbgdf ;xsfo{sf] dfWodn] /fhtGqsf] cGTo, ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] :yfkgf u/]/ 7"nf] pbfx/0f klg ag]sf 5g t/ ;xsfo{sf] cefjdf /fhgLlts bnx Psflt/ u'd/fx ePsf 5g eg] csf]{lt/ bfloTj ljd'v klg . @)$^ ;fnkl5 k|hftflGqs ;/sf/sf] hf] :jk lyof], @)^@)^# sf] kl/jt{g kl5 ;f]xL kdf hgtfn] rfpg rfx]g . lgjf{rg gtLhfn] :ki6 kfl/ lbPsf] oyfy{ ;a}sf] ;fd' 5 . hgrfxgf cg'k ;d;fdlos kfGt/0f :jfefljs k|lqmof xf], of] cfFwL ljkl/t hfg rfxg] s;}sf] cl:tTj /x]g . t/ oxfF hgljb|f]xnfO{ lj/fdfj:yfdf yGsfOP kl5 cfkmgf] cl:tTj g} ;dfKt kfg]{ ul/ zlQm afF8kmfF8 lsg ug]{, lbg' g} k/] clnslt lbP/ ;Qfdf cfkmgf] xfnL d'xfnL sfod /fVg] s"nLg ;F:s[lt, tyf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq dfg]/ eP klg zlQmsf] pGdfbdf s;}sf] cl:tTj :jLsf/ gug]{ kl/jt{gsf] gfddf PsflwkTo hdfpg] /fhgLlts zlQmaLrsf] tf08jn] b]z lbzfljlxg eP/ ;d:o} ;d:ofsf] e'd/Ldf v:g cu|;/ 5 .

h] xf];, ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq nf]stflGqs k4ltsf] k|:yfg ljGb' ag]sf] 5 . b]zsf] ;xh /fhgLlts lgsfz eg] w]/} hl6ntfnfO{ kf/ u/]/ k|fKt x'g] s'/f xfd|f] lgolt ag]sf] 5 . /fhgLlts ult/f]wsf sf/0f hl6n ;d:ofx Klg plQs} dfqfdf ylkPsf] 5 . ;a} s'/f] u'Dg] eon] lgZro klg Pp6f /fhgLlts ;F:sf/sf] hGd lbG5 / kl/l:ylt ;xh x'Fb} hfg]5 . bnLo bDe gfz ePkl5 /fhgLlts bnxdf bfloTjaf]w k|efjsf/L kdf pbfPkl5 dfq ;xh lgsfzsf] 9f]sf v'N5 . Tolt~h]n ef]Ug' kg]{ kL8f g]kfnL hgtfn] lglj{sNk ef]Ug' kb{5 .

@)^* cfiff9 #!ut]

cfkmgf] cl:tTj tyf juL{olxtsfnflu x/]s zf;sn] ck|hftflGqs Joj:yfnfO{ k|hftGq gfd lbP/ zf;g u/]sf] k|z:t pbfx/0f kfOG5 . g]kfndf klg ;fdGtL lxt ;+/If0fsf nflu NofOPsf] k~rfotL k|hftGq o;sf]] pbfx/0f xf] . 7f9f] zf;g eGbf cln km/s b]vfP klg cGttM ju{ljz]ifsf] :jfy{ k"ltsf] ;fwgsf] ?kdf g} k|of]u eof] . hgtfsf] cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k"/f ug{ g;Sg] h'g;'s} zf;g k|0ffnL hgljb|f]xaf6 wf/fzfoL x'g] s6' oyfy{ klg kG5fP/ k|hftGq :yfkgf ul/ zf;g rnfpg] ;/sf/n] klg sdf]j]z ?kdf hgflwsf/nfO{ ;+s'lrt ug{ vf]Hbf pm klg Gsf] lzsf/ x'g] u/]sf] Oltxf; 5 . zlQm k|fKt ePkl5 zlQmsf] pGdfbdf o;sf] k|of]uaf/] z+sf ub}{ Ps hgf c+u|]h n]vs n8{ PS6gn] eg]sf 5g M zlQmn] dflg;nfO{ e|i6 x'g pS;fpF5, cTolws zlQmn] dflg;nfO{ cTolws ?kd} e|i6 agfO{ lbG5 . ;+;bsf] cfkmgf] efif0fdf a]nfotL /fhgLlt1 ljlnod lk6n] klg o:t} ljrf/ JoQm u/]sf lyP M h;n] c;Lldt zlQm xft kf/]sf] x'G5, p;sf] dgnfO{ ToxL zlQmn] e|i6 agfO{ lbg pS;fO{ /x]sf] x'G5 .

;g !&*& df cof]lht cd]l/sL ;+j}wflgs dxf;efsf cg]sf}+ ;b:ox? aLr klg cfd ?kdf o:t} wf/0ff /x]sf] kfOGYof], h'g ;xeflux?sf] o:tf] k|Zgdf sd cg'ej /x]sf] lyPg . ;aeGbf kfsf] pd]/sf k|ltlgwL a]Ghfldg k|mof+slngsf] egfO{ lyof] M dflg;sf] hLjgdf 7"nf] k|efj kfg]{ b'O{j6f rfxgf /x]sf x'G5g dxTjfsfFIff / wgnf]n'ktf, zlQmsf] k|]d / wgsf] k|]d . o; egfO{df ;xdtL hgfpFb} o'jf k|ltlgwL cn]Sh]08/ XofldN6gn] eg] dflg;x? zlQm rfxG5g . csf{ Pshgf cg'ejL / k|efjzfnL k|ltlgwL hh{ d];gsf] ljrf/ lyof] dflg;sf] :jefj x]bf{ xfdLn] s] s'/f 9'Ss;+u eGg ;S5f}+ eg] hh;sf] xftdf zlQm cfO{ k'U5, pgLx?n] x/ ;do cfkm'n] ;s] ;Dd To;nfO{ a9fpg] vf]Hg] 5g .

o:tf] zf;s ;d"xsf ;b:ox? hlt;'s} a'l4dfg / nfos ePsf b]lvP klg zlQm cEof;df s]xL jif{leq} zlQmsf] b'?kof]u ug{ w]/} ;Dej x'G5 . gftfjfb, e|i6frf/, JolQmut tyf juL{o lxtsf] a9faf, /fHosf] afWosf/L zlQm pk/ /x]sf] cfkmgf] Psflwsf/sf] b'?kof]u ub}{ cfnf]rgf bafpg], hgtfdfly an k|of]u ub}{ hgtfsf] cf1fsfl/tf ;'lglZrt ug]{ pkfox? k|of]u ub}{ /fHosf o:tf ;+/Ifsx? :j]R5frf/L zf;sx?df kl/jt{g x'g lgs} ;Dej 5 .

g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df klg @)$^ ;fndf /fHo;Qf k|hftflGqs ;/sf/sf] xftdf cfPkl5 hgd'vL zf;g k|0ffnLsf] gfddf ;Lldtju{sf] xfnL d'xfnLsf sf/0f hgtfn] k|hftGqsf] ;'vb cg'e"lt ug{ ;s]g . kmntM hgtfn] k'gZr kl/jt{gsf nflu 7"N7'nf n8fO{ n8] . kl/jt{g klg eof] . /fhtGqsf] cGt eO{ ;a}n] b]zsf] efjL zf;g k|0ffnL s:tf] x'g] eg]/ cGtl/d ;+ljwfgdf ;}4flGts ?kn] ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq eGg] s'/fnfO{ :jLsf/ ul/ ;+ljwfg agfpg] lbzflt/ pGd'v eP . t/ Jojxf/df ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq :jLsf/] klg dfgl;stf eg] k/Dk/fut z}nLsf] /x]sf sf/0f b]zn] ;xhtf k|fKt ug{ ;ls /x]sf] 5}g . ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] ckJofVof ul/ of] kl/jt{gnfO{ s;/L Go"g ug{ ;lsG5, eGg] dfgl;stfn] w]/} 7"nf] /fhgLlts ult/f]w v8f ePsf] 5 . ;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3Lo 6f]nLdf g]kfnsf k"j{ lgjf{rg pRrfo'Qm ef]h/fh kf]v/]n ;fd]n eO{ ;'8fgdf hgdt ;+u|xsf] dfWodn] zflGtk"0f{ 9+un] blIf0fL ;'8fgnfO{ :jtGq /fi6 agfP/ cfP . cfkmgf] e|d0fsf] ;'vb cg'ejsf] rrf{ ub}{ sf7df08f}sf] Pp6f b}lgs cvaf/sf] cGtjftf{df eGg' eof] zflGtk"0f{ tj/n] ;'8fg cnu ePsf] o:tf] 36gf O{ltxf;df d}n] b]v]sf] 5}g . jf:tjdf lagf /Qmkft blIf0fL ;'8fg :jtGq /fi6sf] ?kdf bhf{ kfpg' 7"nf] pbfx/0f xf] . ToxfFsf] zf;sju{sf] ;lxi0f'tf / blIf0fL ;'8fgL hgtfk|ltsf] pbf/tf k|z+;gLo 5 .

t/ g]kfnsf zf;sju{ ;fdGtL k|0ffnL xf]; jf k|hftflGqs k|0ffnL zlQm k|fKt u/]kl5 pxL k/Dk/fut zf;g z}nLn] ev{/} dfq ljWj+zfTds G em]n]/ cfPklg rfl/lqs ?kfGt/0f ug{ tof/ b]lvb}g . l;ldt ju{sf] zf;gdf Psflwsf/ /x]sf sf/0f b]zdf bzsf}+ b]lv p7b} cfPsf] ;+3Lotfdf b]zsf] ljv08g b]Vg] zf;s ju{n] hgrfxgfsf] kl/jt{gnfO{ ank"j{s /f]Sg] / oyfl:yltdf k'/ofpg] h'g lsl;dsf] ?l9jfbL lrGtg /fv]sf] 5, Tof] b]zsf] lxtdf sbflk 5}g . /fHodf hgtfsf] ;xeflutfd"ns ;dfj]zL nf]stflGqs k4ltsf] k|f0f ePsf]n] k|f0f lagfsf] z/L/sf] s'g} cy{ x'b}g . ;+3Lotf df hfg' zlQmsf] afF8kmfF8 x'g' xf], zlQmsf] afF8kmfF8df, ;tt ;Qf / zlQmsf] cEof;df nfu]sf s"nLg ju{ lg:t]h x'g' xf] . oxL ufF7L s'/fnfO{ of] ju{ 5f]8g ;ls /x]sf] 5}g / kl/jt{gnfO{ cj?4 kfl/ cfkmgf] ceLi6 ;kmn kfg]{ k|of;df tNnLg 5g . /fhgLlt zf:qsf 1ftf /j6{ P= 8fxnn] c;n k|hftGqsf] af/]df o;/L n]Vg' x'G5 hg rfxgfnfO{ ;d]6]/ cyjf b]zsf] cfwf/e"t cfjZostfnfO{ kl/k"lQ{ ug]{ vfnsf] ;+ljwfg th'{df ul/of] eg] k|hftflGqs ;+:yf alnof] x'G5, g/fd|/L th'{df ul/Psf] ;+ljwfgn] k|hftflGqs ;+:yfx?sf] lj36gdf ;xof]u k'/ofpg ;S5 .

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k|f1 Oltxf;df ljb]x cyf{t ldlynf

s' /fHodf k/LlIftj+zsf] zf;g lyof] . elgG5, s'sf /fhfx a|XdxTof tyf e|"0fxTofsf] kfksf] efuLbf/ l;4 ePsf] lyof], h;sf] lgjf/0f x]t' cZjd]3 o1 ul/Psf] lyof] . ztky a|fXd0fdf n]lvPsf] 5Mkfl/lIftf ohdfgf cZjd]w}M k/f}j/d, chx'M sd{ kfksd k'0ofMk'0o]g sd{/ff . cyf{t ;Tolgi7 k/LlIft j+zLo /fhfxn] cZjd]w o1 ub}{ cfkmgf] k'0o sfo{f/f cfkmgf] kfksd{af6 d'lQm k|fKt u/of] .k'/f0f cg';f/ hgd]hosf] pQ/flwsf/L ztflgs lyof] tyf p;sf] k'q cZjd]wbQ lyof] . jfo' tyf dT:o k'/f0fsf] k|l;4 clw;Ldfs[i0f o;} cZjd]wbQsf] ;Gtfg lyof] . clw;Ldfs[i0fsf k'q lgrIf' lyof] . j}lbs ;flxTon] lgrIf'nfO{ ljb]xsf /fhf hgssf] ;dsfnLg dfg]sf] 5 . elgG5 lgrIf'sf] sfndf u+ufsf] af9Ln] xl:tgfk'/nfO{ aufof] . tTkZrft /fhfn] sf}zfDaLnfO{ -Onfxfafb glhs_ cfkmgf] /fhwfgL agfPsf] lyof] . s' /fHodf pko'Qm JolQmxf/f sd{sf08sf] ;d'lrt lgjf{xdf plQs} lr b]vfOGYof] hlt ljb]xsf] b/af/df bfz{lgs kl/rrf{ x'GYof] . s' /fhfxnfO{ k|foM b}jL k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug'{ kb{Yof] / hgtfnfO{ o;sf] b'ikl/0ffdsf] si6 em]Ng' kb{Yof] . 5Gbf]Uo pklgifb cg';f/ s' /fHodf c;Lgf / l6l88L -locust_ sf] eLif0f cfqmd0faf6 afnL gi6 eof] / pifl:t rqmfo0f ;kl/jf/ /fhf ljb]xsf] z/0ffut eof] . /fhf hgsn] klg pifl:t rqmfo0fnfO{ ;;Ddfg :jLsf/ u/of] . h}ldgLo a|fXd0f cg';f/ s'xdfly cg]s k|s[ltsf ljklQ cfof] / /fHo tLj| ultn] lj36g eof] . a|fXd0f tyf /fhfx ;lxt cg]s k|hfx ljjz eP/ b]z 5f]8g' k/of] / pgLx k"jL{ ef/tdf uP/ a;] .

s' /fHosf] lj36gsfndf ljb]x zlQmzfnL /fHosf] kdf lyof] . s' / ljb]xsf] clt lgs6td ;DaGws} sf/0f ljb]xsf] b/af/df ljfgxaLr k/LlIft j+zsf] rrf{ rln /xGYof] . e"Ho' nXofogLn] of1jNSonfO{ Sj kfl/lIftf cejg cyf{t k/LlIftj+z sxfF uP, ;f]Wg'sf] tfTko{ klg s' h:tf] zlQmzfnL / P]ltxfl;s /fHosf] lj36g slt b'ef{Uok"0f{ eof], hfGg' g} xf] . ljb]xsf k|hfdf klg k/LlIft j+zsf /fhfxsf] houfyf / pgsf /x:odo efUosf] :d[lt sfod lyof] . s' /fHodf k/LlIft j+z;+u ljb]xsf] ;'dw'/ cGt;{DaGw / efjgfTds Psktf k'/f0fdf jl0f{t 36gfqmdn] :ki6 kdf phfu/ u/]sf] 5 . s' /fHosf] zlQm IfL0f ePsf] 36gf ljb]xsf] b/af/df ljiffbsf] ljifo ag]sf] lyof] / k|hfsf] :d[ltdf k/LlIft j+zsf t]h:jL /fhfxsf] k/fqmd cd/Tj k|fKt u/]sf] s'/f pgsf] b}lgsL rrf{ tyf :t'lt ufgaf6 :ki6 x'G5 . ljb]xsf] s';+u slt lgs6 ;DaGw lyof] oL kl/b[ioaf6 yfxf x'G5 .

s]so hflt klZrdL k+hfadf uGwf/ tyf Jof; glbsf] dWojQL{ efudf a;]sf] lyof] . /fdfo0f cg';f/ s]so /fHo ljkfzf cyjf Jof; glb eGbf cufl8 uGwj{ cyft uGwf/sf] ;Ldf ;Dd km}lnPsf] lyof] . Oltxf;sf/ Pl/ogsf] cg';f/ s]so hflt /fjLsf] Ps ;xfos glb ;f/+usf] t6jQL{ e"efudf a;]sf] lyof] . /fdfo0fsf cg';f/ s]so /fHosf] /fhwfgL /fhu[x cyjf lul/a|h lyof]M pef} e/tzq'gf} s]so]if' k/Gtkf}, k'/] /fhu[x] /Do] dftfdxlgj]zg] . cyf{t zq'xsf] bdgsQf{ e/t / zq'g s]sosf] ;'Gb/ /fhwfgL /fhu[xdf lgjf; ub{5 .cof]Wofb]lv s]so /fHosf] /fhwfgL ^%) dLn 6f9f lyof] / ToxfF hfgsfnflu ;ft lbg nfUbYof] . cof]Wofb]lv ljb]xsf] ofqf ubf{ $ lbg nfUYof] hals cof]Wofb]lv ljb]xsf] b"/L @)) dLn lyof] . kflh{6/sf cg';f/ /fd|f] ;8s gePsf]n] w]/} lbg ofqf ug'{ kb{Yof] . Oltxf;sf/ slg+3d em]nd glbsf] t6df cfw'lgs luh{s cyjf hnfnk'/nfO{ s]so /fHosf] /fhwfgL dfGb5 .

s]so g/]z cZjklt j}lbs hgssf] ;dsfnLg lyof] . s]so g/]z cZjklt e/tsf] xh'/af tyf dfdf klg lyof] . o:tf] k|tLt x'G5 ls hgs pkflw h:t} cZjklt klg pkflw lyof] . ztky a+fXd0f tyf 5Gbf]Uo pklgifb cg';f/ s]so g/]z hgs h:t} ljfg tyf b'b{zL{ /fhf lyP . pgn] cg]sf}+ a|fXd0fxnfO{ lzIff lbPsf lyP c0f cf}kj]zL uf}td, ;Too1 kf}n'ifL, dxf;fn hfafn, al8n, cZjt/flZj, OGb|B'Dg efNnj]o, hg zfs{/fIo, k|frLgzfn cf}kdGoj tyf p2fns cfl0f . cZjklt ljb]xsf] dxfg bfz{lgs ;d|f6 /fhf hgssf] ;dsfnLg eP/ klg cfo'n] cu|h lyP . ljb]x, cof]Wof / s]sosf /fhfxdf a}jflxs ;DaGwsf] sf/0f klg logLxsf] kf/:kl/s ;'dw'/ ;DaGw /x]sf] dfGg ;lsG5 .

db| hflt cg]s efudf ljeflht lyof] pQ/L, blIf0fL, k"jL{, klZrdL tyf d'Vo db| . P]t/]o a|fXd0fdf elgPsf] 5, pQ/ db| hflt lxdjt >]0fLsf] kfl/kl pQ/ s'sf] glhs a;]sf] lyof] . lhd/ tyf d}S8f]g]nsf] dtfg';f/ of] :yfg sfZdL/ /fHodf lyof] . kfl0fgLsf cg';f/ k"jL{ db| hflt ;DejtM :ofnsf]6 lhNnf eGbf k"j{ s'g} o:tf] :yfgdf a;]sf] lyof] hf] lqut{ jf sfFu8f eGbf clws 6f9f lyPg . dxfef/t cg';f/ blIf0fL db| hflt O/fjtL cyjf /fjL glbsf] klZrdL e"efu, cyf{t dWo k+hfadf a;]sf] lyof] . sfnfGt/df o; /fHosf] k"jL{ ;Ldfsf] lj:tf/ eof] / u' uf]ljGb l;+xsfnsf] cd[t;/ db|b]zdf ;lDdlnt lyof] . db|b]zsf] k|frLg /fhwfgL zfsn jf ;fun gu/ -cfw'lgs :ofnsf]6_ lyof] . dxfef/tdf ttM zfsndEo]]]Tj db|f/ff+ k'6e]bgd . pNn]v eP cg';f/ /fhf hgssf] b/af/df zfsNo gfds j}lbs ljfg ;DejtM o;} :yfgsf] af;L lyof] / o;} gu/sf] gfdaf6 pkflw lbOPsf] lyof] . of] gu/ cfkuf glbsf] t6df lyof] . sl+g+3dn] cfkuf glbsf] jf/]df eg]sf] 5 ls of] cos glb hDd" kxf8af6 lg:s]/ lrgfjdf ldN5 . b'O{ glbsf] dWodf of] gu/ /x]sf] sf/0fn] sbflrt o;sf] gfd zfsNo Lk elgG5 . cfhsfn of] k|b]z /]rgf bf]efgsf] Ps efu xf] .

pQ/ j}lbssfnsf] k|f/lDes ;flxTo cg';f/ d'Vo db|b]zdf /fhtGqfTds zf;g k|0ffnL lyof] . /fhf hgssf] ;dodf db|b]zsf] zf;s sf] lyP, of] eg] c1ft 5 . db|b]z ljfg tyf u'xsf] u9 dflgGYof] . oxfFsf k|l;4 ljfg sfKok+trn p2fns cfl0fsf] u'x dWo]sf] Ps lyof] .

pzLg/ hftL dWob]z cyf{t dWoef/tdf a;]sf] lyof] . P]t/]o a|fXd0fdf pNn]v c:of+ w|'jfof+ dWodfjfF k|lti7fof+ ljlzplQmaf6 s] af]w x'G5 eg] b[9tfk"j{s :yflkt dWoefudf cyf{t dWoef/tdf s', kf~rfn, jfz tyf pzLg/ /fHo lyof] .sf}ifLtls pklgifbdf klg pzLg/nfO{ dT:o, jfz tyf s' kf+rfn;+u ;DalGwt b]vfOPsf] 5 . uf]ky a|fXd0fdf klg pzLg/ tyf jfznfO{ pbLRo -pQ/jf;L_ sf] k"j{ :yfg lbOPsf] 5M s' k+rn]if' c+u duw]if' jfzL sf}zNo]if' zfNj dT:o]if' ; jz pzLg/]if' pbLRo]if' . syf;l/T;fu/ cg';f/ hxfF sgvn -pQ/k|b]zsf] ;xf/gk'/ lhNnfdf xl/f/ glhs sgvn cjl:yt 5_ glhs kj{taf6 lg:s]/ u+uf d}bfgL efudf vfpF5 pxL+ pzLg/ kj{t lyof] . jt{dfgdf Tof] :yfg tLy{:ynsf] kdf kl/0ft ePsf] 5 . kfl0flgn] cfkmgf] sltko ;"qxdf pzLg/ b]zsf] rrf{ u/]sf] 5 . o;sf] /fhwfgL ef]h gu/ lyof] . dxef/t cg'qmd0fL / cg]s cGo hftsdf /fhf pzLg/ tyf pgsf] k'q lzljsf] rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . /fhf hgssf] ;dsfnLg pzLg/ g/]z c1ft 5 . t/ sf}ifLtls pklgifbaf6 yfxf x'G5 ls sfzL g/]z chftzq' tyf ljb]xsf] /fhf hgssf] ;dsfnLg uUo{afnfls s]xL ;do pzLg/ b]zdf a;]sf] lyof] . 1fgsf] cfbfg k|bfgn] pzLg/ g/]z / ljb]x g/]z hgs dxfgsf] lgs6td ;DaGw :yflkt ug{ k|l;4 ljfg uUo{afnflssf] 7"nf] of]ubfg /x]sf] k|tLt x'G5 .

dxfef/tsf] /fhf lj/f6sf] /fHo dT:osf] lj:tf/ k|foM cnj/, hok'/ tyf e/tk'/ ;Dd dflgG5 . g]kfnsf] lj/f6gu/nfO{ dxfef/tsf] /fhf lj/f6sf] /fhwfgL dfGg] s]xL g]kfnL Oltxf;sf/xsf nflu of] P]ltxfl;s k|df0f oy]i6 x'G5 . jf:tjdf /fhf lj/f6sf] dT:ob]z jt{dfgsf] /fh:yfgdf kb{Yof] / /fhf lj/f6sf] gfdaf6 /fhwfgLsf] gfd lj/f6gu/ klg ToxL+ lyof] . dT:o /fHo lbNnLsf] s' /fHoeGbf blIf0f tyf dy'/fsf] z"/;]g /fHo eGbf klZrddf lyof] . ;DejtM blIf0fdf o;sf] lj:tf/ rDan glb ;Dd /x]sf] lyof] t/ klZrddf of] ;/:jtL glbsf] t6 ;Dd km}lnPsf] lyof] . dxfef/tdf ck/ dT:o hfltsf] pNn]v kfOG5 hf] Oltxf;sf/ kflh{6/sf cg';f/ rDansf] pQ/L t6sf] kxf8Ldf a;]sf] lyof] . /fdfo0fdf klg ;/:jtL / u+ufsf] k|;+udf jL/ dT:o hfltsf] pNn]v ePsf] kfOG5 . slg+3d cg';f/ hok'/ /fHosf] j}/f6 gu/L k|frLg dT:o /fHosf] /fhwfgL lyof] .

dT:o hfltsf] ;j{k|yd CUj]bsf] Ps cg'R5]bdf kfOG5 . o; hfltnfO{ CUj]b sfnsf] dxfg ljh]tf hflt ;'bfsf] zq'sf] ;fy b]vfOPsf] 5 . ztky a|fXd0fdf Wj;g }tjg gfdsf] Pp6f dT:o /fhfsf] gfd cfpF5 . p;n] ;/:jtL glbsf] t6df cZjd]w o1 u/]sf] lyof] . ztky a|fXd0fdf n]lvPsf] 5 rt'b{z }tjgf] /fhf ;+u|fdlh2xofg, OGb|fo j[qg]awgfQ:dfb }tjgd ;/ -Olt_ . cyft o'4df ljho>L kfP/ /fhf }tjgn] OGb| j[qxgsfnflu !$ 3f]8f tof/ u/]sf] lyof] . o;}af6 }tjg emLnnfO{ of] gfd k|fKt ePsf] lyof] . hgssf] ;dsfnLg dT:o g/]zsf] gfd 1ft 5}g, t/ sf}ifLtls pklgifbaf6 olt :ki6 x'G5 ls ljb]xsf] dxfg bfz{lgs /fhfsf] ;dodf klg dT:o b]z Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ /fHo lyof] .

@)^* >fj0f @) ut]

k|fu Oltxf;df ljb]x cyf{t ldlynf

kfFrfn /fHo xfnsf] a/]nL, abfoF", km?{vfafb, ?x]nv08sf] lgs6jQL{ lhNnfx? tyf pQ/ k|b]zsf] dWojQL{ If]q ;fd]n lyof] . o:tf] k|tLt x'G5 ls kfFrfnsf] k"jL{ ;Ldf uf]dtL gbL tyf blIf0fL ;Ldf rDan gbL lyof] . klZrddf dy'/fsf] z"/;]g lyof] . Ps lt/af6 ;3g jg ;lxt u+uf tyf csf]{ lt/ pQ/ klZrdaf6 s'? /fHon] 3]/]sf] lyof] . dxfef/t cg';f/ pQ/df u+uf]qLsf] ;dLkjQL{ h+un ;Dd kfFrfn /fHosf] ;Ldf lyof] . kfFrfnsf] k|frLg /fhwfgL sflDkNo ;DejtM abfoF" / km?{vfafbsf] dWodf slDkn gfds :yfg lyof] . jL/ufyfx?df kfFrfnsf] /fhj+znfO{ e/tj+zsf] zfvf elgPsf] 5 . CUj]bdf pNn]lvt lbjf]bf;, ;'bf; o;} j+zsf] /fhf lyof] . kfFrfnsf] e/tj+zL /fhf b|'kbsf] sGof b|f]kbLnfO{ s'?j+zL ch{'gn] ljjfx ul/ nu]sf lyP .

s'?j+zL;+u kfFrfnx?sf] j}jflxs ;DaGwn] w]/} glhs kf/]sf] lyof] eg] zq'tf klg ;dfg'kflts ?kdf /x]sf] dxfef/tn] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . kfFrfnsf] /fhf bfnEo s'?j+zsf] /fhf pRr}M>jfsf] efGhf lyof] . dxef/tdf oL k|l;4 b'O{ j+zsf] kf/:kl/s d]n / zq'tfsf] lrq0f kfOG5 . s'?j+zL /fhfx?n] pQ/ kfFrfnsf] If]qnfO{ lht]/ u'?nfO{ ;'Dk]sf] lyof] . ;DejtM of] b|f]0f / b|'kbsf] syf;+u ;DjlGwt x'g ;S5 .

a[xbf/0os pklgifb cg';f/ kfFrfnsf] k|l;4 ljfg /fhf k|jx0f h}afln ljb]xsf] /fhf hgssf] ;dsfnLg lyP . k|jx0f h}afln cfkm} klg bz{gk|lt ?lr /fVg] zf}lsg ePsf]n] ljb]xsf bfz{lgs /fhf hgs dxfgnfO{ w]/} cfb/ ub{Yof] . zf:qfy{sf nflu ;w}+ hgssf] b/jf/af6 dxfk+l8tx? p2fns cf?l0f, Zj]ts]t', lzns zfnfjTo tyf r}lstfog bfnEonfO{ cfd+lqt ub{Yof] . lzIffsf] cfbfg k|bfg x'GYof] . /fhf hgssf] ;'oz, sLlt{ pg} ljfgaf6 ;'g]/ dw'/ ;DaGw lj:tf/ ePsf] lyof] .

whljx]7 hfts -g+= #(!_ cg';f/ sfzL /fHo #)) nLu cyjf !$$) ls=dL= If]qdf km}lnPsf] lyof] . o;sf] /fhwfgL jf/f0f;L lyof] . t08'ngfln hfts -g+= %_ cg';f/ gu/sf] rf/}lt/ #^ dLn nfdf] bLjf/ lyof] . jf/f0f;LnfO{ s]t'dtL, ;'?Gwg, ;'bN;g, a|Xdj4g, k'kmfjtL, /Do tyf df]lngL klg elgGYof] . sfzLsf], ljb]x / sf]zn;+u 3lgi7td ;DaGw k'/f0fx?df kfOG5 . of] ;DaGw /fhfx?df dfq ;Lldt lyPg, oL ltg} /fHosf] hgtfsf] kf/:kl/s ;DaGw k|uf9 lyof] . zfFvfog >f}t;"qsf cg';f/-!^=@(=%_ hgssf] ;dsfnLg Zj]ts]t'nfO{ cfkmg} hLjgsfndf sfzL, ljb]x tyf sf]znsf] k'/f]lxt aGg] ;f}efUo k|fKt ePsf] lyof] . k'/f0fdf sfzLsf] /fhj+znfO{ e/tj+zsf] k/Dk/fut k""j{h k'?/jfj+zsf] Pp6f zfvf elgPsf] 5 . hftsx?af6 s] yfxf kfOG5 ls sfzLsf /fhfsf] pQ/flwsf/Lsf] hGd x'g g;s]sf sf/0f /fhj+zdf kl/jt{g ePsf] kfOG5 . oxfFsf /fhf Pp6f /fhj+zsf] geP/ s]xL duwsf s]xL ljb]xsf lyP . ;Q'e:t hfts -g+= $)@_ sf] cg';f/ sfzL g/]z Pp6f hgssf] gfd pNn]v ePsf] kfOG5 . ;DejtM pQ/flwsf/Lsf] cefjdf ljb]xaf6 pQ/flwsf/Lsf] ?kdf /fhf ePsf] x'g' kb{5 . oL /fhfx? dWo] cg]s /fhf a|XdbQ lyof] . a|XdbQ, hgss} efFlt zf;ssf] gfd geO{ pkflw lyof] . dT:o k'/f0f -@&#M&!_ tyf jfo' k'/f0f -((M$%$_ df ;of}+ /fhfx?nfO{ a|XdbQ sf] pkflw lbOPsf] pNn]v 5M ztd jo a|XdbQfgfd jL/f0ff+ s'?jM ztd .

ljb]xsf] /fhf hgssf] ;dsfnLg sfzL g/]z chftzq' lyof] . oBlk chftzq'sf] j+z k/Dk/f c1ft 5, t/ pklgifbaf6 s] yfxf x'G5 eg] pm p2fns cf?l0fsf] ;dsfnLg lyof] . b/Ld'v hftssf dgf]lgt /fhf duwsf] /fhs'df/ lyof] . dfltkf];s hfts -g+= $%%_ cg';f/ ljb]x /fhj+zsf] /fhs'df/nfO{ sfzL g/]z elgPsf] 5M d'Qf]lDx sfzL/fh]g j}b]x]g o;l:;gflt . ;Da'n hfts -g+= %!(_ cg';f/ sfzL g/]z a|XdbQsf] k'q ;f]lTy;]gnfO{ ljb]x k'q elgPsf] 5Mof] k'Q sfl;/fh:; ;f]lTy;]gf] lt td lab" t:;fxd ;Da'nf el/of Pj+ hfgflx bfgj, j]b]xk'Qf] e2g t] ag] j;lt cft'/f] . /fhf hgssf] ;dsfnLg chftzq' klg a|XdbQ /x]sf] k'li6 x'G5 .

pklgifbx?df chftzq' tyf /fhf hgs b/af/sf k+l8t ufUo{ afnfls;+u zf:qfy{sf] pNn]v kfOG5 . bfz{lgs /fhf hgs dxfgsf] Voflt tyf sLlt{af6 sfzL g/]z chftzq' Oiof{ ub{Yof] . /fhf hgs;+usf] zq'tfsf] c? s'g} k|df0f k'/f0fdf e]l6b}g . a[xbf/0os pklgifb -#M*M@_ cg';f/ oyf sf:of] jf j}b]xf] jf pu|k'q pHHod wg'/clwHo+ s[Tjf wL jf0jGtf} ;kTgfltJoflwgf} x:t] s[Tjf]klti7]b . o; sygaf6 sfzL / ljb]xsf] of]4fx?df obfsbf ePsf] ;+3if{sf] ;+s]t ldNb5 . dxfef/t -!@, ((, !M@_ cg';f/ Pp6f k|frLg syfdf tyf /fdfo0fsf] -c=&, $*M!%_ cg';f/ sfzL g/]z k|tb{g tyf ljb]xsf] /fhf hgsdf ;+3if{ rn]sf] lyof] .

sf]zn /fHo;+u ljb]xsf] cfGtl/s ;DaGwsf] rrf{ pklgifbx?df kfOG5 . sf]zn /fHo uf]dtL gbLsf] k"j{, ;lk{sf jf :olGbsf cyf{t ;O{ gbL eGbf pQ/, ljb]x / sf]znnfO{ 5'6ofpg] ;bfgL/feGbf klZrd tyf g]kfnsf] kxfl8 efueGbf blIf0fdf cjl:yt lyof] . /fhf hgssf] sfndf sf]znsf] /fhwfgL cof]Wof lyof] . of] gu/ ;/o" gbLsf] lsgf/df a;]sf] lyof] . of] If]q !@ of]hgdf km}lnPsf] j0f{g kfOG5 . CUj]bdf klg ;/o" gbLsf] pNn]v ePsf] 5, hxfF cfo{ gu/L a;]sf] lyof] . /fhf hgssf] sfndf OIjfs' j+zsf] bz/y cof]Wofsf] /fhf lyof], h;sf] Ho]i7 ;'k'q /fdn] hgs glGbgL ;LtfnfO{ ljjfx u/]/ cof]Wof nu]sf] lyof] . sf]zn ;DejtM hgssf] k'/f]lxt cZjnsf] hGde"dL lyof] .

sf]znsf] /fhfx?sf] k"j{h OIjfs' lyof] . OIjfs'sf] j+zh s'zLgf/f, ldlynf tyf j}zfnLdf /fHo ub{Yof] . s'z hfts -g+= %#!_ cg';f/ cfe"lif /fhf OIjfs' af/f0f:ofd dxfanf] . cyf{t OIjfs' sfzLsf] /fhwfgL af/f0f;Lsf] dxf k/fqmdL /fhf lyof] . sf]znsf] k|frLg /fhf lx/0ogfe, h;nfO{ af}4 k/Dk/fdf dxfsf]zn elgPsf] 5, nfO{ j}lbs ;flxTodf ljb]x / sf]zn b'a} elgGYof] . o; ljj/0f cg';f/ lx/0ogfe g} dxfsf]znsf] ?kdf 7x5{, lsgeg] af}4 ;flxTodf dxfsf]znsL k'qL tyf chftzq'sf] dftfnfO{ sf]zn b]jL / j}b]xL elgPsf] 5 .

/fhf hgssf] sfndf sf]zn;+usf] efjgfTds lgs6tfsf] ;DaGw dfw'o{k"0f{ lyof] . of] ;DaGw hgs k'qL ;Ltfn] sfod u/]sL lyO{ . b'a} /fHosf] lgs6td ;DaGwsf] ;+:s[ltsf] cfbz{ o:tf] lr/:yfO{ eof], hf] cfh ;Dd cof]Wof / hgsk'/aLr sfod /x]sf] 5 . hgsk'/sf] P]ltxfl;s hfgsL ljjfx k+rdLdf cof]Wofaf6 cfpg] hGtLsf ;fy eJo ?kn] dgfOg] tyf xiff]{Nnf;sf ;fy ;DkGg ul/g] j}jflxs ;+:sf/n] Oltxf;df sfod ul/Psf] ;DaGwnfO{ ofb u/fpFb5 . ;Ltfn] cof]Wofdf dfq xf]Og, g]kfn, ef/t tyf >Ln+sfdf ;d]tkfltj|To wd{, sQ{Jo k/fo0ftf, ;tLTj / gf/L :jfledfgsf] h'g cfbz{ sfod u/of], To;}sf] :d/0fdf sfod of] ;DaGw cfh ;Dd rln /x]sf] tYo xf] .

@)^* >fj0f @& ut]

k|fu Oltxf;df ljb]x cyf{t ldlynf

ljb]xsf /fhf hgs dxfgsf] b/jf/df ljfgx? aLrsf] zf:qfy{ pklgifbx?df pNn]v ul/Psf] kfOG5 . -a[xbf./0os @ c= ^ a|fXd0f_ cg';f/ /fhf hgsn] Pp6f ljzfn o1 u/of] . To; o1df 6f9f 6f9f ;Ddsf a|fXd0fnfO{ af]nfOof] . a|Xd1fgL a|fXd0fsf] k/v ug{sf nflu pgn] bfgdf lbOg] ufox?sf] l;+3df bz bz ;'j0f{ d'b|f afFw]/ eg] tkfO{+x? dWo] hf] ;jf]{Qd a|Xd1fgL 5, oL ufO{x? cfkm";+u n} hfg'; . ;a} a|fXd0f r'krfk nfu] . of1jNSon] cfkmgf] Pp6f a|Xdrf/LnfO{ cfb]z lb+b} eGof] ;f}Do ;fd>jf bfgdf kfPsf] of] ufO{ lnP/ lx8 . a|fXd0fx? s|'4 eP/ eGof] sf] cfkm"nfO{ xfdL eGbf cltzo a|Xdljt eG5 < ljb]xsf] Tof] /fhf cZjn lyof] . pgn] of1jNSonfO{ ;f]Wof] s] ltdL lgZro a|Xd1fgL xf} < of1jNSon] :jLsf/f]lQm lbof] . /fhf cZjnn] gd:sf/ ub}{ cfkmgf k|Zg ;f]lw /Xof] / of1jNSon] qmlds ?kdf pQ/ lb+b} uof] . ta /fhf ;Gt'i6 eof] . hf/Tsf/j cfQ{efun] k|Zg u/of] ha k|s[ltsf] ;a} tTjdf z/L/ ldN5, ta k'?if s;/L hGd lnG5 < of1jNSon] eGof] o;sf] pQ/ ltdL hg;d"xdf a'emg ;Sb}gf}, PsfGtdf cfpm, d eG5' . of1jNSosf] pQ/ kfP/ pm klg ;Gt'i6 eof] . T;kl5 e'Ho' nXofolgn] ;f]Wof] PskN6 d db|k|fGt ljr/0f ub}{ kt+rnsf] 3/df k'u]+ . kt|rnsL sGof u+wj{ u[xLtf lyO{ . d}n] u+wj{nfO{ ;f]w]+ ltdL sf] xf] < p;n] cfkm"nfO{ cf+lu/; uf]qsf] ;'wGjf x"F eGof] . d}n] p;nfO{ ;f]w]sf] lyPF eGg';, kl/lIft sxfF uP xf]nfg < ToxL k|Zg d ltdL;+u ;f]W5' x] of1jNSo kl/lIft sxfF uP < of1jNSon] eGof] pgL ToxfF uP, hxfF cZjd]w ofhL hfG5g . e'Ho" nXofolgn] ;f]Wof] cZjd]w ofhL sxfF uP < pQ/ lj:tf/ ub}{ of1jNSon] eGof] ;"o{sf] rqm b]j/y xf] . Ps cxf]/fqsf] gfd b]j/yfXgo xf] . of] nf]s aQL; b]j/yfXgo xf] . p;sf] rf/}lt/ b'O{ u'0ff k[YjL / b'O{ u'0ff ;d'b| 5 . km]l/ k[YjL / ;d'b|sf] aLrdf p:t'/fsf] wf/ eGbf klg kftnf] cfsfz 5 . OGb|n] ;'k0f{ eP/ pgnfO{ jfo'k|lt ;dlk{t ul/ lbof] . jfo' pgnfO{ wf/0f u/]/ ToxfF nUof], hxfF cZjd]w ofhL a:5g . e'Ho' nXofolg ;Gt'i6 eof] . To;kl5 pifl:t rqmfo0f tyf s'liftls k'q sxf]nn] cfkmgf] k|Zgsf] pQ/ kfP/ r'k nfu] . tbg+t/ jfrSgjL ufuL{n] ;f]Wof] ;a} kfly{j hndf cf]tk|f]t 5, hn s]df cf]tk|f]t 5 < of1jNSon] eGof] Tof] jfo'df . jfrSgjL ufuL{n] Tof] s]df, Tof] s]df ;f]Wb} uO{ / of1jNSon] qmlds ?kn] cGtl/If nf]sdf, u+wj{ nf]sdf, cflbTo nf]sdf, rGb| nf]sdf, gIfq nf]sdf, b]j nf]sdf, OGb| nf]sdf, k|hfklt nf]sdf, a|Xdnf]sdf, eGb} hfFbf klg ufuL{sf] Tof] s]dfsf] k'g/fj[lt x'Fb} /xFbf of1jNSon] eGof] ufuL{, ltdL clt g ;f]w, w]/} ;f]Wbf ltd|f] l;/ tn v:5 . ltd|f] a'l4 e|ddf kg{ ;S5 . lgZro klg ltdL cglt hfgg] b]jtfsf] af/]df ;f]lw /x]sL 5of} . clt g;f]w . ta jfrSgjL r'k nflu .

p2fns cf?l0fn] klg cfkmgf] lh1f;f /fVof] PskN6 xfdL ljBfyL{x? db|k|fGt kt+rn sfKosf] 3/df k'u]+ . kt+rn sfKosL efof{ u+wj{ u[xLtf lyO{ . p;n] sfKo;+u, d;+u ;f]lwg, h;af6 nf]s k/nf]s ;j{e"t ;+u|lyt 5, Tof] ;"q s] xf] < xfdLn] Tof] efof{sf] k|Zgsf] hjfkm lbg ;s]gf} . ToxL k|Zg ltdLnfO{ ;f]W5' . of1jNSon] eGof] Tof] jfo' xf] . p2fns cf?l0fn] ;lj:tf/ j0f{g ug{ eGof] . cf?l0sf] lh1f;fnfO{ of1jNSon] ;lj:tf/ j0f{g u/]kl5 pM r'k nfUof] . jfrSgjL ufuL{n] elgg k"Ho a|fXd0fx? ca d of1jNSonfO{ b'O6f k|Zg ;f]W5' . olb o;n] pQ/ lbof] eg] ltdLx? eGbf al9 a|Xd1fgL 7xl/G5 / :j0f{ hl8t ufO{x?dfly o;}sf] clwsf/ x'G5 . of1jNSon] ufuL{nfO{ k|Zg ;f]Wg eGof] . jfrSgjL ufuL{n] ;f]lwg B'nf]s eGbf dfly, k[YjL eGbf tn, B'nf]s k[YjLsf] dWo e"t, jt{dfg / eljiot hf] 5, Tof] s]df cf]tk|f]t 5 < of1jNSon] eGof] cfsfzdf . ufuL{ k|;Gg x'Fb} csf]{ k|Zg ul/g cfsfz s]df 5 < of1jNSon] eGof] Tof] cIf/df, c:y"n, cg0f', cx|:j, cbL3{, g/ftf], gd'nfod, 5fof/lxt, c+wsf/xLg, cjfo', cfsfz/lxt, c;+u, /;xLg, uGw, g]q, >f]t, jf0fL, dg, clUgefj, k|f0f, d'v, kl/df0f/lxt, cGt//lxt, afXo/lxt 5 . Tof] s]xL vfFb}g . p;}sf] cf1fdf ;a}s'/f lgoldt 5 . hf] p;nfO{ ghfg]/ d5{, pm bLg xf] . hf] p/nfO{ hfg]/, c/fwgf u/]/ d5{, Pm a|fXd0f xf] . cfkmgf] k|Zgsf] pQ/ ;'g]/ ;Gt'i6 x'Fb} ufuL{n] elgg x] a|fXd0fx? ltdLx?df sf]O{ klg of] a|Xdj]QfnfO{ lhTg ;Sb}g .

zfsNo ljbUwn] klg k|Zg u/of] x] of1jNSo b]j slt 5g < of1jNSon] pQ/ lbof] tLg, tLg ;o / tLg ;x:q . zfsNo ljbUwn] b]j slt 5g eGg] k|Zgsf] k'g/fj[lt ub}{ uof] . of1jNSo qmlds ?kn] hjfkm lbof] tLg / tL;, 5, tLg, b'O{, cWd4{, Ps . zfsNon] km]l/ ;f]Wof] tLg, tLg ;o / tLg xhf/ b]j sf] x'g < of1jNSon] lj:tf/k"j{s ;Demfof] . zfsNo ljbUw v'zL eof] . p;n] csf]{ lh1f;f /fVof] OGb| / k|hfklt sf] x'g < of1jNSon] eGof] uh{g] afbn OGb| xf], o1 k|hfklt xf] . zfs) sf] uh{G5 < of1) ljh'nL . zfs) o1 sf] x'g < of1) o1 kz' xf] . zfs) Psb]j sf] x'g < of1) a|Xd xf] . zfs) hnsf] b]jtf sf] x'g < of1) j?0f xf] . zfs) /]t; 3/ xf], pTklQ xf], bo xf], nonf]s xf], dg Hof]lt xf], Tof] s] xf] < of1) ;Gtfg xf] . zfs) blIf0fdf s'g b]jtf xf] < of1) od . zfs) Tof] s]df k|ltli7t 5 < of1) o1df . zfs) o1 s]df < of1) blIf0ffdf . zfs) Tof] s]df < of1) >4fdf . zfs) Tof] s]df < of1) bodf . cGtdf zfsNo ljbUw xf/ dfg]/ r'k nfUof] .

a[xbf/0osf]klgifb # c= !( a+fXd0f cg';f/ PskN6 /fhf hgs b/af/df a;]sf] a]nf of1jNSo cfO{ k'Uof] . /fhfn] ;f]Wof] of1jNSo kz' rflxG5 jf ;"Id l;4fGt < of1jNSon] hjfkm lbof] b'a} ;d|f6 . hgs dnfO{ lhTjf z}lnlgn] eGof], af0fL a|Xd xf] . of1) pgsf] :yfg / k|lti7f klg eGof] . hgs eg]g, Tof] ltdL eg . of1) zlQm / cfsfz . hgs d ltdLnfO{ xfyL, j[ife ;x:q ufO{ lbG5' . of1) d]/f] lktfhLn] eGg' ePsf] 5, cw'/f] pkb]z lbP/ blIf0ff glng . hgs dnfO{ zf}Njfog pbn] eGof], k|f0f g} a|Xd xf] . of1) :yfg / k|lti7f eg]g < hgs Tof] ltdL eg . of1) kjg / cfsfz . hgs d ltdLnfO{ xfyL, a}n / ufO{ lbG5' . of1) clxn] xf]Og . hgs dnfO{ jfi0f{ as{'n] eGof], cfFvf g} a|Xd xf] . of1) :yfg / k|lti7f < hgs xf]Og, ltdL eg . of1) b[li6 / cfsfz . hgs dnfO{ ef/fh ub{eLkLtn] eGof], >f]q g} a|Xd xf] . of1) >f]q :yfg xf], cfsfz k|lti7f . hgs ;Tosfd hfafnn] eGof], dg g} a|Xd xf] . of1) dg :yfg xf], cfsfz k|lti7f . hgs zfsNo ljbUwn] eGof], bo g} a|Xd xf] . of1) bo :yfg xf] cfsfz k|lti7f . o;/L hgs / of1jNSoaLr a|Xd1fg af/]sf] zf:qfy{ pklgifbx?df ;'/lIft 5 . of1jNSo To;a]nfsf k|a'4 d]wf lyof] . of1jNsosf] d}q]oL a|XdjflbgL / sfTofogL :qLk|1f, b'O{j6L :qL lyO{ -a[xbf.0os $= %= !@=_ .

@)^* efb| @ ut]

k|frLgsfndf ef/te"lddf cfo{x?sf] cfudgsfn #%)) O{) k") /x]sf] s'/fdf Oltxf;sf] ljleGg dt /xFbf klg s]xL jif{ km/s k/] klg pk/f]Qm u0fgfdfsf] Oltxf;sf] lgs6td ;DaGw /x]sf] s'/f k|i6 x'G5 . cfo{x?sf] cfudgsf] k|f/lDes cjlwnfO{ ;Too'u elgPsf] 5 -/fFu]o /f3j, k|f)ef)k)O), k[i7 !&@_ . Oltxf;sf/ kflh{6/n] ;Too'udf /fhj+zsf] $) kLl9sf] u0fgf u/]sf] 5 / k|lt kLl9 @) jif{sf b/n] ;Too'usf] cjlw *)) jif{ tf]s]sf] 5 . cyf{t @&)) O{) k") ;Too'usf] cGt / q]tfo'usf] k|f/De b]lvG5 .

/fd /fj0f o'4 q]tfo'udf dxfef/t o'4 eGbf %)) jif{ k"j{ ePsf] k|frLg u|Gysf] syg 5 . kflh{6/n] cfkmgf] /fhj+z tflnsfdf q]tfo'usf] /fhj+zdf @% kLl9 pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . @) jif{ k|lt kLl9sf b/n] %)) jif{ q]tfsf] cjlw dfg]sf] 5 . cyf{t @@)) O{) k")df q]tfo'usf] cGt / fk/o'usf] k|f/De b]lvG5 -/fFu]o /f3j, k|f)ef)k)O), k[i7 @@@_ .

c? 7fpFdf kflh{6/ / /fFu]o /f3jsf] dtdf ;dfgtf b]lvP klg slno'usf] cf/Desfnsf] ;dofjlw tf]Sg dtleGgtf b]lvG5 . kflh{6/n] slno'usf] cf/Desfn *$) O{) k") dfg]sf] 5 eg] /fFu]o /f3jsf] u0fgf cg';f/ slno'usf] k|f/De !^)) O{) k") 7x5{ . fk/sf] cfo' kflh{6/n] !#^) jif{ b]vfPsf] 5 eg] /fFu]o /f3jn] ^)) jif{ tf]s]sf] 5 . o;/L ;Too'u *)) jif{, q]tfo'u %)) jif{, fk/ ^)) jif{sf] cfo' cjlw Oltxf;af6 k|i6 x'G5 eg] slno'usf] cfo' w]/} nfdf] k|tLt x'G5 .

ljb]xsf /fhj+zfjnL

-s_ hgsj+z

ljb]xsf /fhf hgs -lz/Wjh_sf] zf;gsfnsf] ltly :ki6 pNn]v 5}g . duw g/]z chftzq' /fhf hgssf] ;dsfnLg /x]sf]n] 8f) x]drGb| /forf}w/Ln] cfkmgf] k':ts k|frLg ef/tsf /fhg}lts Oltxf;, k[i7 !^(df chftzq'sf] /fHofleif]s $(# O{) k") ePsf] :ki6 ug'{ ePsf] 5 . ;f]xL k':tssf] k[i7 !^)df elgPsf] 5chftzq' sf] zf;gsfndf af}4 wd{sf] k|jt{s dxfTdf a'4 tyf h}g wd{sf] k|jt{s dxfjL/sf] lgjf{0f k|fKt ePsf] lyof] . dxfjL/ h}gsf] lgjf{0fsfn %@& O{) k") / dxfTdf a'4sf] lgjf{0f $*^ O{) k") ePsf] lyof] -;f]xL k[i7 !^(_ . b'a}sf] lgjf{0f ltlydf $! jif{sf] km/s ePklg ldYof eg] NffUb}g . elgG5, duwsf /fhf lalDa;f/sf] zf;gsfndf /fHofleif]s eGbfk"j{ ToxfFsf] zf;gdf chftzq'sf] /fd|f] bvn e} ;s]sf] lyof] . sf]zn /fhs'df/ lj8"8e h:t} chftzq'n] cfkmgf] lktf lalDa;f/sf] xTof u/]/ /fhu2L sAhf u/]sf] lyof] . To;}n] chftzq'n] a'4 / dxfjL/sf] lgjf{0fsf] ;fIfL /x]sf] s'/f ljZj;gLo g} 7x5{ .

/fhf lz/Wjh hgssf] ltly %)) O{) k") /fVbf cg'lrt gxf]nf . hgsj+zsf] ;+:yfkssf] ltly lgZro klg of] ;do eGbf k"j{ x'g' kb{5 . k'/f0f cg';f/ ljb]xdf hgsj+zsf] @* /fhfn] zf;g u/of] . t/ hftsdf hgsj+zsf] !% /fhfsf] pNn]v 5 . !% /fhfnfO{ dfg]/ k|To]s /fhfsf] sfo{sfn @% jif{sf] lx;fan] #&% jif{ x'G5 . cyf{t hgsj+zsf] ;+:yfks lgld jf ljb]3 dfyjn] *)) O{) k") :yfkgf u/]sf] lyof] . hgsj+zsf clGtd /fhf s/fn -dxfef/tsf snf/_ lyof] h;sf] ;fy} hgsj+zsf] cGt eO{ ljb]xdf u0ftGqsf] :yfkgf eof] . t/ /fdfo0fn] hgsj+zsf] clGtd /fhf s[ltnfO{ dfg]sf] 5 . /fdfo0fn] ldlynfdf hgsj+zsf] :yfkgf /fhf lgldn] u/]sf] :jLsfb{5 . lgldsf] k'q ldly lyof] / ldlysf] k'qnfO{ hgs k|yd elgPsf] 5 . /fdfo0fsf] hgs lz/Wjh, ;Ltfsf] lktfnfO{ hgs ltLo elgPsf] 5 . dlHemd lgsfo -@, &$*#_tyf lgld hfts cg';f/ dvfb]j ldlynf /fhj+zsf] k"j{ k'?if eg]sf] 5 . hgsj+zsf] clGtd /fhf snf/ kl5 klg rDkf/0fsf Ps zfvfn] ljb]xdf w]/} lbg ;Dd /fHo u/]sf] k|df0f Oltxf;df kfOG5 . o;af6 s] k|dfl0ft x'G5 eg] s/fn kl5 klg ljb]xdf /fhtGq s]/} lbg ;Dd oyfjt /Xof] . snf/ / s[ltnfO{ clGtd /fhfsf] ?kdf b]vfO{Psf] 5, ;DejtM s/fn g} s[lt xf], s[lt g} s/fn .

-v_ gGbj+z -#$% O{)_

k'/f0f cg';f/ ljb]xdf gGbj+zn] zf;g u/]sf] s'/f pNn]v 5 . duwdf #$% O{) k") lzz'gfuj+znfO{ u2Laf6 kbRo"t u/]/ gGbj+z l;+xf;gdf a:of] . k'/f0fdf dxfkbd gGbj+zsf] klxnf] /fhf xf] . dxfkbdn] ;a} IflqonfO{ ;dfKt u/]/ Ps5q /fHo :yflkt u/]sf] lyof] . dxfkbdnfO{ ;j{IfqfGts elgPsf] 5 . cfkmgf] /fHo lj:tf/sf] qmddf dxfkbdn] ;dsfnLg /fHox? sf]zn, k+rfn, sfzL x}xo, sln+u, cZds , s'?, ljb]x, z"/;]g tyf jLltxf]q cflbnfO{ k/f:t ul/ cfkmgf] cwLgdf kf.of] . ldlynfnfO{ duw /fHosf] cwLgdf kf/] klg ldlynfsf] ;fF:s[lts k/Dk/f eg] oyfjt g} /Xof] . #@^ O{) k") l;sGb/ / gjo'js rGb|u'Ktsf] ;dsfnLg duwdf gGbj+zsf] pu|;]g gfds /fhf lyof] . gGbj+zsf] zf;gaf/] jfo' k'/f0fn] @* jif{ eg]sf] 5 eg] l;+xnL clen]v cg';f/ @@ jif{ dfq /Xof] .

pk/f]Qm /fHox?nfO{ cwLg:y u/] klg ldlynf h:t} c? /fHox?sf] cfkmgf] df}lns ;fF:s[lts k/Dk/fdf gGbj+zn] vf;} k|efj kfg{ ;s]g . gGbj+zsf] k|ToIf zf;gsf] k|efjsf] cefjdf oxfF cfkmgf] pQ/flwsf/L 5f]8g ;s]g . ck|ToIf zf;g /x] klg gGbj+zsf] ldlynfdf s'g} pQ/flwsf/L k'/f0fdf kfOFb}g . t;y{ gfddfqsf] gGbj+z ldlynfdf pkl:yt /x]sf] k|tLt x'G5 .

h]gf]km]g -#%% O{) k")_ n] cfkmgf] s[lt ;fO/f]kLl8ofdf ef/tLo /fhf w]/} wgL x'G5 eg]sf] 5 . gGb /fhfnfO{ ;+:s[t, tldn, l;+3nL tyf rLgL efiffsf kf}/fl0fs u|Gyx?df cTolws wgL elgPsf] 5 . syf ;l/t;fu/df pNn]v 5 pu|;]gsf] sfG5f k'q wggGbnfO{ wg Psq ug]{ afgL lyof] . p;+u (( s/f]8 ;'gsf] ;Ln lyof] -k[=@!_ . l;sGb/sfndf gGb /fhf;+u @ nfv k}bn;]gf, @) xhf/ 3f]8;jf/, $ xhf/ xfyL tyf @ xhf/ /y;jf/ lyof] . gGbj+zn] /fHo lj:tf/ ul/ Pp6f ;fd|fHo :yflkt u/]sf] lyof] . sln+udf l;+rfO{ of]hgf :yfkgf u/]sf] gGbj+z s} b]g lyof] . pgn] cfkmgf] k|l;l4sf nflu cg]s ;'wf/sf sfdx? Klg u/] . uf]bfj/Lsf] lsgf/df gf}gGbb]x/f gfdsf] Pp6f gu/sf] :yfkgf u/]sf] lyof], o;af6 s] k|tLt x'G5 eg] blIf0f ef/tsf w]/} h;f]efu gGb /fhfn] cfkmgf] clwsf/df lnPsf] lyof] .

qmdzM

@)^* efb| ( ut]

hgs /fhj+zsf] cGt kZrft l:y/ /fhj+z tyf l:y/ zf;g k|0ffnLsf] ;j{yf cefj b]lvG5 . hgsj+zsf] /fhtGqfTds k|0ffnLsf] cGt kl5 alHh u0ftGq sf] pbo eof] . alHh u0ftGqdf ;dfj]z ePkl5 ljb]xdf u0ftGqsf] :yfkgf eof] . kk+r;'lbgL -c= @ k[= !(_alHh;+3df dNn, ljb]x, pu|, ef]u, OIjfs', 1flqs, lnR5jL / alHh lyof] . alHh;+3 u0ftGqfTds k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/t lyof] . duw ;fd|Hosf] pTyfg x'g nfUbf cfkmgf] lktfsf] xTof ul/ l;+xf;gf?9 chftzq' ljb]xsf] /fhf hgs dxfgsf] k|l;l4;+u Oiof{ /fVYof] . cfkmgf] ;fd|fHo sfod ug]{ clenfiffdf chftzq' ljb]x, sfzL, sf]zn, j}zfnL, alHh, blIf0fdf cjGtLdfly aqmb[li6 /fv]sf] lyof] . dxfkl/lgAafg ;'QGt cg';f/ chftzq'n] eGof] alHh hlt;'s} tfstj/ ePklg d alHhx?nfO{ pGd"ng ul/ lbG5' . d o;nfO{ pvf8]/ g]:tgfa"b ul/ 5f85' . llg/ofjnL ;"q cg';f/ chftzq'n] j}zfnLsf] r]6sdfly cfqmd0fsf] k"/f tof/L u/]kl5 r]6sn] lnR5jL, dNn, sfzL sf]zn nufot !* u0f/fHox?nfO{ cfXjfg ul/ eGof] tkfO{+x? of t chftzq'sf] clenfiff k"0f{ ugf]{; xf]Og eg] chftzq'sf] lj?4 ;+o'Qm ?kdf o'4sf] tof/L ugf]{; . o; k|sf/ ;fd|Ho sfod ug{ o'4f]Gdfbdf /x]sf] chftzq' sfnfGt/df ;a}nfO{ k/f:t ul/ duw ;fd|fHo sfod u/of] .

gGbj+z -#$% O{) k")_ kZrft ldlynfsf] l:ylt cGwsf/o'Qm b]lvG5 . ;DejtM of t ldlynf c? /fHosf] cwLgdf lyof] jf lkm/Gt] cNksfnLg zf;ssf] clwg lyof], h;sf] af/]df Oltxf; df}g b]lvG5 . gGbj+z kZrft (*^ jif{sf] cGt/fndf ^$! O{) df ldlynfdf xif{j4{gsf] zf;g sfod /x]sf] k|df0f Oltxf;df kfOG5 . d}n] o; cl3 pNn]v ul/ ;s]sf] 5' ls ldlynfdf kl5sf lbgdf s'g} j+zsf] :yfoL ;Qfsf] k|df0f eg] kfOb}g . xif{j4{gsf] d[To' kZrft pgsf /fHokfn c?0ffZj -ch{'g_ ldlynfsf] zf;s aGof] . lrgLofqL jfFu ldlynf cfpFbf c?0ffZjn] cgfb/k"j{s wkfPsf] k|ltzf]w lng jfFun] ltAat, sfd?ksf ef:s/jd{g tyf g]kfnsf lnlR5jL zf;ssf] ;xof]udf lt/x"tdfly cfqmd0f ul/ c?0ffZj ;kl/jf/nfO{ aGbL agfO{ rLg nUof] . rLgd} p;sf] d[To' eof] . of] 36gf ^$* O{) df ePsf] lyof] / g]kfndf lnlR5jLx?sf] zf;g sfod lyof] . c?0ffZjsf] cGt kl5 ldlynfdfly ltAatsf] clwkTo sfod eof] . ^$* b]lv &)# O{) ;Dd cyf{t %% jif{sf] ltAatL zf;gnfO{ klZrdaf6 cfPsf pQ/u'Ktj+zsf hLju'Ktn] cfqmd0f ul/ k"jL{ ef/tnfO{ cfkmgf] cwLgdf kf/of] / o;/L ldlynfdflysf] ltAatL k|efjnfO{ ;dfKt kf/of] .

rGb|j+z -&%) O{)_M nfdf tf/gfysf] ljj/0f cg';f/ ldlynfdf rGb|j+zsf] zf;g lyof] h;sf] ;DaGw klZrdf /fhf ef]h;+u lyof] . &%)!))) O{) ;Dd rGb|j+zsf] zf;g kZrft ldlynfdf kfnj+zsf] pbo eof] . rGb|j+zLo zf;sx?sf] cb'b{lz{tf, l;ldt JolQmx?sf] dxTj / hgtfk|ltsf] pbf;Lgtfn] /fHodf c/fhs l:yltsf] ;[hgf eof] / rGb|j+zL zf;ssf] cGt eof] .

uf]kfn jf kfnj+z -!))) O{)_M /fHodf zf;s ljlxgtfn] c/fhstfsf] a[l4 x'Fb} hfFbf hgtfn] g} ;j{;DdtLaf6 Ps hgf uf]kfn gfd u/]sf] JolQmnfO{ /fHofleif]s u/of] / oxL+af6 kfnj+zsf] :yfkgf eof] . vnLdk'/sf] clen]v tyf tf/gfysf] ljj/0faf6 lt/x"tdf kfnj+zsf] zf;g lyof] eGg] s'/fsf] k'li6 x'G5 .

uf]kfnsf] k'q wd{kfn h;nfO{ Oltxf;n] kfnj+zsf] ;+:yfks klg eg]sf] 5, n] pQ/ ef/t vf;ul/ sGgf}hdfly cflwkTo hdfpg /fi6s"6 tyf blIf0fdf k|ltxf/ j+z;+u o'4 u/]sf] lyof] . /fHo lj:tf/sf] qmddf wd{kfnn] klZrd sGgf}hb]lv k"j{ sfd?k, blIf0fdf d'Fu]/ glhs k|ltxf/ zf;s gfue ltLonfO{ k/f:t ul/ pQ/df afudtL glhs /x]sf] uf]s0f{ -lnlR5jL /fhfsf] /fhwfgL_ ;Dd /fHo;Ldf lj:tf/ u/]sf] lyof] . sNx0fsf] /fht/+lu0fL cg';f/ wd{kfnn] klZrddf k+hfa, k"j{df sfd?k, pQ/df lxdfn / blIf0fdf dWoef/t ;Dd /fHo lj:tf/ u/]sf] lyof] .

wd{kfn kl5 b]jkfn /fhf eof] . o;n] lxdfnb]lv ljGWo kj{t ;Dd /fHo lj:tf/ u/of] .

b]jkfn kl5 dlxkfnn] klZrd sGgf}hsf] ozf]j4{g / blIf0fsf] rGb]n k|ltxf/sf] cfqmd0faf6 hL0f{ eO{/x]sf] kfnj+zLo ;fd|HonfO{ >[+vnfa4 ug]{ k|of; u/of] . u08sL ;Dd cfkmgf] k|efj lj:tf/ ub}{ cfO{ /x]sf snr"/L;+u dlxkfnsf] ;+3if{ eO{ /xGYof] . cfkmgf] ktgsfndf kfnj+zLo /fhfx? lt/e'lQmnfO{ /fhwfgL agfO{ ToxL+af6 ldlynfdf zf;g ub{Yof] . dlxkfn kl5 lju|xkfn klg snr"/L;+u ;+3if{ ul/ g} /Xof] . ctLz lbk+s/n] lju|xkfn / snr"/L aLr j}jflxs ;DaGw sfod u/fP/ zq'tf ;dfKt kf/]sf] lyof] . of] ;lGwnfO{ skfn ;lGw elgPsf] 5 . :jo+e" k'/f0fn] wd{kfn g]kfnsf] /fhu2Ldf a:of] eg]sf] 5 .

s0ff{6j+z -!)(& O{)_M

s0ff{6j+zLox?sf] ;DaGw s0ff{6s;+u /x]sf] Oltxf;sf/x?n] :jLsf/]sf 5g . lkm/Gt] /fhfx? pQ/ef/tsf /fhfx?sf] sdL sdhf]/Lsf] kmfObf p7fpFb} blIf0f / klZrdlt/af6 cfkmgf] k|efj a9fpFb} cfP . blIf0faf6 /fh]Gb| rf]n;+u} pgsf ;}lgsx? s'g}a]nf u+ufsf] d}bfglt/ cfqmd0f ug{ cfPsf lyP . logLx? s0ff{6 lyP . w]/} h;f] ;}lgs tyf cGo s0ff{x? o; If]qdf a;f]af; u/] . sfnfGt/df oxL s0ff{6j+zLx? ;}Go tof/L ul/ ldlynfdf lju|xkfnj+zsf] ktgfj:yfaf6 kmfobf p7fP/ ldlynfdf cfkmgf] jr{:j sfod u/of] . s0ff{6j+zsf ;+:yfks gfGob]j lyP .

Oltxf;sf/ x]drGb| /fo rf}w/Lsf cg';f/ dF'u]/sf] b]jkfnsf] tfd|kqdf GffGob]j nfO{ s0ff{6Iflqo s'ne"if0f tyf aFufnsf] ;]gj+znfO{ s0ff{6Iflqo s'n lz/f]d0fL elgPsf] 5 . s0ff{6j+zsf] Pp6f zfvf aFufndf zf;g ub{Yof], o:tf] k|tLt x'G5 . ldlynf / aFufnsf] /Lltlylt, wd{, /xg;xg, lnkL, efiff, ;+:s[ltdf w]/} ;dfgtf x'g'sf] sf/0f klg s0ff{6j+zL /fhfx?sf] cfk;L ldqtfk"0f{ ;DaGw g} xf]nf . oxL s0ff{6j+zsf] clGtddf xl/l;+x b]jsf] sfndf ldlynfsf slj lz/f]d0fL ljBfklt ePsf lyP, h;dfly obfsbf aFufnsf] bfjf x'g] ub{Yof] . o;af6 klg aFufn / ldlynfsf] w]/} ulx/f] ;DaGw :ki6 x'G5 . ldlynf lnkL / aFufnL lnkLsf] clwsflws ;dfgtf klg 7f]; k|df0fsf] ?kdf plePsf] 5 .

g]kfnL k/Dk/f tyf j+zfjnLdf gfGob]jnfO{ s0ff{6j+zL Iflqo elgPPsf] 5 . gfGob]jn] ldlynfsf] /fhwfgL l;d|f}gu9 agfPsf] lyof] . gfGob]jn] e/t gf6ozf:qdf cfkmgf] Pp6f 6Lsf n]v]sf lyP, h;df pgn] cfkm"nfO{ gfGoklt, gfGo, dxf;fdGtflwklt, wdf{jnf]s, wdf{wf/ e"klt, ldlyn]z / s0ff{6 s'ne"if0f eg]sf 5g . l;d|f]gu9af6 k|fKt Pp6f Znf]s gGb]Gb' ljGb' ljw' ;lDdtzfsjif}{, ;R5|lj0f] l;tbn] d'lgl;l4ltYofd . :jf-tL_ tf} zg}Zr/ lbg sl/j}/ nUg], >L gfGob]j g[kltJo{bwLt jf:t'd . cg';f/ :jftL gIfq, zlgjf/ ->fj0f ;KtdL_ sf lbg gfGob]j ldlynfsf /fhf eof] . efbufFpsf /fhf huHof]lt dNnf/f /lrt d'lbt s'jnofZj cg';f/ 1ft x'G5 ls !* h'nfO{ !)(& O{) df ldlynf /fHosf] :yfkgf eof] . gfGob]j sfd?ksf] wd{kfnsf] ;dsfnLg lyof] . wd{kfnsf] zf;gsfndf sflnsf k'/f0fsf] ;+sng ePsf] lyof] h;df pNn]v e/tefiosf] n]vs GffGob]j lyof] . gfGob]jn] c;dsf zf;s;+u ;fF:s[lts ;DaGw lj:tf/ ug{ rfxGy] / Tof] ;DaGw dw'/ ag]sf] lyof] . a+u;+u klg gfGob]jn] /fd|f] ;DaGw lj:tf/ u/]sf] lyof] .

!^$* O{) k|tfkdNnsf] lznfn]vdf gfGob]jsf] j+zqmd o;/L pNn]v ul/Psf] 5M cf;Lt >L ;"o{j+z] /3's"n gkhf] /fdrGb|f] g[k]zM t+zf]gfGob]jf]jlg klt/ejt ;'tM u+ub]jM . tTk'qf]e"[l;+xf] g/klt/t'n:tT;'tf] /fdl;+xM tHhM >L zlStl;+xf] w/l0f klt/eft e"k e""kfnl;+x t:dfTs0ff{6 r"8fd0fL ljxl/o'lT;+x b]jf}:oj+z] .

gGbj+zb]lv gfGob]jsf] sfn;Dd em08} !$%) jif{ ;Dd ldlynfsf] cGwsf/ o'u g} k|tLt x'G5 . o; cjlwdf blIf0f / klZrdsf lkm/Gt] /fhfx?sf] cfqmd0faf6 ldlynf ;w}+ kLl8t /Xof] . n'6]/f zf;sx?sf] ;}Go bdgsf] k|wfgtfn] ldlynf cfqmfGt lyof] . hgsj+z kl5 ldlynf Pp6f ;fFu7lgs / :jtGq /fHo xf]nf eGg] sNkgf ug{ 5f]8]sf] lyof] ldlynfjf;Ln] . o; cGwsf/ o'udf w]/} zf;sn] ldlynf sAhf u/] klg :yfloTj eg] kfpg ;s]g . s0ff{6j+zL ;+:yfks /fhf gfGob]jsf] o'u ldlynf Oltxf;df :j0f{o'usf] gfdn] lrlgG5 . gfGob]j sfndf aFufndf ;]g, d'Fu]/ If]qdf kfn / sGgf}hdf u9jfnsf] kf/:kl/s j}dgiotfsf] kmfobf p7fP/ gfGob]jn] g]kfndfly ljho kfKt ul/ cfkmgf] ldlynf /fHosf] lj:tf/ u/of] . gfGob]jn] u08sLb]lv sf}lzsL ;Dd / lxdfnb]lv u+uf;Dd ldlynf /fHosf] lj:tf/ u/of] . hgs dxfgsfnsf] ldlynfsf] If]q h:t} gfGob]jn] ldlynf ;fd|fHo sfod ug{ ;kmn eof] . :jtGq, ;+ul7t / :yfloTj k|bfg ug{ gfGob]jsf] 7"nf] of]ubfg ;flat eof] . c:t Jo:t ;fdflhs cj:yfnfO{ Jojl:yt ug{, cfkmgf] rf/}lt/sf ;Ldfgfsf] ;'/Iffsf nflu bIf ;}Goansf] Joj:yf, ;fdflhs ljsf;, JolQmTj ljsf; cflb pbfx/0fx? k|z:t kfOG5 . gfGob]j /fhgLlt1 tyf s'zn of]4fsf] ?kdf lrlgG5 . afXo x:tIf]knfO{ lgliqmo t'Nofpg gfGob]jn] rDkf/0fdf /fhwfgL agfP/ rf/}lt/sf ;Ldf ;'/lIft /fVg ;kmn eP . g]kfndf To;a]nf w]/} /fhfx?sf] zf;g lyof] . kf6g, sf7df08f} / efbufpFnfO{ cfkmgf] clwg:y u/]/ km]l/ pxL /fhfx?nfO{ zf;g ;'Dk]/ gfGob]jn] %) jif{;Dd ldlynfdf /fHo u/of] . hgs h:tf] ldlynfnfO{ ;fF:s[lts k|wfg s]Gb| agfpg gfGob]n] cys k|of; u/] / k|l;l4 klg kfP . gfGob]j s'zn ljh]tf, of]4f, /fhgLlt1 dfq lyPg, ljfg zf;s klg lyP . ldlynf Oltxf;df hgs kl5sf k|l;l4 sdfPsf /fhf gfGob]j g} lyP .

qmdzM

@)^* efb| !^ ut]

s0ff{6j+zsf ;+:yfks gfGob]jn] ldlynfsf] ;fF:s[lts k/Dk/fnfO{ dfq a9fPg, pgn] ldlynfsf] ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/x? lgdf{0f u/], hgtfsf] hLjg:t/ psf:g] w]/} sfo{ u/] . s0ff{6j+zsf] ldlynfnfO{ :j0f{ ldlynf cyf{t ldlynfsf] :j0f{o'u klg elgG5 . gfGob]j kZrft u+ub]j /fhf eof] . gfGob]jn] v8f u/]sf] ldlynf ;fd|fHonfO{ u+ub]jn] sfod /fVg ;s]g . ljBfkltsf] k'?if kl/Iff cg';f/ ldlynfdf dNnb]jsf] zf;g /x]sf] hfgsf/L kfOG5 . gfGob]jsf] k'qsf] ?kdf jl0f{t dNnb]jsf] c? k'i6 k|df0f eg] kfOFb}g . ;DejtM u+ub]jsf] efO{ dNnb]j x'g ;S5 / b'a} efO{sf] /fd|f] ;DaGw gePsf sf/0f ldlynfsf] ljefhg eO{ k"jL{ ldlynf -;x/;f / k"l0f{of_ dNnb]jsf] clwkTodf /x]sf] xf]nf .

u+ub]j -!!$&_M

cfkmgf] lktfaf6 lj/f;tdf kfPsf] ;d[4zfnL ldlynfnfO{ cem ;'b[9 ug{ u+ub]j ;tt k|oTgzLn /Xof] . klZrd u9jfn, blIf0f kfnj+z / k'j{ ;]gj+zaf6 ldlynfnfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg ;b}j ;ts{ /x] . cfkmgf] lktfsfndf ;]g;+usf] lau|]sf] ;DaGwsf sf/0f klg u+ub]j cfkmgf] /fHosf] ;'/Iffk|lt rgfvf] lyP . lktf h:t} s'zn s"6gLlt1sf] ?kdf b]lvPsf] u+ub]jn] s[lif ;'wf/sf nflu cg]sf}+ sfdx? u/] . hgtf v'zxfn eP /fHo alnof] x'G5 eGg] ljZjf;sf] cfwf/df hgkIfLo ;'wf/sf sfdx?nfO{ cufl8 a9fP . ldlynfdfly u[4b[li6 /fv]sf ;]gj+zL tyf kfnj+zLsf] O{R5fnfO{ u+ub]jn] k"/f x'g lbPg . u+ub]jn] cfkmgf] zf;gsfndf ldlynfnfO{ ;+ul7t / ;'b[9 agfP .

g/l;+xb]j -!!*&_M

u+ub]j kl5 g/l;+xb]j ldlynfsf] zf;s aGof] . of] sfndf d';ndfgsf] k|efj a9b} uO{ /x]sf] lyof] . k"j{ / klZrdaf6 d';ndfgx? ldlynfdfly 3ft nufPsf lyP . g]kfn klg ldlynf /fHoaf6 cnu eO{ ;s]sf] lyof] . g]kfndfly u'ldPsf] clwsf/ xl/l;+xb]jsf] kfnfdf g]kfn ldlynfsf] cwLgdf cfof] . g/l;+xb]j s'zn /fhgLlt1 lyP . pgsf ;fd' w]/} r'gf}tLx? lyof] . lsGt' ;a} ;d:ofx?;+u h'Wb} p;n] d';ndfg k|efjnfO{ ljkmn kfl/ ldlynfnfO{ cIf'00f /fVg ;kmn eP .

/fdl;+xb]j -!@@&_M

g/l;+xb]j kl5 Pp6f s'zn zf;ssf] ?kdf /fdl;+xb]j ldlynfsf] Oltxf;df lrlgG5 . d';ndfgx?sf] cfqmd0faf6 cfkmgf] zf;gsf] $) jif]{ sfn;Dd h;/L g/l;+xb]jn] ldlynfnfO{ ;'/lIft /fVof], To:t} /fdl;+x b]jsf] kfnfdf d';ndfgx?sf] aa{/ cfqmd0fnfO{ k/f:t ub}{ cfkmgf] zf;gsf] %* jif{;Dd ldlynfnfO{ ;'/lIft /fVof] . ldlynfsf] rf/}lt/ d';ndfgx?sf] k|efj a9b} uO{ /x]sf] lyof] . /fdl;+x b]jn] cfkmgf] /fhwfgLsf] lsnfaGbL u/]sf] lyof] . ltAatL ofqL wd{:jfdLn] klg cfkmgf] ljj/0fdf /fdl;+x b]jsf] u'0fufg u/]sf 5g . /fdl;+x b]j ljfg tyf wd{ k|jt{s lyP . wd{:jfdLnfO{ pgL w]/} cfb/ uy]{ . rf/}lt/af6 d';ndfgsf] cfqmd0faf6 ldlynfnfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg'af6 of] :ki6 x'G5 /fdl;+x b]j s'zn / rt'/ zf;s lyP .

zlQml;+x -!@*%_M

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